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The leopard cat ( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis) is a small wild cat native to continental South, Southeast and East Asia. Since 2002 it has been listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
as it is widely distributed but threatened by habitat loss and hunting in parts of its range.[1] Historically, the leopard cat of continental Asia was considered the same species as the Sunda leopard cat. As of 2017, the latter is recognised as a distinct species, with the taxonomic name Prionailurus javanensis.[2] Leopard
Leopard
cat subspecies differ widely in fur colour, tail length, skull shape and size of carnassials.[3] Archaeological evidence indicates that the leopard cat was the first cat species domesticated in Neolithic
Neolithic
China about 5,000 years ago in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces.[4]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Distribution and habitat

2.1 Distribution of subspecies

3 Ecology and behavior

3.1 Diet 3.2 Reproduction and development

4 Threats 5 Conservation 6 Taxonomic history 7 Leopard
Leopard
cats and hybrids as pets 8 References 9 External links

Characteristics[edit]

Skull, as illustrated by N. N. Kondakov.

A leopard cat is about the size of a domestic cat, but more slender, with longer legs and well-defined webs between its toes. Its small head is marked with two prominent dark stripes and a short and narrow white muzzle. There are two dark stripes running from the eyes to the ears, and smaller white streaks running from the eyes to the nose. The backs of its moderately long and rounded ears are black with central white spots. Body and limbs are marked with black spots of varying size and color, and along its back are two to four rows of elongated spots. The tail is about half the size of its head-body length and is spotted with a few indistinct rings near the black tip. The background color of the spotted fur is tawny, with a white chest and belly. However, in their huge range, they vary so much in coloration and size of spots as well as in body size and weight that initially they were thought to be several different species. The fur color is yellowish brown in the southern populations, but pale silver-grey in the northern ones. The black markings may be spotted, rosetted, or may even form dotted streaks, depending on subspecies. In the tropics, leopard cats weigh 0.55 to 3.8 kg (1.2 to 8.4 lb), have head-body lengths of 38.8 to 66 cm (15.3 to 26.0 in), with long 17.2 to 31 cm (6.8 to 12.2 in) tails. In northern China and Siberia, they weigh up to 7.1 kg (16 lb), and have head-body lengths of up to 75 cm (30 in); generally, they put on weight before winter and become thinner until spring.[5] Shoulder height is about 41 cm (16 in). Distribution and habitat[edit] The leopard cat is the most widely distributed Asian small cat. Its range extends from the Amur region in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
over the Korean Peninsula, China, Indochina, the Indian Subcontinent, to the West in northern Pakistan, and to the south in the Philippines
Philippines
and the Sunda islands
Sunda islands
of Indonesia. It lives in tropical evergreen rainforests and plantations at sea level, in subtropical deciduous and coniferous forests in the foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
at altitudes above 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[5] It is able to tolerate human-modified landscapes with vegetation cover to some degree, and inhabits agriculturally used areas such as oil palm and sugar cane plantations.[5][6] In 2009, a leopard cat was camera trapped in Nepal's Makalu-Barun National Park at an altitude of 3,254 m (10,676 ft). At least six individuals inhabit the survey area, which is dominated by associations of rhododendron, oak and maple.[7] The highest altitudinal record was obtained in September 2012 at 4,474 m (14,678 ft) in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area.[8] In the northeast of its range it lives close to rivers, valleys and in ravine forests, but avoids areas with more than 10 cm (3.9 in) of snowfall.[9] It is rare in Pakistan's arid treeless areas.[10] In Afghanistan, it was reported in the 1970s from Jalalkot and Norgul in the Kunar Valley, and the Waygul forest of Dare Pech.[11] In Thailand's Phu Khieu Wildlife Reserve 20 leopard cats were radio-collared between 1999 and 2003. Home ranges of males ranged from 2.2 km2 (0.85 sq mi) to 28.9 km2 (11.2 sq mi), and of the six females from 4.4 km2 (1.7 sq mi) to 37.1 km2 (14.3 sq mi).[12] In the Japanese archipelago, the leopard cat is currently restricted to the islands of Iriomote
Iriomote
and Tsushima.[13][14] Fossils excavated from the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period suggest a broader distribution in the past.[15] Distribution of subspecies[edit] "Amur cat" redirects here. For the tiger subspecies, see Amur tiger.

Tsushima leopard cat

Following a recent revision of Felidae
Felidae
taxonomy, two species of leopard cat are now recognised, based on molecular analyses, morphological differences, and biogeographic separation:[2]

the mainland leopard cat ( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis) is widely distributed on mainland Asia, from Pakistan
Pakistan
to Southeast Asia, China, and the Russian Far East. the Sunda leopard cat
Sunda leopard cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
javanensis) is native to Java, Bali, Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan, Negros, Cebu, Panay, and possibly the Malay Peninsula.

