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Lent
Lent
(Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter
Easter
Sunday. The purpose of Lent
Lent
is the preparation of the believer for Easter
Easter
through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins, almsgiving, and self-denial.[1] This event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, and Catholic Churches.[2][3][4] Some Anabaptist
Anabaptist
and evangelical churches also observe the Lenten season.[5][6] Its institutional purpose is heightened in the annual commemoration of Holy Week, marking the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the tradition and events of the New Testament
New Testament
beginning on Palm Sunday, further climaxing on Jesus' crucifixion on Good Friday, which ultimately culminates in the joyful celebration on Easter
Easter
Sunday of the Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus
Christ. In Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain luxuries in order to replicate the sacrifice of Jesus
Jesus
Christ's journey into the desert for 40 days.[7][8][9] Many Christians also add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such as reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, to draw themselves near to God.[10][11] The Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ's carrying the Cross and of his execution, are often observed. Many Roman Catholic
Catholic
and some Protestant
Protestant
churches remove flowers from their altars, while crucifixes, religious statues, and other elaborate religious symbols are often veiled in violet fabrics in solemn observance of the event. Throughout Christendom, some adherents mark the season with the traditional abstention from the consumption of meat, most notably among Lutherans, Roman Catholics and Anglicans.[12][13][14] Lent
Lent
is traditionally described as lasting for 40 days, in commemoration of the 40 days Jesus
Jesus
spent fasting in the desert, according to the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, before beginning his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan.[15][16] Holy Week
Holy Week
and the season of Lent, depending on the Christian denomination and local custom, end with Easter
Easter
Vigil at sundown on Holy Saturday, on the morning of Easter
Easter
Sunday, or at the midnight between them.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Duration and traditions

2.1 Roman Catholicism 2.2 Protestantism and Western Orthodoxy 2.3 Eastern Orthodoxy and Byzantine Rite 2.4 Oriental Orthodoxy

3 Other related fasting periods 4 Associated customs 5 Omission of Gloria and Alleluia 6 Veiling of religious images 7 Pre-Lenten festivals 8 Fasting
Fasting
and abstinence 9 Media coverage 10 Holy days within the season of Lent

10.1 Easter
Easter
Triduum

11 Vestments 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit]

Lent
Lent
celebrants carrying out a street procession during Holy Week, in Granada, Nicaragua. The violet color is often associated with penance and detachment. Similar Christian penitential practice is seen in other Christian countries, sometimes associated with mortification of the flesh.[17]

The English word Lent
Lent
is a shortened form of the Old English
Old English
word len(c)ten, meaning "spring season", as its Dutch language
Dutch language
cognate lente ( Old Dutch
Old Dutch
lentin)[18] still does today. A dated term in German, lenz ( Old High German
Old High German
lenzo), is also related. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, 'the shorter form (? Old Germanic type *laŋgito- , *laŋgiton-) seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long ... and may possibly have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring'. The origin of the -en element is less clear: it may simply be a suffix, or lencten may originally have been a compound of *laŋgo- 'long' and an otherwise little attested word *-tino, meaning 'day'.[19] In languages spoken where Christianity
Christianity
was earlier established, such as Greek and Latin, the term signifies the period dating from the 40th day before Easter. In modern Greek the term is Σαρακοστή, derived from the earlier Τεσσαρακοστή, meaning "fortieth". The corresponding word in Latin, quadragesima ("fortieth"), is the origin of the term used in Latin-derived languages and in some others: for example, Croatian korizma, French carême, Irish carghas, Italian quaresima, Portuguese quaresma, Albanian kreshma, Romanian păresimi, Spanish cuaresma, Basque garizuma and Welsh c(a)rawys. In other languages, the name used refers to the activity associated with the season. Thus it is called "fasting period" in Czech (postní doba), German (Fastenzeit), and Norwegian (fasten/fastetid), and it is called "great fast" in Polish (wielki post) and Russian (великий пост – veliki post). The terms used in Filipino are kuwaresma (from the Spanish) and Mahál na Araw ("precious/great days"); the latter term is also used specifically for Holy Week.[citation needed] Duration and traditions[edit] Various Christian denominations
Christian denominations
calculate the 40 days of Lent differently. The way they observe Lent
Lent
also differs. Roman Catholicism[edit] In the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
Lent
Lent
starts on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and finishes on Holy Saturday. This comprises a period of 46 days. This includes 6 Sundays which are not considered part of Lent
Lent
because Sundays are days of celebration for Catholics.[20][not in citation given] In the Ambrosian Rite, Lent
Lent
begins on the Sunday that follows what is celebrated as Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
in the rest of the Latin
Latin
Catholic
Catholic
Church, and ends as in the Roman Rite, thus being of 40 days, counting the Sundays but not Holy Thursday. The day for beginning the Lenten fast is the following Monday, the first weekday in Lent. The special Ash Wednesday fast is transferred to the first Friday of the Ambrosian Lent. Until this rite was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo
the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent
Lent
was festive, celebrated in white vestments with chanting of the Gloria in Excelsis
Gloria in Excelsis
and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy".[21][22][23] The period of Lent
Lent
observed in the Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches corresponds to that in other churches of Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
that have similar traditions. Protestantism and Western Orthodoxy[edit] In Protestant
Protestant
and Western Orthodox Churches, the season of Lent
Lent
lasts from Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
to Holy Saturday.[24][25] This calculation makes Lent
Lent
last 46 days, if the 6 Sundays are included, but only 40, if they are excluded,[26] This definition is still that of the Anglican Church,[27] Lutheran
Lutheran
Church,[28] Methodist
Methodist
Church,[29] and Western Rite Orthodox Church.[30] Eastern Orthodoxy and Byzantine Rite[edit] Main article: Great Lent In the Byzantine Rite, i.e., the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Great Lent
Great Lent
(Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days" and "Great Fast" respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year.[31] The 40 days of Great Lent
Great Lent
includes Sundays, and begins on Clean Monday and are immediately followed by what are considered distinct periods of fasting, Lazarus Saturday
Lazarus Saturday
and Palm Sunday, which in turn are followed straightway by Holy Week. Great Lent
Great Lent
is broken only after the Paschal (Easter) Divine Liturgy. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church maintains the traditional Church's teaching on fasting. The rules for lenten fasting are the monastic rules. Fasting
Fasting
in the Orthodox Church is more than simply abstaining from certain foods. During the Great Lent
Great Lent
Orthodox Faithful intensify their prayers and spiritual exercises, go to church services more often, study the Scriptures and the works of the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in depth, limit their entertainment and spendings and focus on charity and good works. Oriental Orthodoxy[edit] Among the Oriental Orthodox, there are various local traditions regarding Lent. Those using the Alexandrian Rite, i.e., the Coptic Orthodox, Coptic Catholic, Ethiopian Orthodox, Ethiopian Catholic, Eritrean Orthodox, and Eritrean Catholic
Catholic
Churches, observe eight weeks of Lent. In Ethiopian Orthodoxy, fasting (tsome) lasts for 55 continuous days before Easter
Easter
(Fasika), although the fast is divided into three separate periods: Tsome Hirkal, eight days commemorating an early Christian figure; Tsome Arba, 40 days of Lent; and Tsome Himamat, seven days commemorating Holy Week.[32][33][34] Fasting
Fasting
involves abstention from animal products (meat, dairy, and eggs), and refraining from eating or drinking before 3:00 pm.[32] Ethiopian devotees may also abstain from sexual activity and the consumption of alcohol.[32] As in the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Churches, the date of Easter
Easter
is reckoned according to the Julian Calendar, and usually occurs later than Easter according to Gregorian Calendar
Gregorian Calendar
used by Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant Churches. Other related fasting periods[edit]

