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The lemon, Citrus
Citrus
limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses.[2] The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.

Contents

1 History 2 Varieties 3 Nutritional value and phytochemicals 4 Culinary uses

4.1 Juice 4.2 Peel 4.3 Leaves

5 Other uses

5.1 Industrial 5.2 As a cleaning agent 5.3 Medicinal 5.4 Other

6 Horticulture 7 Production 8 Lemon
Lemon
alternatives 9 Other citrus called 'lemons' 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History See also: Citron
Citron
§ Origin and distribution

Lemon
Lemon
external surface and cross-section

The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam
Assam
(a region in northeast India), northern Burma
Burma
or China.[2] A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron.[3][4] Lemons entered Europe
Europe
near southern Italy
Italy
no later than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome.[2] However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia
Persia
and then to Iraq
Iraq
and Egypt
Egypt
around 700 AD.[2] The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic
Arabic
treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.[2] It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150.[2] The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe
Europe
began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century. The lemon was later introduced to the Americas
Americas
in 1493 when Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds. It was mainly used as an ornamental plant and for medicine.[2] In the 19th century, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida
Florida
and California.[2] In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known.[2][5] The origin of the word "lemon" may be Middle Eastern.[2] The word draws from the Old French limon, then Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, which is a cognate of Sanskrit (nimbū, “lime”).[6] Varieties

Detailed taxonomic illustration by Franz Eugen Köhler.

The 'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, smooth, thin-skinned, and seedless,[7] mostly grown in San Diego County, USA.[8] The 'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon,[9] also known as 'Four Seasons' (Quatre Saisons) because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year. This variety is also available as a plant to domestic customers.[10] There is also a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green and yellow variegated outer skin.[11] The 'Femminello St. Teresa', or 'Sorrento'[12] is native to Italy. This fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The 'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar.[13]

Lemon, raw, without peel

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 121 kJ (29 kcal)

Carbohydrates

9.32 g

Sugars 2.5 g

Dietary fiber 2.8 g

Fat

0.3 g

Protein

1.1 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(3%) 0.04 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(2%) 0.02 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(1%) 0.1 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(4%) 0.19 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(6%) 0.08 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(3%) 11 μg

Choline

(1%) 5.1 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(64%) 53 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(3%) 26 mg

Iron

(5%) 0.6 mg

Magnesium

(2%) 8 mg

Manganese

(1%) 0.03 mg

Phosphorus

(2%) 16 mg

Potassium

(3%) 138 mg

Zinc

(1%) 0.06 mg

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutritional value and phytochemicals Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving (table). Other essential nutrients, however, have insignificant content (table). Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols, terpenes, and tannins.[14] Lemon juice
Lemon juice
contains slightly more citric acid than lime juice (about 47 g/l), nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, and about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice.[15] Culinary uses Lemon
Lemon
juice, rind, and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks. The whole lemon is used to make marmalade, lemon curd and lemon liqueur. Lemon
Lemon
slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon
Lemon
zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings, rice, and other dishes. Juice Lemon juice
Lemon juice
is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, and cocktails. It is used in marinades for fish, where its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts, and meat, where the acid partially hydrolyzes tough collagen fibers, tenderizing the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked. Lemon juice
Lemon juice
is frequently used in the United Kingdom to add to pancakes, especially on Shrove Tuesday. Lemon juice
Lemon juice
is also used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced (enzymatic browning), such as apples, bananas, and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes. Peel In Morocco, lemons are preserved in jars or barrels of salt. The salt penetrates the peel and rind, softening them, and curing them so that they last almost indefinitely. The preserved lemon is used in a wide variety of dishes. Preserved lemons can also be found in Sicilian, Italian, Greek, and French dishes. Leaves The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked meats and seafoods. Other uses Industrial Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation-based processes.[16] As a cleaning agent The juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware. The acid dissolves the tarnish and the abrasives assist the cleaning. As a sanitary kitchen deodorizer the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, and disinfect; when mixed with baking soda, it removes stains from plastic food storage containers.[17] The oil of the lemon's peel also has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax, fingerprints, and grime. Lemon
Lemon
oil and orange oil are also used as a nontoxic insecticide treatment. A halved lemon is used as a finger moistener for those counting large amounts of bills, such as tellers and cashiers. Medicinal Lemon
Lemon
oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon
Lemon
oil aroma does not influence the human immune system,[18] but may contribute to relaxation.[19] Other One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although very low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch.[20] These experiments also work with other fruits and vegetables. Lemon juice
Lemon juice
may be used as a simple invisible ink, developed by heat.[21] Horticulture Lemons need a minimum temperature of around 7 °C (45 °F), so they are not hardy year round in temperate climates, but become hardier as they mature.[22] Citrus
Citrus
require minimal pruning by trimming overcrowded branches, with the tallest branch cut back to encourage bushy growth.[22] Throughout summer, pinching back tips of the most vigorous growth assures more abundant canopy development. As mature plants may produce unwanted, fast-growing shoots called ‘water shoots’, these are removed from the main branches at the bottom or middle of the plant.[22] In cultivation in the UK, the cultivars ‘Meyer’[23] and ‘Variegata’[24] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit
Award of Garden Merit
(confirmed 2017).[25] Production