Two subspecies of the mainland leopard cat are currently recognised:[2]

P. b. bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) ranges in South and East Asia, from Pakistan
Pakistan
to China, and probably the Malay Peninsula; and Amur leopard cat, P. b. euptilura (Elliott 1871) is native to the Russian Far East, Manchuria, Korea,[16] Taiwan, Iriomote Island
Iriomote Island
and Tsushima Island.[17]

Other subspecies that have been previously recognised include:[1][18]

Indian leopard cat P. b. bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) — ranges from India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, to Indochina
Indochina
and Yunnan
Yunnan
in China;[16] Chinese leopard cat P. b. chinensis (Gray 1837) — lives in Taiwan and China except Yunnan;[16] Himalayan leopard cat P. b. horsfieldi (Gray 1842) — ranges in Kashmir, Punjab, Kumaon, Nepal, Sikkim
Sikkim
and Bhutan;[16] P. b. trevelyani (Pocock 1939) — lives in northern Kashmir
Kashmir
and Punjab, and in southern Baluchistan;[16] Hainan
Hainan
leopard cat P. b. alleni (Sody, 1949) — inhabits Hainan Island Iriomote cat
Iriomote cat
P. b. iriomotensis (Imaizumi, 1967) — found exclusively on the island of Iriomote, one of the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
in the Japanese Archipelago;[13] Following its initial description in 1967, the Iriomote cat
Iriomote cat
was often recognised as a distinct species, but following mtDNA analysis in the 1990s was considered a subspecies of the leopard cat.[1][19] The latest revision places it within the subspecies Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis euptilura of the mainland leopard cat.[2] Tsushima leopard cat
Tsushima leopard cat
(Japanese: Tsushima yamaneko)[14] lives exclusively on Tsushima Island. Initially regarded as belonging to the Chinese leopard cat subspecies, it is now considered an isolated population of the Amur leopard cat, P. b. euptilura.[20][2]

Ecology and behavior[edit]

A leopard cat photographed in the Sundarbans, India

An alert leopard cat

Leopard
Leopard
cats are solitary, except during breeding season. Some are active during the day, but most hunt at night, preferring to stalk murids, tree shrews and hares. They are agile climbers and quite arboreal in their habits. They rest in trees, but also hide in dense thorny undergrowth on the ground.[12] In the oil palm plantations of Sabah, they have been observed up to 4 m (13 ft) above ground hunting rodents and beetles. In this habitat, males had larger home ranges than females, averaging 3.5 km2 (1.4 sq mi) and 2.1 km2 (0.81 sq mi) respectively. Each male's range overlapped one or more female ranges.[21] There is evidence to suggest that rats are abundant and may be easy to catch in oil palm plantations.[21] There, leopard cats feed on a large proportion of rats compared to forested areas.[6] Leopard
Leopard
cats can swim, but seldom do so. They produce a similar range of vocalisations to the domestic cat. Both sexes scent mark their territory by spraying urine, leaving faeces in exposed locations, head rubbing, and scratching.[5] Diet[edit] Leopard
Leopard
cats are carnivorous, feeding on a variety of small prey including mammals, lizards, amphibians, birds and insects. In most parts of their range, small rodents such as rats and mice form the major part of their diet, which is often supplemented with grass, eggs, poultry, and aquatic prey. They are active hunters, dispatching their prey with a rapid pounce and bite. Unlike many other small cats, they do not "play" with their food, maintaining a tight grip with their claws until the animal is dead. This may be related to the relatively high proportion of birds in their diet, which are more likely to escape when released than are rodents.[5] Reproduction and development[edit] The breeding season of leopard cats varies depending on climate. In tropical habitats, kittens are born throughout the year. In colder habitats farther north, females give birth in spring. Their gestation period lasts 60–70 days. Litter size varies between two and three kittens. Captive born kittens weighed 75 to 130 grams (2.6 to 4.6 oz) at birth and opened their eyes by latest 15 days of age. Within two weeks, they doubled their weight and were four times their birth weight at the age of five weeks. At the age of four weeks, their permanent canines break through, and they begin to eat meat. Captive females reach sexual maturity earliest at the age of one year and have their first litter at the age of 13 to 14 months. Captive leopard cats have lived for up to thirteen years.[5] The estrus period lasts 5–9 days.[citation needed] Threats[edit]

