The LEND-LEASE policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense
of the United States", (Pub.L. 77–11, H.R. 1776, 55 Stat. 31,
enacted March 11, 1941) was a program under which the United States
A total of $ 50.1 billion (equivalent to $667 billion today) worth of supplies was shipped, or 17% of the total war expenditures of the U.S. In all, $31.4 billion (equivalent to $418 billion today) went to Britain, $11.3 billion (equivalent to $150 billion today) to the Soviet Union, $3.2 billion (equivalent to $42.6 billion today) to France, $1.6 billion (equivalent to $21.3 billion today) to China, and the remaining $2.6 billion to the other Allies. Reverse Lend-Lease policies comprised services such as rent on air bases that went to the U.S., and totaled $7.8 billion; of this, $6.8 billion came from the British and the Commonwealth . The terms of the agreement provided that the materiel was to be used until returned or destroyed. In practice very little equipment was returned. Supplies that arrived after the termination date were sold to Britain at a large discount for £1.075 billion, using long-term loans from the United States. Canada operated a similar program called Mutual Aid that sent a loan of $1 billion and $3.4 billion in supplies and services to Britain and other Allies.
This program effectively ended the United States' pretense of neutrality and was a decisive step away from non-interventionist policy, which had dominated United States foreign relations since 1931. (See Neutrality Acts of 1930s .)
* 1 Historical background
* 2 Administration
* 3 Scale
* 4 Significance
* 5 Returning goods after the war
* 6 US deliveries to the
* 12 References
* 12.1 Citations * 12.2 Bibliography
* 13 External links
Food aid from America: British pupils wave for the camera as they receive plates of bacon and eggs.
Following the Fall of France in June 1940, the British Commonwealth and Empire were the only forces engaged in war against Germany and Italy , until the Italian invasion of Greece . Britain had been paying for its material in gold under "cash and carry ", as required by the US Neutrality Acts of the 1930s, but by 1941 it had liquidated so many assets that it was running short of cash.
During this same period, the U.S. government began to mobilize for
total war, instituting the first-ever peacetime draft and a fivefold
increase in the defense budget (from $2 billion to $10 billion). In
the meantime, as the British began running short of money, arms, and
other supplies, Prime Minister
In September 1940, during the
Battle of Britain
In December 1940, President Roosevelt proclaimed the U.S. would be
Arsenal of Democracy " and proposed selling munitions to Britain
and Canada. Isolationists were strongly opposed, warning it would
lead to American involvement in what was seen by most Americans as an
essentially European conflict. In time, opinion shifted as increasing
numbers of Americans began to see the advantage of funding the British
war against Germany, while staying out of the hostilities themselves.
Propaganda showing the devastation of British cities during The Blitz
, as well as popular depictions of Germans as savage also rallied
public opinion to the side of the Allies, especially after the Fall of
After a decade of neutrality, Roosevelt knew that the change to Allied support must be gradual, especially since German Americans were the largest ethnicity in America at the time. Originally, the American position was to help the British but not enter the war. In early February 1941, a Gallup poll revealed that 54 percent of Americans were in favor of giving aid to the British without qualifications of Lend-Lease. A further 15 percent were in favor with qualifications such as: "If it doesn't get us into war," or "If the British can give us some security for what we give them." Only 22 percent were unequivocally against the President's proposal. When poll participants were asked their party affiliation, the poll revealed a sharp political divide: 69 percent of Democrats were unequivocally in favor of Lend-Lease, whereas only 38 percent of Republicans favored the bill without qualification. At least one poll spokesperson also noted that, "approximately twice as many Republicans" gave "qualified answers as ... Democrats."
Opposition to the
The vote in the Senate, which took place a month later, revealed a similar partisan divide. 49 Democrats (79 percent) voted "aye" with only 13 Democrats (21 percent) voting "nay." In contrast, 17 Republicans (63 percent) voted "nay" while 10 Senate Republicans (37 percent) sided with the Democrats to pass the bill.
President Roosevelt signed the
This followed the 1940
Destroyers for Bases Agreement , whereby 50 US
Navy destroyers were transferred to the Royal Navy and the Royal
Canadian Navy in exchange for basing rights in the Caribbean.
Churchill also granted the US base rights in
President Roosevelt set up the Office of
The program began to be wound down after VE Day . In April 1945, Congress voted that it should not be used for post conflict purposes, and in August 1945, after Japanese surrender, the program was ended. Prior to his death in April of that year, Roosevelt had announced his intention to end the program from September 1945.