Lemon
Lemon
production (with limes) (in millions of tonnes)

Country

2014

 India

2.8

 Mexico

2.2

 China

2.1

 Argentina

1.4

 Brazil

1.1

World

16.3

In 2014, world production of lemons (data combined with limes) was 16.3 million tonnes.[26] The top producers were India, Mexico, China, Argentina, and Brazil, collectively accounting for 59% of total production (table).[26] Lemon
Lemon
alternatives Many plants taste or smell similar to lemons.

Certain cultivars of basil Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
(lemongrass) Lemon
Lemon
balm, a mint-like herbaceous perennial in the Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
family Two varieties of scented geranium: Pelargonium crispum (lemon geranium) and Pelargonium x melissinum (lemon balm) Lemon
Lemon
thyme Lemon
Lemon
verbena Limes, another common sour citrus fruit, used similarly to lemons Certain cultivars of mint Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
tree flowers

Other citrus called 'lemons'

Flat lemon, a mandarin hybrid Meyer lemon, a cross between a citron and a mandarin/pomelo hybrid distinct from sour or sweet orange,[27] named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons require more care when shipping and are not widely grown on a commercial basis. Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color. They are slightly more frost-tolerant. Ponderosa lemon, more cold-sensitive than true lemons, the fruit are thick-skinned and very large. Genetic analysis showed it to be a complex hybrid of citron and pomelo.[27] Rough lemon, a citron-mandarin cross, cold-hardy and often used as a citrus rootstock[27] Sweet lemons or sweet limes, a mixed group including the lumia (pear lemon), limetta, and Palestinian sweet lime. Among them is the Jaffa lemon, a pomelo-citron hybrid.[27] Volkamer lemon, like the rough lemon, a citron-mandarin cross[27]