The season of Lent
Lent
begins on Ash Wednesday, most notably by the public imposition of ashes. In this photograph, a woman receives a cross of ashes on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
outside an Anglican church.

A Lutheran
Lutheran
pastor distributes ashes during the Divine Service on Ash Wednesday.

The number 40 has many Biblical references:

Moses
Moses
spent 40 days on Mount Sinai with God (Exodus 24:18) Elijah
Elijah
spent 40 days and nights walking to Mount Horeb
Mount Horeb
(1 Kings 19:8) God sent 40 days and nights of rain in the great flood of Noah (Genesis 7:4) The Hebrew people wandered 40 years in the desert while traveling to the Promised Land
Promised Land
(Numbers 14:33) Jonah's prophecy of judgment gave 40 days to the city of Nineveh
Nineveh
in which to repent or be destroyed ( Jonah
Jonah
3:4). Jesus
Jesus
retreated into the wilderness, where He fasted for 40 days, and was tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:1–2, Mark 1:12–13, Luke 4:1–2). He overcame all three of Satan's temptations by citing scripture to the devil, at which point the devil left him, angels ministered to Jesus, and He began His ministry. Jesus
Jesus
further said that His disciples should fast "when the bridegroom shall be taken from them" (Matthew 9:15), a reference to his Passion. Since, presumably, the Apostles fasted as they mourned the death of Jesus, Christians have traditionally fasted during the annual commemoration of his burial. It is the traditional belief that Jesus
Jesus
laid for 40 hours in the tomb,[22] which led to the 40 hours of total fasting that preceded the Easter
Easter
celebration in the early Church[35] (the biblical reference to 'three days in the tomb' is understood by them as spanning three days, from Friday afternoon to early Sunday morning, rather than three 24-hour periods of time). Some Christian denominations, such as The Way International and Logos Apostolic Church of God,[36] as well as Anglican scholar E. W. Bullinger in The Companion Bible, believe Christ was in the grave for a total of 72 hours, reflecting the type of Jonah
Jonah
in the belly of the whale.[37]

One of the most important ceremonies at Easter
Easter
is the baptism of the initiates on Easter
Easter
Eve. The fast was initially undertaken by the catechumens to prepare them for the reception of this sacrament. Later, the period of fasting from Good Friday
Good Friday
until Easter
Easter
Day was extended to six days, to correspond with the six weeks of training necessary to give the final instruction to those converts who were to be baptized.[citation needed] Converts to Christianity
Christianity
followed a strict catechumenate or period of instruction and discipline prior to receiving the sacrament of baptism, sometimes lasting up to three years.[38] In Jerusalem
Jerusalem
near the close of the fourth century, classes were held throughout Lent
Lent
for three hours each day. With the legalization of Christianity
Christianity
(by the Edict of Milan) and its later imposition as the state religion of the Roman Empire, its character was endangered by the great influx of new members. In response, the Lenten fast and practices of self-renunciation were required annually of all Christians, both to show solidarity with the catechumens, and for their own spiritual benefit.[citation needed] Associated customs[edit]

Statues and icons veiled in violet shrouds for Passiontide
Passiontide
in St Pancras Church, Ipswich, England

There are traditionally 40 days in Lent; these are marked by fasting, both from foods and festivities, and by other acts of penance. The three traditional practices to be taken up with renewed vigour during Lent
Lent
are prayer (justice towards God), fasting (justice towards self), and almsgiving (justice towards neighbours). However, in modern times, observers give up partaking in vices and often invest the time or money saved in charitable purposes or organizations.[39] In addition, some believers add a regular spiritual discipline, to bring them closer to God, such as reading a Lenten daily devotional.[10] Another practice commonly added is the singing of the Stabat Mater
Stabat Mater
hymn in designated groups. Among Filipino Catholics, the recitation of Jesus
Jesus
Christ' passion, called Pasiong Mahal, is also observed. In some Christian countries, grand religious processions and cultural customs are observed, and the faithful attempt to visit seven churches during Holy Week
Holy Week
in honor of Jesus
Jesus
Christ heading to Mount Calvary.[citation needed] In many liturgical Christian denominations, Good Friday, Holy Saturday, and Easter
Easter
Sunday form the Easter
Easter
Triduum.[40] Lent
Lent
is a season of grief that necessarily ends with a great celebration of Easter. Thus, it is known in Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
circles as the season of "Bright Sadness". It is a season of sorrowful reflection which is punctuated by breaks in the fast on Sundays.[citation needed] Omission of Gloria and Alleluia[edit] The Gloria in excelsis Deo, which is usually said or sung on Sundays at Mass of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
and Anglican rite, is omitted on the Sundays of Lent, but continues in use on solemnities and feasts and on special celebrations of a more solemn kind.[41] Some mass compositions were written especially for Lent, such as Michael Haydn's Missa tempore Quadragesimae, without Gloria, in D minor, and for modest forces, only choir and organ. The Gloria is used on Maundy Thursday, to the accompaniment of bells, which then fall silent until the Gloria in excelsis of the Easter
Easter
Vigil.[42] The Lutheran
Lutheran
Divine Service, the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, and the Presbyterian service of worship associate the Alleluia
Alleluia
with joy and omits it entirely throughout Lent,[43][44] not only at Mass but also in the canonical hours as well as outside the liturgy. Before 1970, the omission began with Septuagesima. The word "Alleluia" at the beginning and end of the Acclamation Before the Gospel at Mass is replaced by another phrase. Before 1970, the whole Acclamation was omitted and was replaced by a Tract. Again, before 1970, the word "Alleluia" normally added to the Gloria Patri
Gloria Patri
at the beginning of each Hour of the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Hours was replaced by the phrase Laus tibi, Domine, rex aeternae gloriae (Praise to you, O Lord, king of eternal glory). Now it is simply omitted. Until the Ambrosian Rite
Ambrosian Rite
was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo
the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent
Lent
was festive, celebrated with chanting of the Gloria and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy".[21][22][23] In the Byzantine Rite, the Gloria (Great Doxology) continues to be used in its normal place in the Matins service, and the Alleluia appears all the more frequently, replacing "God is the Lord" at Matins. Veiling of religious images[edit]