Skin and skin details from an identification guide for law enforcement agents

In China, leopard cats are hunted mainly for their fur. Between 1984 and 1989, about 200,000 skins were exported yearly. A survey carried out in 1989 among major fur traders revealed more than 800,000 skins on stock. Since the European Union
European Union
imposed an import ban in 1988, Japan has become the main buyer, and imported 50,000 skins in 1989.[22] Although commercial trade is much reduced, the species continues to be hunted throughout most of its range for fur, for food, and as pets. They are also widely viewed as poultry pests and killed in retribution.[1] In Myanmar, 483 body parts of at least 443 individuals were observed in four markets surveyed between 1991 and 2006. Numbers were significantly larger than non-threatened species. Three of the surveyed markets are situated on international borders with China and Thailand, and cater to international buyers, although the leopard cat is completely protected under Myanmar's national legislation. Implementation and enforcement of CITES
CITES
is considered inadequate.[23] Conservation[edit]

A leopard cat at the Bronx Zoo

Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis is listed in CITES
CITES
Appendix II. In Hong Kong, the species is protected under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Cap 170. The population is well over 50,000 individuals and, although declining, the cat is not endangered.[1] The Tsushima leopard cat
Tsushima leopard cat
is listed as Critically Endangered on the Japanese Red List of Endangered Species, and has been the focus of a conservation program funded by the Japanese government since 1995.[20] In the United States, P. bengalensis is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species
Species
Act since 1976; except under permit, it is prohibited to import, export, sell, purchase and transport leopard cats in interstate commerce.[24] Taxonomic history[edit] In 1792, Robert Kerr first described a leopard cat under the binominal Felis
Felis
bengalensis in his translation of Carl von Linné's Systema Naturae as being native to southern Bengal.[25] Between 1829 and 1922, different authors of 20 more descriptions classified the cat either as Felis
Felis
or Leopardus.[16] Owing to the individual variation in fur colour, leopard cats from British India
British India
were described as Felis nipalensis from Nepal, Leopardus
Leopardus
ellioti from the area of Bombay, Felis
Felis
wagati and Felis
Felis
tenasserimensis from Tenasserim. In 1939, Reginald Innes Pocock
Reginald Innes Pocock
subordinated them to the genus Prionailurus. The collection of the Natural History Museum in London
London
comprised several skulls and large amounts of skins of leopard cats from various regions. Based on this broad variety of skins, he proposed to differentiate between a southern subspecies Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis bengalensis from warmer latitudes to the west and east of the Bay of Bengal, and a northern Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis horsfieldi from the Himalayas, having a fuller winter coat than the southern. His description of leopard cats from the areas of Gilgit
Gilgit
and Karachi
Karachi
under the trinomen Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis trevelyani is based on seven skins that had longer, paler and more greyish fur than those from the Himalayas. He assumed that trevelyani inhabits more rocky, less forested habitats than bengalensis and horsfieldi.[26] Between 1837 and 1930, skins and skulls from China were described as Felis
Felis
chinensis, Leopardus
Leopardus
reevesii, Felis
Felis
scripta, Felis
Felis
microtis, decolorata, ricketti, ingrami, anastasiae and sinensis, and later grouped under the trinomen Felis
Felis
bengalensis chinensis.[16] In the beginning of the 20th century, a British explorer collected wild cat skins on the island of Tsushima. Oldfield Thomas
Oldfield Thomas
classified these as Felis
Felis
microtis, which had been first described by Henri Milne-Edwards in 1872.[27] Two skins from Siberia
Siberia
motivated Daniel Giraud Elliot
Daniel Giraud Elliot
to write a detailed description of Felis
Felis
euptilura in 1871. One was depicted in Gustav Radde's illustration cum description of a wild cat; the other was part of a collection at the Regent's Park Zoo. The ground colour of both was light brownish-yellow, strongly mixed with grey and covered with reddish-brown spots, head grey with a dark-red stripe across the cheek.[28] In 1922, Tamezo Mori described a similar but lighter grey spotted skin of a wild cat from the vicinity of Mukden
Mukden
in Manchuria
Manchuria
that he named Felis
Felis
manchurica.[29] Later both were grouped under the trinomen Felis
Felis