Gallery

Flower

Lemon
Lemon
seedling

Mature lemons

Full-sized tree

Variegated
Variegated
pink lemon

See also

List of lemon dishes and beverages Food portal

References

^ "The Plant List: Citrus
Citrus
limon (L.) Osbeck". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved February 20, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Julia F. Morton (1987). " Lemon
Lemon
in Fruits of Warm Climates". Purdue University. pp. 160–168.  ^ Gulsen, O.; M. L. Roose (2001). "Lemons: Diversity and Relationships with Selected Citrus
Citrus
Genotypes as Measured with Nuclear Genome Markers". Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science. 126: 309–317.  ^ Genetic origin of cultivated citrus determined: Researchers find evidence of origins of orange, lime, lemon, grapefruit, other citrus species", Science Daily, January 26, 2011 (Retrieved February 10, 2017). ^ James Lind (1757). A treatise on the scurvy. Second edition. London: A. Millar.  ^ Douglas Harper. "Online Etymology Dictionary".  ^ Spalding, William A. (1885). The orange: its culture in California. Riverside, California: Press and Horticulturist Steam Print. p. 88. Retrieved March 2, 2012.  ^ Carque, Otto (2006) [1923]. Rational Diet: An Advanced Treatise on the Food Question. Los Angeles, California: Kessinger Publishing. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-4286-4244-7. Retrieved March 2, 2012.  ^ "Complete List of Four Winds Dwarf Citrus
Citrus
Varieties". Fourwindsgrowers.com. Retrieved June 6, 2010.  ^ Buchan, Ursula (January 22, 2005). "Kitchen garden: lemon tree". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved January 24, 2014.  ^ Vaiegated pink at the Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection. ^ "Taste of a thousand lemons". Los Angeles Times. September 8, 2004. Retrieved November 21, 2011.  ^ "New Zealand Citrus". ceventura.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved June 13, 2010.  ^ Rauf A, Uddin G, Ali J (2014). "Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus
Citrus
sinensis, Citrus
Citrus
anrantifolia, and Citrus
Citrus
limonum". Org Med Chem Lett. 4: 5. doi:10.1186/2191-2858-4-5. PMC 4091952 . PMID 25024932. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Penniston KL, Nakada SY, Holmes RP, Assimos DG (2008). "Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon
Lemon
Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice
Juice
Products" (PDF). Journal of Endourology. 22 (3): 567–570. doi:10.1089/end.2007.0304. PMC 2637791 . PMID 18290732.  ^ M. Hofrichter (2010). Industrial Applications. Springer. p. 224. ISBN 978-3-642-11458-8.  ^ "6 ingredients for a green, clean home". Shine. Retrieved April 24, 2008.  ^ Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K.; Graham, J. E.; Malarkey, W. B.; Porter, K; Lemeshow, S; Glaser, R (2008). "Olfactory influences on mood and autonomic, endocrine, and immune function". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 33 (3): 328–39. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.11.015. PMC 2278291 . PMID 18178322.  ^ Cooke, B; Ernst, E (2000). "Aromatherapy: A systematic review" (PDF). British Journal of General Practice. 50 (455): 493–6. PMC 1313734 . PMID 10962794.  ^ " Lemon
Lemon
Power". California
California
Energy Commission. Retrieved December 7, 2014.  ^ Mirsky, Steve (April 20, 2010). "Invisible Ink and More: The Science of Spying in the Revolutionary War". Scientific American. Retrieved October 15, 2016.  ^ a b c "Citrus". Royal Horticultural Society. 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Citrus
Citrus
× limon 'Meyer'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Citrus
Citrus
× limon 'Variegata'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 20. Retrieved 24 January 2018.  ^ a b "Production in 2014; Crops/Regions/World/Production Quantity from pick lists". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2017.  ^ a b c d e Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2016). "Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers". Annals of Botany. 11: 565–583. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw005. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citrus
Citrus
× limon.

Data related to Citrus
Citrus
× limon at Wikispecies

Look up lemon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated
Variegated
pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus
Citrus
halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat
Kumquat
hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus
Citrus
Industry Citrus
Citrus
production Citrus
Citrus
rootstock Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California
California
Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

v t e

Lemon
Lemon
dishes

Avgolemono Fruit curd Galaktoboureko Lemon
Lemon
chicken Lemon
Lemon
delicious pudding Lemon
Lemon
drop Lemon
Lemon
ice box pie Lemon
Lemon
meringue pie Lemon
Lemon
stick Lemon
Lemon
tart Liverpool Tart Preserved lemon Shaker Lemon
Lemon
Pie Sussex pond pudding

v t e

Juice

List of juices

Fruit juice

Apple Coconut Cranberry Cucumber Grape Grapefruit Lemon
Lemon
(Lemonade) Orange Pineapple Pomegranate Raspberry Tomato

Vegetable juice

Carrot Turnip Turmeric V8 (brand) Vegetable

Animal juice

Clam juice

See also

Cold-pressed juice Hemp juice Wheatgrass Juice
Juice
fasting Juicer Juicing Smoothie

Category:Fruit juice Category:Vegetable juice

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q500 APDB: 90372 EoL: 582200 EPPO: CIDLI FoC: 250084128 GBIF: 3190171 GRIN: 10732 IPNI: 60454758-2 ITIS: 28885 NCBI: 2708 Plant List: tro-28101295

Authority control

GND: 4190975-6 BNF: cb12267718q (d

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