A United Methodist
Methodist
minister prostrates at the start of the Good Friday liturgy at Holy Family
Holy Family
Church, in accordance with the rubrics in the Book of Worship. The processional cross is veiled in black, the liturgical colour associated with Good Friday
Good Friday
in Methodist
Methodist
Churches.

A crucifix on the high altar is veiled for Lent. Saint Martin's parish, Württemberg, Germany

In certain pious Christian states, in which liturgical forms of Christianity
Christianity
predominate, religious objects were traditionally veiled for the entire 40 days of Lent. Though perhaps uncommon in the United States of America, this pious practice is consistently observed in Goa, Malta, Peru, the Philippines (the latter only for the entire duration of Holy Week, with the exception of processional images), and in the Spanish cities: Barcelona, Málaga, and Seville. In Ireland, before Vatican II, when impoverished rural Catholic
Catholic
convents and parishes could not afford purple fabrics, they resorted to either removing the statues altogether or, if too heavy or bothersome, turned the statues to face the wall. As is popular custom, the 14 Stations of the Cross plaques on the walls are not veiled. Crucifixes
Crucifixes
made before the time of Saint Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Assisi
did not have a corpus (body of Christ) and therefore were adorned with jewels and gemstones, which was referred to as Crux Gemmatae. To keep the faithful from adoring the crucifixes elaborated with ornamentation, veiling it in royal purple fabrics came into place. The violet colour later evolved as a color of penance and mourning. Further liturgical changes in modernity reduced such observances to the last week of Passiontide. In parishes that could afford only small quantities of violet fabrics, only the heads of the statues were veiled. If no violet fabrics could be afforded at all, then the religious statues and images were turned around facing the wall. Flowers were always removed as a sign of solemn mourning. In the pre-1992 Methodist
Methodist
liturgy and pre-1970 forms of the Roman Rite, the last two weeks of Lent
Lent
are known as Passiontide, a period beginning on the Fifth Sunday in Lent, which in the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal
Roman Missal
is called the First Sunday in Passiontide
Passiontide
and in earlier editions Passion Sunday. All statues (and in England paintings as well) in the church were traditionally veiled in violet. This was seen as in keeping with the Gospel of that Sunday (John 8:46–59), in which Jesus
Jesus
"hid himself" from the people. Within many churches in the United States of America, after the Second Vatican Council, the need to veil statues or crosses became increasingly irrelevant and was deemed unnecessary by some diocesan bishops. As a result, the veils were removed at the singing of the Gloria in Excelsis
Gloria in Excelsis
Deo during the Easter
Easter
Vigil. In 1970, the name "Passiontide" was dropped, although the last two weeks are markedly different from the rest of the season, and continuance of the tradition of veiling images is left to the discretion of a country's conference of bishops or even to individual parishes as pastors may wish. On Good Friday, the Anglican, Lutheran, and Methodist
Methodist
churches traditionally veiled "all pictures, statutes, and the cross are covered in mourning black", while "the chancel and altar coverings are replaced with black, and altar candles are extinguished". The fabrics are then "replaced with white on sunrise on Easter
Easter
Sunday".[45] Pre-Lenten festivals[edit] Main article: Shrovetide Further information: Carnival, Mardi Gras, Swabian-Alemannic-Fastnacht, Maslenitsa, Pancake Day, and Baklahorani The carnival celebrations which in many cultures traditionally precede Lent
Lent
are seen as a last opportunity for excess before Lent
Lent
begins. Some of the most famous are the Carnival
Carnival
of Barranquilla, the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the Carnival
Carnival
of Venice, Cologne Carnival, the New Orleans Mardi Gras, the Rio de Janeiro carnival, and the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival. The day immediately preceding Lent
Lent
is variously called Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Pancake Tuesday, or Shrove Tuesday. Sometimes, it is the peak of the pre-Lenten festival, while sometimes it is largely occupied with preparations for Lent. The observances vary from culture to culture, and even from town to town. Originally, in Lebanon and Syria, the last Thursday preceding Lent
Lent
was called "Khamis el zakara". For Catholics, it was meant to be a day of remembrance of the dead ones. However, zakara (which means "remembrance", in Arabic) was gradually replaced by sakara (meaning "getting drunk" in Arabic), and so the occasion came to be known as Khamis el sakara, wherein celebrants indulge themselves with alcoholic beverages.

