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Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni
(or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.[1] He has been called the first modern historian.[2] He was the earliest person to write using the three-period view of history: Antiquity, Middle Ages, and Modern. The dates Bruni used to define the periods are not exactly what modern historians use today, but he laid the conceptual groundwork for a tripartite division of history.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Significance 3 Bibliography 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

6.1 Latin texts online 6.2 German texts online

Biography[edit] Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni
was born in Arezzo, Tuscany
Tuscany
circa 1370. Bruni was the pupil of political and cultural leader Coluccio Salutati, whom he succeeded as chancellor of Florence, and under whose tutelage he developed his ideation of civic humanism. He also served as apostolic secretary to four popes (1405–1414).[2] Bruni's years as chancellor—1410 to 1411 and again from 1427 to his death in 1444—were plagued by warfare. Though he occupied one of the highest political offices, Bruni was relatively powerless compared to the Albizzi
Albizzi
and Medici
Medici
families. Historian Arthur Field has identified Bruni as an apparent plotter against Cosimo de' Medici
Medici
in 1437 (see below). Bruni died in 1444 in Florence
Florence
and was succeeded in office by Carlo Marsuppini. Significance[edit]

De primo bello punico, 1471

Bruni's most notable work is Historiarum Florentini populi libri XII (History of the Florentine People, 12 Books), which has been called the first modern history book.[2] While it probably was not Bruni's intention to secularize history, the three period view of history is unquestionably secular and for that Bruni has been called the first modern historian.[2] The foundation of Bruni's conception can be found with Petrarch, who distinguished the classical period from later cultural decline, or tenebrae (literally "darkness"). Bruni argued that Italy had revived in recent centuries and could therefore be described as entering a new age. One of Bruni's most famous works is New Cicero, a biography of the Roman statesman Cicero. He was also the author of biographies in Italian of Dante and Petrarch.[3] It was Bruni who used the phrase studia humanitatis, meaning the study of human endeavors, as distinct from those of theology and metaphysics, which is where the term humanists comes from. As a humanist Bruni was essential in translating into Latin many works of Greek philosophy and history, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
and Procopius. Bruni's translations of Aristotle's Politics and Nicomachean Ethics, as well as the pseudo-Aristotelean Economics, were widely distributed in manuscript and in print. His use of Aelius Aristides' Panathenicus (Panegyric to Athens) to buttress his republican theses in the Panegyric to the City of Florence
Florence
(c. 1401) was instrumental in bringing the Greek historian to the attention of Renaissance
Renaissance
political philosophers (see Hans Baron's The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
for details). He also wrote a short treatise in Greek on the Florentine constitution.[4] Bruni was one of the very first Humanists
Humanists
to be confronted with Plato's discussion of same-sex relationships. (Reeser) Bruni died in Florence
Florence
in 1444, and is buried in a wall tomb by Bernardo Rossellino
Bernardo Rossellino
in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.[5] Bibliography[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Bruni, Leonardo.

Latin text and English translation:

Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni
(April 2001). James Hankins, ed. History of the Florentine People. 1. translated by James Hankins. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00506-6.  Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni
(November 2004). James Hankins, ed. History of the Florentine People. 2. translated by James Hankins. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01066-3. 

Notes[edit]

^ Gary Ianziti (2012). Writing History in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy: Leonardo Bruni and the Uses of the Past. Harvard University Press. p. 432. ISBN 978-0674061521.  ^ a b c d Leonardo Bruni; James Hankins
James Hankins
(October 9, 2010). History of the Florentine People. 1. Boston: Harvard University Press.  ^ "Leonardo Bruni" Catholic Encyclopedia ^ Stuart M. McManus, 'Byzantines in the Florentine polis: Ideology, Statecraft and ritual during the Council of Florence', The Journal of the Oxford University History Society, 6 (Michaelmas 2008/Hilary 2009), pp. 8-10 ^ Levey, Michael; Early Renaissance,p. 57-9, 1967, Penguin

References[edit]

Field, Arthur: "Leonardi Bruni, Florentine traitor? Bruni, the Medici, and an Aretine conspiracy of 1437", Renaissance
Renaissance
Quarterly 51 (1998): 1109-50. Hankins, James: Repertorium Brunianum : a critical guide to the writings of Leonardo Bruni, Rome : Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo 1997 Ianziti, Gary. "Writing History in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy: Leonardo Bruni and the Uses of the Past" (2010) "Leonardo Bruni". In Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. McManus, Stuart M., 'Byzantines in the Florentine polis: Ideology, Statecraft and ritual during the Council of Florence', The Journal of the Oxford University History Society, 6 (Michaelmas 2008/Hilary 2009), 1-23 Reeser, Todd W. Chapter 2 in Setting Plato Straight: Translating Ancient Sexuality in the Renaissance
Renaissance
(Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 2016).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leonardo Bruni.

Latin texts online[edit]

An vulgus et literati eodem modo per Terentii Tullique tempora Romae locuti sint Calphurnia et Gurgulia De Bello Gallico Adversus Gothos Bruni, Leonardo (1610) [1442]. Historiarum Florentinarum libri XII : quibus accesserunt quorundam suo tempore in Italia gestorum & de rebus Græcis commentarii (in Latin). Strassburg: Lazarus Zetzner. OCLC 288009927. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2010.  Digitized from a copy at the John Adams Library. De studijs et litteris ad illustem dominam baptistam de malatesta tractatulus. Leipzig 1496. Epistola ad Baptistam de Malatestis. De interpretatione recta on Wikisource Lewis E 54 De primo bello punico (On the first Punic War) at OPenn

German texts online[edit]

De duobus amantibus Guiscardo et Sigismunda. Ulm, Johann Zainer, ca. 1476-1477. From the Rare Book and Special
Special
Collections Division at the Library of Congress Works by Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 95283478 LCCN: n50039889 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 2279 GND: 118516132 SELIBR: 248816 SUDOC: 028441974 BNF: cb120276366 (data) ULAN: 500315043 NLA: 35069563 NKC: ola2002157556 ICCU: ITICCUBVEV18004 BNE: XX1179

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