bengalensis euptilura.[16] In the 1970s and 1980s, the Russian zoologists Geptner, Gromov and Baranova disagreed with this classification. They emphasized the differences of skins and skulls at their disposal and the ones originating in Southeast Asia, and coined the term Amur forest cat, which they regarded as a distinct species.[30][31] In 1987, Chinese zoologists pointed out the affinity of leopard cats from northern China, Amur cats and leopard cats from southern latitudes. In view of the morphological similarities they did not support classifying the Amur cat as a species.[32] The initial binomial euptilura given by Elliott[28] has been incorrectly changed to "euptilurus" by some later authors, but under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Article 31.2.1, nouns and noun phrases are not subject to gender agreement; at present, both terms appear in use, but only the spelling "euptilura" is correct.[33] Molecular analysis of 39 leopard cat tissue samples clearly showed three clades: a northern lineage and southern lineages 1 and 2. The northern lineage comprises leopard cats from Tsushima Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the continental Far East, Taiwan, and Iriomote Island. Southern lineage 1, comprising Southeast Asian populations, showed higher genetic diversity. Southern lineage 2 is genetically distant from the other lineages.[17] Leopard
Leopard
cats and hybrids as pets[edit] Archeological and morphometric studies have indicated that the first cat species to become a human commensal or domesticate in Neolithic China was the leopard cat, beginning at least 5000 years ago. However, these cats were ultimately replaced over time with cats descended from Felis
Felis
silvestris lybica from the Middle East.[34] The Asian leopard cat (P. b. bengalensis) has been mated with a domestic cat since the 1960s to produce hybrid offspring known as the Bengal cat. This hybrid is usually permitted to be kept as a pet without a license. For the typical pet owner, a Bengal cat
Bengal cat
should be at least four generations (F4) removed from the leopard cat. The "foundation cats" from the first three filial generations of breeding (F1–F3) are usually reserved for breeding purposes or the specialty-pet home environment.[35] Keeping a leopard cat as a pet may require a license in some localities. License requirements vary.[36] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Ross, J.; Brodie, J.; Cheyne, S.; Hearn, A.; Izawa, M.; Loken, B.; Lynam, A.; McCarthy, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Phan, C.; et al. (2015). " Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis". The IUCN Red List
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of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T18146A50661611. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T18146A50661611.en. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e Kitchener, A. C., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Eizirik, E., Gentry, A., Werdelin, L., Wilting A., Yamaguchi, N., Abramov, A. V., Christiansen, P., Driscoll, C., Duckworth, J. W., Johnson, W., Luo, S.-J., Meijaard, E., O’Donoghue, P., Sanderson, J., Seymour, K., Bruford, M., Groves, C., Hoffmann, M., Nowell, K., Timmons, Z. & Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force of the IUCN
IUCN
Cat
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Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat
Cat
News. Special
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Issue 11. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Groves, C. P. (1997). "Leopard-cats, Prionailurus
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Indonesia
and the Philippines, with the description of two new subspecies". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 62: 330–338.  ^ Vigne, J.D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; Yu, C.; Hu, S.; Soulages, N.; Wang, W.; Sun, Z.; Gao, J.; Dobney, K.; Yuan, J. (2016). "Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard
Leopard
Cat ( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis)". PLOS ONE. 11 (1): e0147295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147295. PMC 4723238 . PMID 26799955.  ^ a b c d e f Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 225–232. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.  ^ a b Chua, Marcus A. H.; Sivasothi, N.; Meier, R. (2016). "Population density, spatiotemporal use and diet of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in a human-modified succession forest landscape of Singapore" (PDF). Mammal
Mammal
Research. 61 (2): 99–108. doi:10.1007/s13364-015-0259-4. ISSN 2199-2401.  ^ Ghimirey, Y.; Ghimire, B. (2010). " Leopard
Leopard
Cat
Cat
at high altitude in Makalu-Barun National Park, Nepal". Cat
Cat
News. 52: 16–17.  ^ Thapa, K., Pradhan, N. M. B., Barker, J., Dahal, M., Bhandari, A. R.; et al. (2013). "High elevation record of a leopard cat in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal". Cat
Cat
News (58): 26–27. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Heptner, V. G., Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Amur, or Far Eastern Forest Cat". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 328–355. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Roberts, T. J. (1977). The mammals of Pakistan. London: Ernest Benn.  ^ Habibi, K. (2004). Mammals of Afghanistan. Zoo Outreach Organisation, Coimbatore, India. ^ a b Grassman Jr, L. I., Tewes, M. E., Silvy, N. J., Kreetiyutanont, K. (2005). Spatial organization and diet of the leopard cat ( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis) in north-central Thailand. Journal of Zoology (London) 266: 45–54. ^ a b Imaizumi, Y. (1967). A new genus and species of cat from Iriomote, Ryukyu Islands. Journal of Mammalian Society Japan 3(4): 74. ^ a b Ministry of the Environment, Tsushima Wildlife Conservation Center (2005). National Endangered Species
