LEOPOLD GMELIN (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist
. Gmelin was professor at the University of
* 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 Literature * 4 External links
Gmelin was a son of the physician, botanist and chemist Johann Friedrich Gmelin and his wife Rosine Schott. Due to his family he early came in contact with medicine and the natural sciences, in 1804 he attended the chemical lectures of his father. In the same year Gmelin moved to Tübingen to work in the family pharmacy, he also studied at the University of Tübingen among other relatives like Ferdinand Gottlieb Gmelin ( a cousin ) and Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer ( husband of a cousin ). Supported by Kielmeyer, Gmelin moved to the University of Göttingen in 1805 and later he worked as assistant in the laboratory of Friedrich Stromeyer , by whom he successfully passed his exams in 1809.
In the fall of 1814, he went on another educational trip to
1816 Gmelin married Louise in Heidelberg-Kirchheim , a daughter of the Kirchheimer pastor Johann Conrad Maurer, the lawyer Georg Ludwig von Maurer became his brother-in-law. Together they had three daughters and one son, including Auguste, the future wife of the physician Theodor von Dusch .
As the chemist
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
From 1833 to 1838 Gmelin owned a paper mill in the north of
In 1817 the first volume of Gmelins Handbook of
At the age of 60 Gmelin suffered a first stroke , another in August
1850. In both strokes the right half of his body was hit, he was able
to recover from the paralysis, but remained debilitated. In the spring
of 1851 Gmelin applied for his retirement, which was granted him a few
months later. In the two following years he suffered increasingly from
the effects of a brain illness, at nearly 65 years
In his works
Gmelin's first physiological work was his dissertation on the black pigment of oxen's and calves' eyes, whose _coloring principle_ he tried to fathom. Despite the simplest chemical means he could describe the properties of the pigment and recognized the carbon rightly as the cause of staining. Gmelin's most important physiological work was the 1826 released _digestion by experiments_, which he made together with Friedrich Tiedemann . The work, which also described many new working techniques, contained groundbreaking insights into the gastric juice, in which they found hydrochloric acid , and bile, in which Gmelin and Tiedemann among others discovered cholesterol and taurine . Introduced by Gmelin, Gmelin\'s test enabled the detection of bile constituents in the urine of people suffering from jaundice . Furthermore, Gmelin and Tiedemann delivered a new, more refined view of the absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract; they were the founders of modern physiology.
The mineralogical works of Gmelin were analyses of various minerals , such as the Hauyne with which he made his habilitation in Göttingen, or the Laumontite and the Cordierite . In addition, Gmelin also analysed mineral waters and in 1825 published the work _try of a new chemical mineral system_, since he knew that the time's usual division on outer or physical characteristics was inadequate. Leopold Gmelin's mineral system was taken largely critical among experts, but the basic idea of an order based on the chemical composition proved to be useful.
Gmelin released the _Handbook of theoretical chemistry_, which was
continued as the _Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic
* _Chemische Untersuchung des schwarzen Pigments der Ochsen- und
Kälberaugen, nebst einigen physiologischen Bemerkungen über
Göttingen 1812, in Latein. Schweiggers
Journ. 10, S. 507–547, 1814
* _Oryktognostische und chemische Beobachtungen über den Haüyn und
einige mit ihm vorkommende Fossilien, nebst geognostischen Bemerkungen
über die Berge des alten Latiums_, Schweiggers Journ. 15 S. 1-41,
1815; Ann. Phil. Thomson 4, S. 115-122; 193-199, 1814
* Leopold Gmelin,
Friedrich Wöhler : _Neue Cyanverbindungen_,
Schweiggers Journ. 36 S. 230–235, 1822
* _Versuch eines neuen chemischen Mineralsystems_, Taschenbuch
gesammte Mineralog. 19, I S. 322-334; 418-474; 490-507, 1825, II S.
33-77; 97-148, 1825
Friedrich Tiedemann , Leopold Gmelin: _Die Verdauung nach
* Claude K. Deischer: _Gmelin, Leopold_. In: _Complete Dictionary of
Scientific Biography_. Band 5, Charles Scribner’s Sons, Detroit
2008, S. 429–432 (online).
August Hirsch (1879), "Gmelin, Leopold", _Allgemeine Deutsche
Biographie (ADB)_ (in German), 9, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp.
* Erich Pietsch (1964), "Gmelin, Leopold", _Neue Deutsche Biographie
(NDB)_ (in German), 6, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 480–481 ;
(full text online)
* Friedrich Rosmäsler: _Gallerie der vorzüglichsten Ärzte und
Naturforscher Deutschlands_. Perthes, Gotha 1831 (2 Bde.; darin
* Bernd Wöbke (1988). "Das Portrait: