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Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
(born June 13, 1934) is an American computer scientist. A professor at UCLA's Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, he made several important contributions to the field of computer networking, in particular to the theoretical foundations of computer networking. He played an influential role in the development of the ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet, at UCLA.[3]

Contents

1 Education and career 2 Achievements

2.1 Packet switching 2.2 ARPANET

3 Awards 4 See also 5 Works 6 References 7 External links

Education and career[edit] Kleinrock was born in New York City
New York City
on June 13, 1934 to a Jewish family,[4] and graduated from the noted Bronx High School of Science in 1951. He received a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering
Engineering
degree in 1957 from the City College of New York, and a master's degree and a doctorate (Ph.D.) in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in 1959 and 1963 respectively. He then joined the faculty at the University of California at Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(UCLA), where he remains to the present day; during 1991–1995 he served as the Chairman of the Computer Science Department there.[5] Achievements[edit] Packet switching[edit] Kleinrock's best-known and significant work is his early work on queueing theory, which has applications in many fields, among them as a key mathematical background to packet switching, one of the basic technologies of the Internet. His initial contribution to this field was his doctoral thesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1962, published in book form in 1964; he later published several of the standard works on the subject. He described this work as:

"Basically, what I did for my PhD research in 1961–1962 was to establish a mathematical theory of packet networks..."

In 2001 he received the Draper Prize "for the development of the Internet".[6] However, Kleinrock's contribution to packet switching is disputed by some,[7][8] including Robert Taylor,[9] Paul Baran[10] and Donald Davies.[11][12] His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun
Farouk Kamoun
remains critical to the operation of the Internet
Internet
today. ARPANET[edit] The first message on the ARPANET
ARPANET
was sent by UCLA
UCLA
student programmer Charley Kline, at 10:30 p.m, on October 29, 1969 from Boelter Hall 3420, the school's main engineering building.[13] Supervised by Kleinrock, Kline transmitted from the university's SDS Sigma 7
SDS Sigma 7
host computer to the Stanford Research Institute's SDS 940 host computer. The message text was the word "login"; the "l" and the "o" letters were transmitted, but the system then crashed. Hence, the literal first message over the ARPANET
ARPANET
was "lo". About an hour later, having recovered from the crash, the SDS Sigma 7
SDS Sigma 7
computer effected a full "login". The first permanent ARPANET
ARPANET
link was established on November 21, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA
UCLA
and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. By December 5, 1969, the entire four-node network was established.[14][15] In 1988, Kleinrock was the chairman of a group that presented the report Toward a National Research Network to the U.S. Congress.[16] This report was highly influential and was used to develop the High Performance Computing Act of 1991,[17] that was influential in the development of the Internet
Internet
as it is known today.[18] Funding from the bill was used in the development of the 1993 web browser Mosaic, at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA).[19] Room 3420 at Boelter Hall was restored to its condition of 1969 and converted into the Kleinrock Internet
Internet
Heritage Site and Archive. It opened to the public with a grand opening attended by Internet pioneers on October 29, 2011.[13][20] Kleinrock claims to have committed the first illegal act on the Internet, having sent a request for return of his electric razor after a meeting in England
England
in 1973. At the time, use of the Internet
Internet
for personal reasons was unlawful.[21] Awards[edit]

2012 Internet
Internet
Hall of Fame inductees, including Leonard Kleinrock (seated, fifth from the left)

He has received numerous professional awards. Kleinrock was selected to receive the prestigious National Medal of Science, the nation's highest scientific honor, from President George W Bush
George W Bush
in the White House on September 29, 2008. "The 2007 National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
to Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
for his fundamental contributions to the mathematical theory of modern data networks, and for the functional specification of packet switching, which is the foundation of Internet technology. His mentoring of generations of students has led to the commercialization of technologies that have transformed the world."[1] In 2010 he shared the Dan David Prize.[22] In 2012, Kleinrock was inducted into the Internet
Internet
Hall of Fame by the Internet
Internet
Society.[23] Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
was inducted into IEEE- Eta Kappa Nu (IEEE-ΗΚΝ) in 2011 as an Eminent Member. The designation of Eminent Member is the organization's highest membership grade and is conferred upon those select few whose outstanding technical attainments and contributions through leadership in the fields of electrical and computer engineering have significantly benefited society. In September 2014, Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
was awarded the ACM SIGMOBILE Outstanding Contribution Award at MobiCom 2014. Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
has been granted with the 2014 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award “for his seminal contributions to the theory and practical development of the Internet,” in the words of the jury’s citation. See also[edit]

Internet
Internet
pioneers Nerds 2.0.1 – 1998 documentary in which Kleinrock gives a lengthy interview Plan 55-A, a message switching system analyzed in Kleinrock's thesis.