Fasting
Fasting
and abstinence[edit]

Jesus
Jesus
Tempted in the Wilderness (Jésus tenté dans le désert), James Tissot, Brooklyn Museum

Further information: Christian dietary laws Fasting
Fasting
during Lent
Lent
was more prominent in ancient times than today. Socrates Scholasticus reports that in some places, all animal products were strictly forbidden, while various others permitted fish, or fish and fowl, others prohibited fruit and eggs, and still others permitted only bread. In many places, the observant abstained from food for a whole day until the evening, and at sunset, Western Christians traditionally broke the Lenten fast, which was often known as the Black Fast.[46][47] In India
India
and Pakistan, many Christians continue this practice of fasting until sunset on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday, with some fasting in this manner throughout the whole season of Lent.[48] For other Latin
Latin
Catholics, by the early 20th century the theoretical obligation of the penitential fast throughout Lent
Lent
except on Sundays was to take only one full meal a day. In addition, a smaller meal, called a collation, was allowed in the evening, and a cup of some beverage, accompanied by a little bread, in the morning. In practice, this obligation, which was a matter of custom rather than of written law, was not observed strictly.[49] The 1917 Code of Canon Law
1917 Code of Canon Law
allowed the full meal on a fasting day to be taken at any hour and to be supplemented by two collations, with the quantity and the quality of the food to be determined by local custom. The Lenten fast ended on Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
at noon. Only those aged 21 to 59 were obliged to fast. As with all merely ecclesiastical laws, particular difficulties, such as strenuous work or illness, excused one from observance, and a dispensation from the law could be granted by a bishop or parish priest. In addition to fasting, abstinence from meat was to be observed on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and on Fridays and Saturdays in Lent.[50] A rule of thumb is that the two collations should not add up to the equivalent of another full meal. Rather portions were to be: "sufficient to sustain strength, but not sufficient to satisfy hunger".[51] The apostolic constitution Paenitemini of 17 February 1966 reduced the fasting days to two: Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday, and allowed episcopal conferences to "substitute abstinence and fast wholly or in part with other forms of penitence and especially works of charity and the exercises of piety".[52] This was made part of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which made obligatory fasting for those aged between 18 and 59, and abstinence for those aged 14 and upward.[53] The Irish Catholic
Catholic
Bishops' Conference decided to allow other forms of Friday penance to replace that of abstinence from meat, whether in Lent
Lent
or outside Lent, suggesting alternatives such as abstaining from some other food, or from alcohol or smoking; making a special effort at participating in family prayer or in Mass; making the Stations of the Cross; or helping the poor, sick, old, or lonely.[54] The Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales made a similar ruling in 1985[55] but decided in 2011 to restore the traditional year-round Friday abstinence from meat.[56] The United States Conference of Catholic
Catholic
Bishops has maintained the rule of abstention from meat on Friday only during Lent.[57] Many Lutheran
Lutheran
Churches advocate fasting during designated times such as Lent,[9][58] especially on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday.[59][9][60][61] A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent delineates the following Lutheran
Lutheran
fasting guidelines:[12]

Fast on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday
Good Friday
with only one simple meal during the day, usually without meat. Refrain from eating meat (bloody foods) on all Fridays in Lent, substituting fish for example. Eliminate a food or food group for the entire season. Especially consider saving rich and fatty foods for Easter. Consider not eating before receiving Communion in Lent. Abstain from or limit a favorite activity (television, movies, etc.) for the entire season, and spend more time in prayer, Bible
Bible
study, and reading devotional material.[12]

The historic Methodist
Methodist
homilies regarding the Sermon on the Mount stress the importance of the Lenten fast, which begins on Ash Wednesday.[62] The United Methodist
Methodist
Church therefore states that:

There is a strong biblical base for fasting, particularly during the 40 days of Lent
Lent
leading to the celebration of Easter. Jesus, as part of his spiritual preparation, went into the wilderness and fasted 40 days and 40 nights, according to the Gospels.[63]

Good Friday, which is towards the end of the Lenten season, is traditionally an important day of communal fasting for Methodists.[64] Rev. Jacqui King, the minister of Nu Faith Community United Methodist Church in Houston explained the philosophy of fasting during Lent
Lent
as "I'm not skipping a meal because in place of that meal I'm actually dining with God".[65] Many of the Churches in the Reformed
Reformed
tradition retained the Lenten fast in its entirety.[8] The Reformed Church in America
Reformed Church in America
describes the first day of Lent, Ash Wednesday, as a day "focused on prayer, fasting, and repentance" and considers fasting a focus of the whole Lenten season,[66] as demonstated in the "Invitation to Observe a Lenten Discipline", found in the Reformed
Reformed
liturgy for the Ash Wednesday service, which is read by the presider:[67]

We begin this holy season by acknowledging our need for repentance and our need for the love and forgiveness shown to us in Jesus
Jesus
Christ. I invite you, therefore, in the name of Christ, to observe a Holy Lent, by self-examination and penitence, by prayer and fasting, by practicing works of love, and by reading and reflecting on God's Holy Word.[67]

Good Friday, which is towards the end of the Lenten season, is traditionally an important day of communal fasting for adherents of the Reformed
Reformed
faith.[64] During the early Middle Ages, eggs, dairy products, and meat were generally forbidden. In favour of the traditional practice, observed both in East and West, Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
argued that "they afford greater pleasure as food [than fish], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their consumption there results a greater surplus available for seminal matter, which when abundant becomes a great incentive to lust."[68] Aquinas also authorized the consumption of candy during Lent, because "sugared spices" (such as comfits) were, in his opinion, digestive aids on par with medicine rather than food.[69]

Jousting
Jousting
against Carnival
Carnival
is represented by a fat man on a beer barrel who wears a huge meat pie as headdress; Lent
Lent
is represented by a thin gaunt woman on a cart (shown here) bearing Lenten fare: mussels, pretzels, and waffles. Oil painting The Fight Between Carnival
Carnival
and Lent
Lent
by Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
(circa 1558–1559).

