The Info List - Leonard Carmichael

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Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(November 9, 1898 – September 16, 1973) was an American educator and psychologist. In addition, he became the seventh secretary of the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
in 1953.


1 Early life and education 2 Secretary of the Smithsonian 3 Later life and legacy 4 References 5 Further reading

Early life and education[edit] Carmichael, the son of a physician and a teacher, was born in 1898, in Germantown, Pennsylvania. He received his BS degree from Tufts University in 1921, and his PhD
from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1924. He was a brother in the Theta Delta Chi fraternity during his time at Tufts. He became an instructor at Princeton University's Department of Psychology
in 1924 and was appointed to assistant professor in 1926. For fourteen years, Carmichael taught at Brown University, focusing on experimental psychology with primates. After being part of the Brown University faculty from 1927 to 1936, he left for the University of Rochester. He was appointed president of Tufts University
Tufts University
in 1938, serving until his departure for the Smithsonian in 1953.[1] Secretary of the Smithsonian[edit] Carmichael served as the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
from 1953 to 1964. He was the first Secretary to be hired from outside the Institution, rather than promoted from within. During Carmichael’s tenure, the National Portrait Gallery was created, the Patent Office Building was acquired for the American Art and Portrait Galleries, and the Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) was opened. New wings were added to the National Museum of Natural History, the Hope Diamond
Hope Diamond
was donated by Harry Winston, and the Fénykövi elephant was unveiled in the rotunda of the Natural History Museum. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was revitalized and moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1957, when Sputnik
was launched, the observatory was the only US lab capable of tracking the Soviet satellite. After the death of a visitor at the National Zoological Park, Carmichael sought additional funding for major improvements to meet safety regulations. The Friends of the National Zoo was created and a Master Plan for zoo improvement was formulated and initiated.[1] Later life and legacy[edit] He became vice-president for research and exploration of the National Geographic Society after leaving the Smithsonian. In 1972 Carmichael was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.[2] Tufts University’s community service organization, the Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
Society; Carmichael Hall, a dormitory and dining hall on the Tufts campus; and the lunar crater Carmichael are all named in his honor. Carmichael is sometimes mentioned in connection with the MKULTRA project.[3] He died on September 16, 1973.[4] References[edit]

^ a b "Leonard Carmichael, 1898-1973". Smithsonian Institution Archives, Collections, Services, Smithsonian History. Retrieved 2012-05-25.  ^ "Public Welfare Award". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011.  ^ " The Search for the Manchurian Candidate", John Marks ^ Death date

This article contains public domain text from the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leonard Carmichael.

Pfaffmann, C. (1980). "Leonard Carmichael: November 9, 1898–September 16, 1973" (PDF). Biographical memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. 51: 25–47. PMID 11620781. 

v t e

Presidents of the American Psychological Association


G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1892) George Trumbull Ladd
George Trumbull Ladd
(1893) William James
William James
(1894) James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
(1895) George Stuart Fullerton (1896) James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
(1897) Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
(1898) John Dewey
John Dewey
(1899) Joseph Jastrow
Joseph Jastrow


Josiah Royce
Josiah Royce
(1901) Edmund Sanford (1902) William Lowe Bryan
William Lowe Bryan
(1903) William James
William James
(1904) Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1905) James Rowland Angell
James Rowland Angell
(1906) Henry Rutgers Marshall (1907) George M. Stratton
George M. Stratton
(1908) Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd
(1909) Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
(1910) Carl Seashore
Carl Seashore
(1911) Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike
(1912) Howard C. Warren
Howard C. Warren
(1913) Robert S. Woodworth
Robert S. Woodworth
(1914) John B. Watson
John B. Watson
(1915) Raymond Dodge (1916) Robert Yerkes
Robert Yerkes
(1917) John Wallace Baird (1918) Walter Dill Scott (1919) Shepherd Ivory Franz
Shepherd Ivory Franz
(1920) Margaret Floy Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn
(1921) Knight Dunlap (1922) Lewis Terman
Lewis Terman
(1923) G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1924) I. Madison Bentley (1925)