Species
Tsushima Leopard
Leopard
Cat
Cat
- English Version. ^ Ohdachi, S.; Ishibashi, Y.; Iwasa, A.M.; Fukui, D.; Saitohet, T.; et al. (2015). The Wild Mammals of Japan. Shoukadoh. ISBN 978-4-87974-691-7.  ^ a b c d e f g h Ellerman, J. R., Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. Second edition. British Museum of Natural History, London. Pp. 312–313 ^ a b Tamada, T.; Siriaroonrat, B.; Subramaniam, V.; Hamachi, M.; Lin, L.-K.; Oshida, T.; Rerkamnuaychoke, W.; Masuda, R. (2006). "Molecular Diversity and Phylogeography of the Asian Leopard
Leopard
Cat, Felis bengalensis, Inferred from Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Sequences" (PDF). Zoological Science. 25: 154–163. doi:10.2108/zsj.25.154. PMID 18533746.  ^ Wilson, D. E., Mittermeier, R. A. (eds.) (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 1: Carnivores. Lynx
Lynx
Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1 ^ Masuda, R.; Yoshida, M. C. (1995). "Two Japanese wildcats, the Tsushima cat and the Iriomote
Iriomote
cat, show the same mitochondrial DNA lineage as the leopard cat Felis
Felis
bengalensis". Zoological Science. 12: 655–659. doi:10.2108/zsj.12.655.  ^ a b Murayama, A. (2008). The Tsushima Leopard
Leopard
Cat
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(Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura): Population Viability Analysis and Conservation Strategy. MSc thesis in Conservation Science. Imperial College London. ^ a b Rajaratnam, R.; Sunquist, M.; Rajaratnam, L.; Ambu, L. (2007). "Diet and habitat selection of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis) in an agricultural landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 23: 209–217. doi:10.1017/s0266467406003841.  ^ Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996). Leopard
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Cat
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bengalensis (Kerr 1792): Principal Threats Archived 2011-07-24 at the Wayback Machine. in: Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cat
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Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland ^ Shepherd, C. R., Nijman, V. (2008). The wild cat trade in Myanmar. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. ^ Department of the Interior. (1976). Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Endangered Status of 159 Taxa of Animals. Federal Register Vol. 41 (115): 24062−24067. ^ Kerr, R; Gmelin, S.G. (1792). The animal kingdom or zoological system of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus : class I. Mammalia : containing a complete systematic description ... being a translation of that part of the Systema Naturae. London : Murray. ^ Pocock, R.I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, Ltd., London. Pp. 266–276 ^ Thomas, O. (1908). The Duke of Bedford's zoological exploration in Eastern Asia. – VII List of mammals from the Tsushima Islands. Proceedings of Zoological Society of London, 1908 (January – April): 47–54. ^ a b Elliott, D.G. (1871). Remarks on Various Species
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for the Year 1871. Pp. 765–761. ^ Mori, T. (1922). On some new Mammals from Korea and Manchuria. Felis manchurica, sp. n. Annals and Magazine of Natural History : including zoology, botany and geology. Vol. X, Ninth Series: 609–610 ^ Heptner, V. G. (1971). [On the systematic position of the Amur forest cat and some other east Asian cats placed in Felis
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bengalensis Kerr, 1792.] Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 50: 1720–1727 (in Russian) ^ Gromov, I.M., Baranova, G.I., Baryšnikov, G. F. (eds.) (1981). Katalog mlekopitaûŝih SSSR : pliocen--sovremennostʹ Zoologičeskij Institut "Nauka." Leningradskoe otdelenie, Leningrad ^ Gao, Y.; Wang, S.; Zhang, M.L.; Ye, Z.Y.; Zhou, J.D.; eds. (1987). [Fauna Sinica. Mammalia 8: Carnivora.] Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese) ^ http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/ ^ Vigne, J.-D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; Yu, C.; Hu, S.; Soulages, N.; Wang, W.; Sun, Z.; Gao, J.; Dobney, K.; Yuan, J. (2016-01-22). "Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat
Cat
( Prionailurus
Prionailurus
bengalensis)". PLOS ONE. 11 (1): e0147295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147295. PMC 4723238 . PMID 26799955.  ^ The Bengal Cat
Cat
Guide ^ http://www.leopardcat.8k.com/purchasingLC.html

External links[edit]

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Prionailurus
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Prionailurus
bengalensis.

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v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q42627 ADW: Prionailurus_bengalensis ARKive: prionailurus-bengalensis BioLib: 1987 EoL: 1041047 Fossilworks: 224055 GBIF: 2434903 iNaturalist: 41949 ITIS: 552763 IUCN: 18146 MSW: 14000181 NCBI: 370

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