In Spain, the bull of the Holy Crusade
Crusade
(renewed periodically after 1492) allowed the consumption of dairy products[70] and eggs during Lent
Lent
in exchange for a contribution to the cause of the crusade. Giraldus Cambrensis, in his Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales, reports that "in Germany and the arctic regions", "great and religious persons" eat the tail of beavers as "fish" because of its superficial resemblance to "both the taste and colour of fish". The animal was very abundant in Wales at the time.[71] In current Western societies the practice is considerably relaxed, though in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches, abstinence from all animal products including eggs, fish, fowl, and milk sourced from animals (e.g., cows and goats, as opposed to the milk of coconuts and soy beans) is still commonly practiced, so that, where this is observed, only vegetarian (or vegan) meals are consumed for the whole of Lent, 45 days in the Byzantine Rite. In the Western Catholic
Catholic
Church, the obligation to fast no longer applies to all weekdays of Lent
Lent
(40 days), but only to Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. In the tradition of this part of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, abstinence from eating some form of food (generally meat, but not dairy or fish products) is distinguished from fasting. Fasting involves having during the day only one proper meal with up to two "collations",[72] light meatless meals sufficient to maintain strength but not adding up to the equivalent of a full meal.[73] In principle, abstinence is to be observed on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and on every Friday of the year that is not a solemnity (a liturgical feast day of the highest rank); but in each country the episcopal conference can determine the form it is to take, perhaps replacing abstinence with other forms of penance.[53][74][75] Present canonical legislation on these matters follows the 1966 Apostolic Constitution
Apostolic Constitution
of Pope Paul VI, Paenitemini, in which he recommended that fasting be appropriate to the local economic situation and that all Catholics voluntarily fast and abstain. He also allowed replacing fasting and abstinence with prayer and works of charity in countries with a lower standard of living. The law of abstinence binds those age 14 or over, and that of fast binds those who are at least 18 years of age and not yet 60.[53] The sick and those who have special needs are excused, and dispensations can be granted by episcopal conferences or individual bishops, which can be wider outside of Lent. Even during Lent, the rule about solemnities holds, so that the obligation of Friday abstinence does not apply on 19 and 25 March when, as usually happens, the solemnities of Saint Joseph and the Annunciation
Annunciation
are celebrated on those dates. The same applies to Saint Patrick's Day, which is a solemnity in the whole of Ireland as well as in dioceses that have Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
as principal patron saint. In some other places, too, where there are strong Irish traditions within the Catholic
Catholic
community, a dispensation is granted for that day.[76] In Hong Kong, where Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
often coincides with Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
celebrations, a dispensation is then granted from the laws of fast and abstinence, and the faithful are exhorted to use some other form of penance.[73] After the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, in the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church, "Church orders of the 16th century retained the observation of the Lenten fast, and Lutherans have observed this season with a serene, earnest attitude."[3] In the Anglican Churches, the Traditional Saint Augustine's Prayer
Prayer
Book: A Book of Devotion for Members of the Anglican Communion, a companion to the Book of Common Prayer, states that fasting is "usually meaning not more than a light breakfast, one full meal, and one half meal, on the forty days of Lent".[13] It further states that "the major Fast Days of Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday, as the American Prayer-Book indicates, are stricter in obligation, though not in observance, than the other Fast Days, and therefore should not be neglected except in cases of serious illness or other necessity of an absolute character."[77]

In many Christian countries, religious processions during the season of Lent
Lent
are often accompanied by a military escort both for security and parade. Ceuta, Spain

Traditionally, on Sunday, and during the hours before sunrise and after sunset, some Churches, such as Episcopalians, allow "breaks" in their Lent
Lent
promises. For Roman Catholics, the Lenten penitential season ends after the Easter
Easter
Vigil Mass. Orthodox Christians also break their fast after the Paschal Vigil, a service which starts around 11:00 pm on Holy Saturday, and which includes the Paschal celebration of the Divine Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. John Chrysostom. At the end of the service, the priest blesses cheese, eggs, flesh meats, and other items that the faithful have been abstaining from for the duration of Great Lent. Lenten traditions and liturgical practices are less common, less binding, and sometimes non-existent among some liberal and progressive Christians, since these generally do not emphasize piety and the mortification of the flesh as a significant virtue.[78] A greater emphasis on anticipation of Easter
Easter
Sunday is often encouraged more than the penitence of Lent
Lent
or Holy Week.[79] Some Christians as well as secular groups also interpret the Lenten fast in a positive tone, not as renunciation but as contributing to causes such as environmental stewardship and improvement of health.[80][81][82] Even some atheists find value in the Christian tradition and observe Lent.[83] Media coverage[edit] During Lent, BBC's Radio Four
Radio Four
normally broadcasts a series of programmes called the Lent
Lent
Talks.[84] These 15-minute programmes are normally broadcast on a Wednesday and have featured various speakers, such as John Lennox.[85] Holy days within the season of Lent[edit]

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See also: Easter
Easter
Triduum

A Methodist
Methodist
minister distributing ashes to confirmands kneeling at the chancel rails on Ash Wednesday

Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Old Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on Golgotha, Mount Calvary, where tradition claims Jesus
Jesus
was crucified and died

There are several holy days within the season of Lent:

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
is the first day of Lent
Lent
in Western Christianity, such as the Lutheran
Lutheran
Churches, Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Methodist Churches, Reformed
Reformed
traditions, etc. In the Ambrosian Rite
Ambrosian Rite
and the Mozarabic Rite, there is no Ash Wednesday: Lent
Lent
begins on the first Sunday and the fast begins on the first Monday. The Sundays in Lent
Lent
carry Latin
Latin
names in German Lutheranism, derived from the beginning of the Sunday's introit. The first is called Invocabit, the second Reminiscere, the third Oculi, the fourth Laetare, the fifth Judica, the sixth Palm Sunday. The fourth Sunday in Lent, which marks the halfway point between Ash Wednesday and Easter
Easter
Sunday, is referred to as Laetare Sunday
Laetare Sunday
by Anglicans, Roman Catholics, and many other Christians, because of the traditional Entrance Antiphon of the Mass. Due to the more "joyful" character of the day (since laetare in Latin
Latin
means "rejoice"), the priest, deacon, and subdeacon have the option of wearing vestments of a rose colour (pink) instead of violet. Additionally, the fourth Lenten Sunday, Mothering Sunday, which has become known as Mother's Day in the United Kingdom and an occasion for honouring mothers of children, has its origin in a 16th-century celebration of the Mother Church. The fifth Sunday in Lent, also known in some denominations as Passion Sunday (and in some denominations also applies to Palm Sunday) marks the beginning of Passiontide. The sixth Sunday in Lent, commonly called Palm Sunday, marks the beginning of Holy Week, the final week of Lent
Lent
immediately preceding Easter. Wednesday of Holy Week, Holy Wednesday
Holy Wednesday
(also sometimes known as Spy Wednesday) commemorates Judas Iscariot's bargain to betray Jesus.[86][87][88] Thursday of Holy Week
Holy Week
is known as Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
or Holy Thursday, and is a day Christians commemorate the Last Supper
Last Supper
shared by Christ with his disciples. The next day is Good Friday, on which Christians remember Jesus' crucifixion, death, and burial.