Works[edit]

Kleinrock, Leonard (May 1961). "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets". Ph.D. Thesis Proposal. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Kleinrock, Leonard (July 1961). "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets". RLE Quarterly Progress Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Kleinrock, Leonard (April 1962). "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets". RLE Quarterly Progress Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Kleinrock, Leonard (December 1962). "Message Delay in Communication Nets with Storage" (PDF). (PhD thesis). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26.  Kleinrock, Leonard (1964). Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Design. McGraw-Hill. p. 220. ISBN 978-0486611051.  Kleinrock, Leonard (2 January 1975). Queueing Systems: Volume I – Theory. New York: Wiley Interscience. p. 417. ISBN 978-0471491101.  Kleinrock, Leonard (22 April 1976). Queueing Systems: Volume II – Computer Applications. New York: Wiley Interscience. p. 576. ISBN 978-0471491118.  Kleinrock, Leonard; Kamoun, Farok (January 1977). "Hierarchical Routing for Large Networks, Performance Evaluation and Optimization". Computer Networks. 1 (3): 155–174.  Kleinrock, Leonard; Gail, Richard (12 April 1996). Queueing Systems: Problems and Solutions. Wiley-Interscience. p. 240. ISBN 978-0471555681. 

References[edit]

^ a b "Eight National Medals of Science Awardees Honored at Gala". NSF. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
at the Mathematics Genealogy Project ^ Rosenbaum, Philip (29 October 2009). "Web pioneer recalls 'birth of the Internet'". CNN. Retrieved October 30, 2009.  ^ "Jews in Computer & Information Science". The Jewish Contribution to World Civilization web site. Retrieved 5 July 2011.  ^ "Leonard Kleinrock's Profile". UCLA. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2012.  ^ " Draper Prize Honors Four 'Fathers of the Internet'". Wall Street Journal. February 12, 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2017.  ^ Alex McKenzie (2009), Comments on Dr. Leonard Kleinrock's claim to be "the Father of Modern Data Networking", retrieved April 23, 2015  "...there is nothing in the entire 1964 book that suggests, analyzes, or alludes to the idea of packetization." ^ Isaacson, Walter (2014). The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon & Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 9781476708690. This led to an outcry among many of the other Internet
Internet
pioneers, who publicly attacked Kleinrock and said that his brief mention of breaking messages into smaller pieces did not come close to being a proposal for packet switching  ^ Robert Taylor (November 22, 2001), "Birthing the Internet: Letters From the Delivery Room; Disputing a Claim", New York Times, Authors who have interviewed dozens of Arpanet pioneers know very well that the Kleinrock-Roberts claims are not believed.  ^ Katie Hefner (November 8, 2001), "A Paternity Dispute Divides Net Pioneers", New York Times, The Internet
Internet
is really the work of a thousand people," Mr. Baran said. "And of all the stories about what different people have done, all the pieces fit together. It's just this one little case that seems to be an aberration.  ^ Donald Davies
Donald Davies
(2001), "A Historical Study of the Beginnings of Packet Switching", Computer Journal, British Computer Society, I can find no evidence that he understood the principles of packet switching.  ^ Scantlebury, Roger (25 June 2013). " Internet
Internet
pioneers airbrushed from history". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b Savio, Jessica (1 April 2011). "Browsing history: A heritage site is being set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in". UCLA
UCLA
Daily Bruin. UCLA. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Sutton, Chris. " Internet
Internet
Began 35 Years Ago at UCLA
UCLA
with First Message Ever Sent Between Two Computers". UCLA. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Kleinrock tells the story of the first Internet
Internet
connection (UCLA video) ^ "Toward a National Research Network".  ^ "High-Performance Computing Act of 1991". Retrieved 21 March 2011.  ^ "A Bill of Rights for the Internet: What Should it Have Been at the Outset" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2011.  ^ Tuutti, Camille (23 September 2011). "R&D in IT essential to help US stay competitive". Federal Computer Week. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ McCarty, Meghan (19 July 2011). "Beginning of the Internet commemorated in new UCLA
UCLA
museum". Southern California Public Radio. Retrieved 21 July 2011.  ^ Still, tapping into the ARPANET
ARPANET
to fetch a shaver across international lines was a bit like being a stowaway on an aircraft carrier. The ARPANET
ARPANET
was an official federal research facility, after all, and not something to be toyed with. Kleinrock had the feeling that the stunt he’d pulled was slightly out of bounds. 'It was a thrill. I felt I was stretching the Net'. – "Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet", Chapter 7. ^ Wileen Wong Kromhout (March 15, 2010). " UCLA
UCLA
Internet
Internet
pioneer Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
looks toward future, helps students do the same". UCLA
UCLA
Engineering. Archived from the original on April 21, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2011.  ^ "2012 Inductees". Internet
Internet
Hall of Fame. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 