Value of materials supplied by the USA to other allied nations
COUNTRY Value in Millions of Dollars
Republic of China 1,627.0
Even after the United States forces in Europe and the Pacific began
to reach full strength in 1943–1944,
Much of the aid can be better understood when considering the economic distortions caused by the war. Most belligerent powers cut back severely on production of non-essentials, concentrating on producing weapons. This inevitably produced shortages of related products needed by the military or as part of the military-industrial complex. For example, the USSR was highly dependent on rail transportation, but the war practically shut down rail equipment production. Just 446 locomotives were produced during the war, with only 92 of those being built between 1942 and 1945. In total, 92.7% of the wartime production of railroad equipment by the Soviet Union was supplied under Lend-Lease, including 1,911 locomotives and 11,225 railcars which augmented the existing prewar stocks of at least 20,000 locomotives and half a million railcars.
Furthermore, the logistical support of the Soviet military was
provided by hundreds of thousands of U.S.-made trucks. Indeed, by
1945, nearly a third of the truck strength of the
Red Army was
U.S.-built. Trucks such as the
On the whole the following conclusion can be drawn: that without
these Western shipments under
I would like to express my candid opinion about Stalin’s views on
Red Army and the
In a confidential interview with the wartime correspondent Konstantin Simonov, the famous Soviet Marshal G.K. Zhukov is quoted as saying:
Today some say the Allies didn’t really help us… But listen, one cannot deny that the Americans shipped over to us material without which we could not have equipped our armies held in reserve or been able to continue the war.
RETURNING GOODS AFTER THE WAR
Roosevelt, eager to ensure public consent for this controversial plan, explained to the public and the press that his plan was comparable to one neighbor's lending another a garden hose to put out a fire in his home. "What do I do in such a crisis?" the president asked at a press conference. "I don't say... 'Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; you have to pay me $15 for it' …I don't want $15 — I want my garden hose back after the fire is over." To which Senator Robert Taft (R-Ohio), responded: "Lending war equipment is a good deal like lending chewing gum. You don't want it back."
In practice, very little was returned except for a few ships. Since
US DELIVERIES TO THE SOVIET UNION
Shipped goods of the western Allies to the Soviet Union. YEAR Amount (tons) %
1941 360,778 2.1
1942 2,453,097 14
1943 4,794,545 27.4
1944 6,217,622 35.5
1945 3,673,819 21
TOTAL 17,499,861 100
Warsaw 1945: Willys jeep used by Polish First Army as part of US
American deliveries to the
* "pre Lend-lease" 22 June 1941 to 30 September 1941 (paid for in
gold and other minerals)
* first protocol period from 1 October 1941 to 30 June 1942 (signed
7 October 1941), these supplies were to be manufactured and delivered
by the UK with US credit financing.
* second protocol period from 1 July 1942 to 30 June 1943 (signed 6
* third protocol period from 1 July 1943 to 30 June 1944 (signed 19
* fourth protocol period from 1 July 1944, (signed 17 April 1945),
formally ended 12 May 1945 but deliveries continued for the duration
of the war with Japan (which the
Delivery was via the Arctic Convoys , the Persian Corridor , and the Pacific Route .
The Arctic route was the shortest and most direct route for lend-lease aid to the USSR, though it was also the most dangerous as it involved sailing past German-occupied Norway. Some 3,964,000 tons of goods were shipped by the Arctic route; 7% was lost, while 93% arrived safely. This constituted some 23% of the total aid to the USSR during the war.
The Persian Corridor was the longest route, and was not fully operational until mid-1942. Thereafter it saw the passage of 4,160,000 tons of goods, 27% of the total. BM-13N Katyusha on a Lend-Lease Studebaker US6 truck, at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War , Moscow.
The Pacific Route opened in August 1941, but was affected by the start of hostilities between Japan and the US; after December 1941, only Soviet ships could be used, and, as Japan and the USSR observed a strict neutrality towards each other, only non-military goods could be transported. Nevertheless, some 8,244,000 tons of goods went by this route, 50% of the total.
In total, the U.S. deliveries through
Roughly 17.5 million tons of military equipment, vehicles, industrial supplies, and food were shipped from the Western Hemisphere to the USSR, 94% coming from the US. For comparison, a total of 22 million tons landed in Europe to supply American forces from January 1942 to May 1945. It has been estimated that American deliveries to the USSR through the Persian Corridor alone were sufficient, by US Army standards, to maintain sixty combat divisions in the line.
The United States sold to the
BRITISH DELIVERIES TO THE SOVIET UNION
In June 1941, within weeks of the German invasion of the USSR, the
first British aid convoy set off along the dangerous Arctic sea route
By the end of 1941, early shipments of Matilda , Valentine and
Tetrarch tanks represented only 6.5% of total Soviet tank production
but over 25% of medium and heavy tanks produced for the Red Army.