Easter
Easter
Triduum[edit]

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In the Anglican, Lutheran, Old Catholic, Roman Catholic, and many other churches, the Easter
Easter
Triduum is a three-day event that begins Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
evening, with the entrance hymn of the Mass of the Lord's Supper. After this celebration, the consecrated Hosts are taken solemnly from the altar to a place of reposition, where the faithful are invited to meditate in the presence of the consecrated Hosts.This is the Church's response to Jesus' question to the disciples sleeping in the Garden of Gethsemane, "Could you not watch with me one hour?" On the next day, the liturgical commemoration of the Passion of Jesus Christ is celebrated at 3 pm, unless a later time is chosen due to work schedules. This service consists of readings from the Scriptures, especially John the Evangelist's account of the Passion of Jesus, followed by prayers, veneration of the cross of Jesus, and a communion service at which the hosts consecrated at the evening Mass of the day before are distributed. The Easter
Easter
Vigil during the night between Holy Saturday afternoon and Easter
Easter
Sunday morning starts with the blessing of a fire and a special candle, and with readings from Scripture associated with baptism. Then, the Gloria in Excelsis
Gloria in Excelsis
Deo is sung, water is blessed, baptism and confirmation of adults may take place, the people are invited to renew the promises of their own baptism, and finally, Mass is celebrated in the usual way from the Preparation of the Gifts onwards. Holy Week
Holy Week
and the season of Lent, depending on denomination and local custom, end with Easter
Easter
Vigil at sundown on Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
or on the morning of Easter
Easter
Sunday. It is custom for some churches to hold sunrise services which include open air celebrations in some places. Vestments[edit]

The chancel of a Lutheran
Lutheran
church decorated with red paraments, the liturgical colour of the last week of Lent, Holy Week, in the Lutheran and Anglican Churches[89]

In the Lutheran, Methodist, Reformed, Roman Catholic, and many Anglican churches, the pastor's vestments are violet during the season of Lent. On the fourth Sunday in Lent, rose-coloured (pink) vestments may be worn in lieu of violet. Historically, black had also been used: Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
declared black to be the proper color for Lent, though Durandus of Saint-Pourçain claims violet has preference over black.[90] In some Anglican churches, a type of unbleached linen or muslin known as "Lenten array" is worn during the first three weeks of Lent, crimson is worn during Passiontide, and on holy days, the colour proper to the day is worn.[91] In certain other Anglican churches, as an alternative to violet for all of Lent
Lent
except Holy Week
Holy Week
and red beginning on Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
through Holy Saturday, Lenten array, typically made of sackcloth such as burlap and trimmed with crimson cloth, often velvet, is worn, even during Holy Week
Holy Week
-- since the sackcloth represents penance and the crimson edges represent the Passion of Christ. Even the veils that cover the altar crosses or crucifixes and statuary (if any) are made of the same sackcloth with the crimson trim. See also[edit] Christianity:

Fasting
Fasting
in the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Fasting
Fasting
and abstinence in the Catholic
Catholic
Church Fasting
Fasting
and abstinence of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Fast of Nineveh People's Sunday Quinquagesima

Islam:

Ramadan

Judaism:

Counting of the Omer Tisha B'Av Yom Kippur

Modern interpretations

Lent
Lent
Event, asks people to donate the value of what they forego during Lent

General:

Asceticism

References[edit]