Harvey A. Carr (1926) Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
(1927) Edwin Boring
Edwin Boring
(1928) Karl Lashley (1929) Herbert Langfeld (1930) Walter Samuel Hunter (1931) Walter Richard Miles (1932) Louis Leon Thurstone (1933) Joseph Peterson (1934) Albert Poffenberger (1935) Clark L. Hull
Clark L. Hull
(1936) Edward C. Tolman
Edward C. Tolman
(1937) John Dashiell (1938) Gordon Allport (1939) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1940) Herbert Woodrow (1941) Calvin Perry Stone (1942) John Edward Anderson (1943) Gardner Murphy
Gardner Murphy
(1944) Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie
(1945) Henry Garrett (1946) Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
(1947) Donald Marquis (1948) Ernest Hilgard (1949) J. P. Guilford (1950)


Robert Richardson Sears
Robert Richardson Sears
(1951) J. McVicker Hunt (1952) Laurance F. Shaffer (1953) Orval Hobart Mowrer (1954) E. Lowell Kelly (1955) Theodore Newcomb (1956) Lee Cronbach (1957) Harry Harlow
Harry Harlow
(1958) Wolfgang Köhler (1959) Donald O. Hebb (1960) Neal E. Miller
Neal E. Miller
(1961) Paul E. Meehl (1962) Charles E. Osgood (1963) Quinn McNemar (1964) Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
(1965) Nicholas Hobbs (1966) Gardner Lindzey (1967) Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow
(1968) George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller
(1969) George Albee (1970) Kenneth B. Clark (1971) Anne Anastasi (1972) Leona E. Tyler (1973) Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
(1974) Donald T. Campbell
Donald T. Campbell


Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976) Theodore H. Blau (1977) M. Brewster Smith (1978) Nicholas Cummings (1979) Florence Denmark
Florence Denmark
(1980) John J. Conger (1981) William Bevan (1982) Max Siegel (1983) Janet Taylor Spence (1984) Robert Perloff (1985) Logan Wright (1986) Bonnie Strickland (1987) Raymond D. Fowler (1988) Joseph Matarazzo (1989) Stanley Graham (1990) Charles Spielberger (1991) Jack Wiggins Jr. (1992) Frank Farley (1993) Ronald E. Fox (1994) Robert J. Resnick (1995) Dorothy Cantor (1996) Norman Abeles (1997) Martin Seligman
Martin Seligman
(1998) Richard Suinn (1999) Patrick H. DeLeon (2000)


Norine G. Johnson (2001) Philip Zimbardo
Philip Zimbardo
(2002) Robert Sternberg (2003) Diane F. Halpern (2004) Ronald F. Levant (2005) Gerald Koocher (2006) Sharon Brehm (2007) Alan E. Kazdin (2008) James H. Bray (2009) Carol D. Goodheart (2010) Melba J. T. Vasquez (2011) Suzanne Bennett Johnson (2012) Donald N. Bersoff (2013) Nadine Kaslow
Nadine Kaslow
(2014) Barry S. Anton (2015) Susan H. McDaniel (2016) Antonio Puente (2017) Jessica Henderson Daniel (2018)

v t e

Presidents of Tufts University

Ballou (1853–1861) Miner (1862–1875) Capen (1875–1905) Hamilton (1905–1912) Hooper # (1912–1914) Bumpus (1915–1919) Cousens (1919–1937) Miller # (1937–1938) Carmichael (1938–1952) Wessell (1953–1966) Mead # (1966–1967) Hallowell (1967–1976) Mayer (1976–1992) DiBiaggio (1992–2001) Bacow (2001–2011) Monaco (2011–)

Pound sign (#) denotes interim president

v t e

Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution

Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry
(1846) Spencer Fullerton Baird
Spencer Fullerton Baird
(1878) Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
(1887) Charles Doolittle Walcott
Charles Doolittle Walcott
(1907) Charles Greeley Abbot
Charles Greeley Abbot
(1928) Alexander Wetmore
Alexander Wetmore
(1944) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1953) Sidney Dillon Ripley
Sidney Dillon Ripley
(1964) Robert McCormick Adams, Jr.
Robert McCormick Adams, Jr.
(1984) Ira Michael Heyman
Ira Michael Heyman
(1994) Lawrence M. Small (2000) Cristián Samper
Cristián Samper
(2007, acting) G. Wayne Clough
G. Wayne Clough
(2008) David J. Skorton
David J. Skorton

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 110835006 LCCN: n50032465 ISNI: 0000 0001 1082 9953 GND: 142928348 SUDOC: 076599