The British tanks first saw action with the 138 Independent Tank
Battalion in the Volga Reservoir on 20 November 1941. Lend-Lease
tanks constituted 30 to 40 percent of heavy and medium tank strength
before Moscow at the beginning of December 1941. British Mk III
\'Valentine\' destroyed in the
Significant numbers of British Churchill , Matilda and Valentine tanks were shipped to the USSR.
Between June 1941 and May 1945, Britain delivered to the USSR:
* 3,000+ Hurricanes * 4,000+ other aircraft * 27 naval vessels * 5,218 tanks (including 1,380 Valentines from Canada) * 5,000+ anti-tank guns * 4,020 ambulances and trucks * 323 machinery trucks * 1,212 Universal Carriers and Loyd Carriers (with another 1,348 from Canada ) * 1,721 motorcycles * £1.15bn worth of aircraft engines * 1,474 radar sets * 4,338 radio sets * 600 naval radar and sonar sets * Hundreds of naval guns * 15 million pairs of boots
In total 4 million tonnes of war material including food and medical
supplies were delivered. The munitions totaled £308m (not including
naval munitions supplied), the food and raw materials totaled £120m
in 1946 index. In accordance with the Anglo-Soviet Military Supplies
Agreement of 27 June 1942, military aid sent from Britain to the
Reverse Lend-lease was the supply of equipment and services to the United States. Nearly $8 billion (equivalent to $124 billion today) worth of war material was provided to U.S. forces by her allies, 90% of this sum coming from the British Empire. Reciprocal contributions included the Austin K2/Y military ambulance, British aviation spark plugs used in B-17 Flying Fortresses , Canadian-made Fairmile launches used in anti-submarine warfare, Mosquito photo-reconnaissance aircraft, and Indian petroleum products. Australia and New Zealand supplied the bulk of foodstuffs to United States forces in the South Pacific. Though diminutive in comparison, Soviet-supplied reverse lend-lease included 300,000 metric tons of chromium and 32,000 metric tons of manganese ore, as well as wood, gold and platinum.
In a November 1943 report to Congress, President Roosevelt said of Allied participation in reverse Lend-lease:
...the expenditures made by the British
Commonwealth of Nations
In 1945–46, the value of Reciprocal Aid from New Zealand exceeded
that of Lend-Lease, though in 1942–43, the value of
The cooperation that was built up with Canada during the war was an amalgam compounded of diverse elements of which the air and land routes to Alaska, the Canol project, and the CRYSTAL and CRIMSON activities were the most costly in point of effort and funds expended.
... The total of defense materials and services that Canada received through lend-lease channels amounted in value to approximately $419,500,000.
... Some idea of the scope of economic collaboration can be had from the fact that from the beginning of 1942 through 1945 Canada, on her part, furnished the United States with $1,000,000,000 to $1,250,000,000 in defense materials and services.
... Although most of the actual construction of joint defense
facilities, except the
... The total amount that Canada agreed to pay under the new arrangement came to about $76,800,000, which was some $13,870,000 less than the United States had spent on the facilities.
CANADIAN AID TO THE ALLIED EFFORT
Main article: Billion Dollar Gift and Mutual Aid
Britain's lend-lease arrangements with its dominions and colonies is
one of the lesser known parts of
World War II
"Mutual Aid" was "the Canadian version of lend-lease," says Muirhead. Canada gave Britain gifts totaling $3.5 billion during the war, plus a zero-interest loan of $1 billion; Britain used the money to buy Canadian food and war supplies. Canada also loaned $1.2 billion on a long-term basis to Britain immediately after the war; these loans were fully repaid in late 2006.
The Gander Air Base (RCAF Station Gander ) located at Gander International Airport built in 1936 in Newfoundland was leased by Britain to Canada for 99 years because of its urgent need for the movement of fighter and bomber aircraft to Britain. The lease became redundant when Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province in 1949.
Main article: Anglo-American loan
Congress had not authorized the gift of supplies delivered after the
cutoff date, so the U.S. charged for them, usually at a 90% discount.
Large quantities of undelivered goods were in Britain or in transit
Tacit repayment of
While repayment of the interest-free loans was required after the end
of the war under the act, in practice the U.S. did not expect to be
repaid by the USSR after the war. The U.S. received $2M in reverse
Arctic convoys of World War II
Arms Export Control Act
Billion Dollar Gift and Mutual Aid , from Canada
Battle of the Atlantic
Constructs such as ibid. , loc. cit. and idem are DISCOURAGED BY WIKIPEDIA\\'S STYLE GUIDE FOR FOOTNOTES, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide ), or an abbreviated title. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
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* ^ Crowley, Leo T. "Lend-Lease" in Walter Yust, ed., 10 Eventful
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* ^ ”17 Billion Budget Drafted; Defense Takes 10 Billions.” The
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* ^ Black 2003 , pp. 603–605
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* ^ Kimball 1969
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