^ Stoll, Anita K.; Smith, Dawn L. (2000). Gender, Identity, and Representation in Spain's Golden Age. Bucknell University Press. p. 178. ISBN 9780838754252. Retrieved 4 May 2017.  ^ Comparative Religion For Dummies. For Dummies. 31 January 2011. ISBN 9781118052273. Retrieved 8 March 2011. This is the day Lent begins. Christians go to church to pray and have a cross drawn in ashes on their foreheads. The ashes drawn on ancient tradition represent repentance before God. The holiday is part of Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, and Episcopalian liturgies, among others.  ^ a b Gassmann, Günther (4 January 2001). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 180. ISBN 081086620X.  ^ Benedict, Philip (3 March 2014). Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. Yale University Press. p. 506. ISBN 030010507X.  ^ Mennonite Stew – A Glossary: Lent. Third Way Café. Retrieved 24 February 2012. Traditionally, Lent
Lent
was not observed by the Mennonite church, and only recently have more modern Mennonite churches started to focus on the six-week season preceding Easter.  ^ Brumley, Jeff. " Lent
Lent
not just for Catholics, but also for some Baptists and other evangelicals". The Florida Times Union. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ Burnett, Margaret (5 March 2017). "Students observe Lent
Lent
on campus – The Brown and White". The Brown and White. Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh (1911). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 428. The Lenten fast was retained at the Reformation in some of the reformed Churches, and is still observed in the Anglican and Lutheran
Lutheran
communions.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c Gassmann, Günther; Oldenburg, Mark W. (10 October 2011). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780810874824. In many Lutheran
Lutheran
churches, the Sundays during the Lenten season are called by the first word of their respective Latin
Latin
Introitus (with the exception of Palm/Passion Sunday): Invocavit, Reminiscere, Oculi, Laetare, and Judica. Many Lutheran church orders of the 16th century retained the observation of the Lenten fast, and Lutherans have observed this season with a serene, earnest attitude. Special
Special
days of eucharistic communion were set aside on Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
and Good Friday.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Crumm, David. Our Lent, 2nd Edition. ISBN 1934879509.  ^ Ambrose, Gill; Craig-Wild, Peter; Craven, Diane; Moger, Peter (5 March 2007). Together for a Season. Church House Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 9780715140635.  ^ a b c Weitzel, Thomas L. (1978). "A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent" (PDF). Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ a b Gavitt, Loren Nichols (1991). Traditional Saint Augustine's Prayer
Prayer
Book: A Book of Devotion for Members of the Anglican Communion. Holy Cross Publications.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ This practice is observed in numerous pious Christian countries, although the form of abstention may vary depending on what is customary. Some abstain from meat for 40 days, some do so only on Fridays, or some only on Good Friday
Good Friday
itself. By pontifical decree under Pope Alexander VI, eggs and dairy products may be consumed by penitents in Spain and its colonized territories. ^ "What is Lent
Lent
and why does it last forty days?". The United Methodist
Methodist
Church. Retrieved 24 August 2007.  ^ "The Liturgical Year". The Anglican Catholic
Catholic
Church. Retrieved 24 August 2007.  ^ Knowlton, MaryLee (2004). Macedonia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 125. ISBN 9780761418542. Traditionally, as in many Christian countries, the carnival marked the beginning of Lent, which ushered in a six-week period of fasting for Christians.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "lente (voorjaar)". etymologiebank.nl. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lent". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 427.  ^ "Questions and Answers about Lent
Lent
and Lenten Practices". www.usccb.org. Retrieved 2018-02-20.  ^ a b "Il Tempo di Quaresima nel rito Ambrosiano" (PDF) (in Italian). Parrocchia S. Giovanna Antida Thouret. Retrieved 9 June 2014.  ^ a b c  Herbert, Thurston (1910). "Lent". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  See paragraph: Duration of the Fast ^ a b The "Secret of the Mass" in the First Sunday of Lent
Lent
– "Sacrificium Quadragesimalis Initii", Missale Romanum Ambrosianus ^ Akin, James. "All About Lent". EWTN. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Roman and the Lutheran
Lutheran
Observance of Lent. Luther League of America. 1920. p. 5.  ^ What is Lent
Lent
and why does it last forty days?. The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Lent
Lent
is a season of forty days, not counting Sundays, which begins on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and ends on Holy Saturday. Sundays in Lent
Lent
are not counted in the forty days because each Sunday represents a "mini-Easter" and the reverent spirit of Lent is tempered with joyful anticipation of the Resurrection.  ^ Kitch, Anne E. (10 January 2003). The Anglican Family Prayer
Prayer
Book. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 130.  ^ The Northwestern Lutheran, Volumes 60–61. Northwestern Publishing House. 1973. p. 66.  ^ Langford, Andy (4 January 1993). Blueprints for worship: a user's guide for United Methodist
Methodist
congregations. Abingdon Press. p. 96.  ^ Fenton, John. "The Holy Season of Lent
Lent
in the Western Tradition". Western Rite of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ " Fasting
Fasting
and Great Lent
Great Lent
- Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese". Antiochian.org. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ a b c James Jeffrey (22 March 2017). "Ethiopia: fasting for 55 days". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ "Tsome Nenewe (The Fast of Nineveh)". Minneapolis: Debre Selam Medhanealem Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. 28 January 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2017.  ^ Robel Arega. " Fasting
Fasting
in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church". Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Sunday School Department – Mahibere Kidusan. Why Fifty-Five Days?. Retrieved 30 March 2017.  ^ Lent
Lent
& Beyond: Dr. Peter Toon—From Septuagesima to Quadragesima (web site gone, no alternate source found, originally cited 27 August 2010) ^ Jesus
Jesus
Was Literally Three Days and Three Nights in the Grave, www.logosapostolic.org, retrieved 23 March 2011  ^ Burke, Daniel (13 April 2011). "Just How Long Did Jesus
Jesus
Stay in the Tomb?". www.huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 23 March 2015.  ^ Hinson, E. Glenn (1 January 1981). The Evangelization of the Roman Empire: Identity and Adaptability. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865540149. Like its parent, Judaism, earliest Christianity
Christianity
had a catechism for its converts, as much recent study has proven. ... Hippolytus required up to three years' instruction before baptism, shortened by a candidate's progress in developing Christian character.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Lent—disciplines and practices". Spirit Home. Retrieved 27 August 2010. [self-published source?] ^ "General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, 19". Catholicliturgy.com. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 53 ^ Roman Missal, Thursday of the Lord's Supper, 7 ^ "Why don't we use alleluias during Lent?" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America. 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ Jr., J. Dudley Weaver, (2002). Presbyterian Worship: A Guide for Clergy. Geneva Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780664502188. The alleluia is traditionally not sung during Lent, and, here at the first service of Easter, it is at last reintroduced to the church's liturgy.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Bratcher, Dennis (2015). "The Days of Holy Week". CRI.  ^ Cléir, Síle de (5 October 2017). Popular Catholicism in 20th-Century Ireland: Locality, Identity and Culture. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 9781350020603. Catherine Bell outlines the details of fasting and abstinence in a historical context, stating that the Advent
Advent
fast was usually less severe than that carried out in Lent, which originally involved just one meal a day, not to be eaten until after sunset.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Guéranger, Prosper; Fromage, Lucien (1912). The Liturgical Year: Lent. Burns, Oates & Washbourne. p. 8. St. Benedict's rule prescribed a great many fasts, over and above the ecclesiastical fast of Lent; but it made this great distinction between the two: that whilst Lent
Lent