External links[edit]

"Leonard Kleinrock's Home Page". UCLA. Retrieved 11 February 2004.  "Leonard Kleinrock's Personal History/Biography: the Birth of the Internet". UCLA. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  "KIHC: The Kleinrock Internet
Internet
History Center at UCLA". UCLA. Archived from the original on 4 April 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2004.  "Bibliography". UCLA. Retrieved 24 May 2012.  "Network history links". Archived from the original on December 8, 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2004.  "Oral history interview with Leonard Kleinrock". University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute. 3 April 1990. Retrieved 15 May 2008.  Kleinrock discusses his work on the ARPANET.

Kleinrock discusses his dissertation work in queueing theory, and his move to the University of California at Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(UCLA). As one of the main contractors for the ARPANET, Kleinrock describes his involvement in discussions before the official DARPA request was issued, the people involved in the ARPANET
ARPANET
work at UCLA, the installation of the first node of the network, the Network Measurement Center, and his relationships with Lawrence Roberts and the IPT Office, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and the Network Analysis Corporation.

"Oral history interview with Howard Frank". University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute. Retrieved 1 July 2008.  Frank describes his work on the ARPANET, including his interaction with Roberts and the IPT Office. Video:Interview with Leonard Kleinrock. ACM. Retrieved 7 May 2006.  Video: Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
on the first Internet
Internet
connection. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  Video: Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
displays Internet's first router. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  Video: Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
on packet-switching, early Internet. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  Biography of Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 103867640 LCCN: n95120557 ISNI: 0000 0001 1778 5164 GND: 140341455 SUDOC: 061689017 BNF: cb14542988m (data) BIBSYS: 90253516 MGP: 24334 NDL: 00445874 NKC: xx0013513 DBLP: k/LKleinrock ACM DL: 81100135897

v t e

United States
United States
National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering
Engineering
sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Internet
Internet
Hall of Fame

Pioneers

2012

Paul Baran† Vint Cerf Danny Cohen Steve Crocker Donald Davies† Elizabeth J. Feinler Charles Herzfeld Robert Kahn Peter T. Kirstein Leonard Kleinrock John Klensin Jon Postel† Louis Pouzin Lawrence Roberts

2013

David Clark David Farber Howard Frank Kanchana Kanchanasut J. C. R. Licklider† Bob Metcalfe Jun Murai Kees Neggers Nii Quaynor Glenn Ricart Robert Taylor Stephen Wolff Werner Zorn

2014

Douglas Engelbart† Susan Estrada Frank Heart Dennis Jennings Rolf Nordhagen† Radia Perlman

Global connectors

2012

Randy Bush Kilnam Chon Al Gore Nancy Hafkin Geoff Huston Brewster Kahle Daniel Karrenberg Toru Takahashi Tan Tin Wee

2013

Karen Banks Gihan Dias Anriette Esterhuysen Steve Goldstein Teus Hagen Ida Holz Qiheng Hu Haruhisa Ishida† Barry Leiner† George Sadowsky

2014

Dai Davies Demi Getschko Masaki Hirabaru† Erik Huizer Steve Huter Abhaya Induruwa Dorcas Muthoni Mahabir Pun Srinivasan Ramani Michael Roberts Ben Segal Douglas Van Houweling

2017

Nabil Bukhalid Ira Fuchs Shigeki Goto Mike Jensen Ermanno Pietrosemoli Tadao Takahashi Florencio Utreras Jianping Wu

Innovators

2012

Mitchell Baker Tim Berners-Lee Robert Cailliau Van Jacobson Lawrence Landweber Paul Mockapetris Craig Newmark Ray Tomlinson Linus Torvalds Phil Zimmermann

2013

Marc Andreessen John Perry Barlow Francois Fluckiger Stephen Kent Anne-Marie Eklund Löwinder Henning Schulzrinne Richard Stallman Aaron Swartz† Jimmy Wales

2014

Eric Allman Eric Bina Karlheinz Brandenburg John Cioffi Hualin Qian Paul Vixie

2017

Jaap Akkerhuis Yvonne Marie Andres Alan Emtage Ed Krol Tracy LaQuey Park

.