obliged the monks, as well as the rest of the faithful, to abstain from food till sunset, these monastic fasts allowed the repast to be taken at the hour of None.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Some Christians observe Lenten fast the Islamic way". Union of Catholic
Catholic
Asian News. 27 February 2002. Retrieved 28 February 2018.  ^  O'Neill, James David (1909). "Fast". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "CIC 1917: text – IntraText CT". Intratext.com. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ Gregson, David. "Fasting". EWTN. Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ " Paenitemini (February 17, 1966) - Paul VI". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ a b c "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". Vatican.va. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ "Friday Penance
Penance
resource from ICBC". Catholicbishops.ie. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ " Fasting
Fasting
and Abstinence. Statement from the Bishops of England and Wales on Canons 1249–1253" (PDF).  ^ "Catholics asked to abstain from meat for Friday penance". BBC News.  ^ "EWTN Q & A, Response". Ewtn.com. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ What is the holiest season of the Church Year? Archived 2009-02-09 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2010-02-03. Archived copy at the Internet Archive ^ Hatch, Jane M. (1978). The American Book of Days. Wilson. p. 163. ISBN 9780824205935. Special
Special
religious services are held on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
by the Church of England, and in the United States by Episcopal, Lutheran, and some other Protestant
Protestant
churches. The Episcopal Church prescribes no rules concerning fasting on Ash Wednesday, which is carried out according to members' personal wishes; however, it recommends a measure of fasting and abstinence as a suitable means of marking the day with proper devotion. Among Lutherans as well, there are no set rules for fasting, although some local congregations may advocate this form of penitence in varying degrees.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1990). Commentary on the Lutheran
Lutheran
Book of Worship: Lutheran
Lutheran
Liturgy
Liturgy
in Its Ecumenical Context. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. pp. 223–244, 260. ISBN 9780800603922. The Good Friday fast became the principal fast in the calendar, and even after the Reformation in Germany many Lutherans who observed no other fast scrupulously kept Good Friday
Good Friday
with strict fasting.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Jacobs, Henry Eyster; Haas, John Augustus William (1899). The Lutheran
Lutheran
Cyclopedia. Scribner. p. 110. By many Lutherans Good Friday is observed as a strict fast. The lessons on Ash Wednesday emphasize the proper idea of the fast. The Sundays in Lent
Lent
receive their names from the first words of their Introits in the Latin service, Invocavit, Reminiscere, Oculi, Lcetare, Judica.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Abraham, William J.; Kirby, James E. (2009-09-24). The Oxford Handbook of Methodist
Methodist
Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 257–. ISBN 978-0-19-160743-1.  ^ "What does The United Methodist
Methodist
Church say about fasting?". The United Methodist
Methodist
Church. Retrieved 1 March 2017.  ^ a b Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1883). The American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary for General Knowledge. D. Appleton and Company. p. 101. The Protestant
Protestant
Episcopal, Lutheran, and Reformed
Reformed
churches, as well as many Methodists, observe the day by fasting and special services.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Chavez, Kathrin (2010). "Lent: A Time to Fast and Pray". The United Methodist
Methodist
Church. Retrieved 1 March 2017.  ^ "The Liturgical Calendar". Reformed
Reformed
Church in America. 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ a b "Ash Wednesday". Reformed
Reformed
Church in America. 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Summa Theologica Q147a8". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ Richardson, Tim H. (2002). Sweets: A History of Candy. Bloomsbury USA. pp. 147–148. ISBN 1-58234-229-6.  ^ Alejandro Torres Gutiérrez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. "Millennium:Fear and Religion". Archived from the original on 18 August 2002.  ^ "Baldwin's Itinerary Through Wales No. 2 by Giraldus Cambrensis". Gutenberg.org. 31 December 2001. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ "Definition of "collation" – Collins English Dictionary".  ^ a b "Penitential Days – Catholic
Catholic
Diocese of Hong Kong".  ^ "Catholics United for the Faith – Lent
Lent
– Discipline and History – Teaching the Catholic
Catholic
Faith". Catholics United for the Faith – Catholics United for the Faith is an international lay apostolate founded to help the faithful learn what the Catholic
Catholic
Church teaches.  ^ Colin B. Donovan, Fast and Abstinence. Retrieved 28 December 2007. ^ Engber, Daniel (15 March 2006). "Thou Shalt Eat Corned Beef on Friday: Who Sets the Rules on Lent?". Slate. Retrieved 13 February 2010.  ^ "The Church's Discipline as to Fasting
Fasting
and Abstinence". Anglican Communion. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Ash Wednesday: What Is Ash Wednesday? How Do We Observe It? Why Should We?". Patheos.com. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ "An Ecofeminist Perspective on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Lent
Lent
– USA – Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe". Peterlang.com. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ Hebden, Keith (3 March 2014). "This Lent
Lent
I will eat no food, to highlight the hunger all around us". The Guardian.  ^ DiLallo, Matt (2 March 2014). "Believe it or Not, Catholics Observing Lent
Lent
Save Our Environment". Fool.com. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ Kellow, Juliette (4 March 2014). "Cut out one treat for Lent
Lent
and your waistline could reap the benefits". Daily Express. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  ^ Winston, Kimberly. "After giving up religion, atheists try giving up something else for Lent". Religion News Service. Retrieved 19 March 2013.  ^ "Programmes: Lent
Lent
Talks". BBC.  ^ Lennox, John (27 March 2012). "John Lennox's Lent
Lent
Talk
Talk
for Radio 4". RZIM. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ "spy, n.", OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2013, Spy Wednesday n. in Irish use, the Wednesday before Easter.  ^ Packer, George Nichols (1893). "Our Calendar: The Julian Calendar and Its Errors, how Corrected by the Gregorian". Corning, NY: [The author]. p. 112. Retrieved 15 December 2013. Spy Wednesday, so called in allusion to the betrayal of Christ by Judas, or the day on which he made the bargain to deliver Him into the hands of His enemies for 30 pieces of silver.  ^ McNichol, Hugh (2014). " Spy Wednesday
Spy Wednesday
conversion to Holy Wednesday". Catholic
Catholic
Online. Retrieved 10 May 2014.  ^ Gally, Howard E. (25 January 1989). Ceremonies of the Eucharist. Cowley Publications. p. 45. ISBN 9781461660521. In recent decades there has been a revival of the ancient use of red (crimson or scarlet) for Holy Week
Holy Week
among both Episcopalians and Lutherans. The Roman rite has restored the use of red only on Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
and Good Friday.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Kellner, K. A. H. (1908). Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from Their Origin to the Present Day Kegan Paul Trench Trubner & Co Limited. p. 430. ^ The Church of England rubric states: "The colour for a particular service should reflect the predominant theme. If the Collect, Readings, etc. on a Lesser Festival are those of the saint, then either red (for a martyr) or white is used; otherwise, the colour of the season is retained." See page 532 here.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lent
Lent
(fasting period).

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lent

Look up Lent
Lent
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Lenten Season and How To Observe Lent Daily Lenten Devotional – LHM Methodist
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Ordinary Time
II

Trinity Sunday Corpus Christi^ Sacred Heart Visitation of Mary Saint John the Baptist Feast of Saints Peter and Paul^ Transfiguration of Jesus Assumption of Mary^ Nativity of Mary Feast of the Cross All Saints' Day^ All Souls' Day Presentation of Mary Feast of Christ the King

Legend ^ = Holy days of obligation (10) Catholicism portal See also: Computus Liturgical colours Solemnity

Older calendars: General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of 1960 General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of Pope Pius XII of 1950 General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of 1954 T

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