The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice , which has both culinary and cleaning uses. The pulp and rind (zest ) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid , which gives a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie .
* 1 History * 2 Varieties * 3 Nutritional value and phytochemicals * 4 Culinary uses
* 5 Other uses
* 5.1 Industrial * 5.2 As a cleaning agent * 5.3 Medicinal * 5.4 Other
* 6 Horticulture
* 7 Production
The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have
first grown in
The first substantial cultivation of lemons in
In 1747, James Lind 's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known.
The origin of the word "lemon" may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon, then Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, which is a cognate of Sanskrit (nimbū, “lime ”).
Detailed taxonomic illustration by Franz Eugen Köhler .
The 'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, smooth, thin-skinned, and seedless,
mostly grown in
San Diego County
The 'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon, also known as 'Four Seasons' (Quatre Saisons) because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year. This variety is also available as a plant to domestic customers. There is also a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon , with a green and yellow variegated outer skin.
The 'Femminello St. Teresa', or 'Sorrento' is native to Italy. This fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello .
The 'Meyer ' is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons require more care when shipping and are not widely grown on a commercial basis. Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color. They are slightly more frost-tolerant than other lemons.
The 'Ponderosa ' is more cold-sensitive than true lemons; the fruit are thick-skinned and very large. It is likely a citron-lemon hybrid.
The 'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar.
Lemon, raw, without peel NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
ENERGY 121 kJ (29 kcal)
CARBOHYDRATES 9.32 g
SUGARS 2.5 g
DIETARY FIBER 2.8 g
FAT 0.3 g
PROTEIN 1.1 g
THIAMINE (B1) (3%) 0.04 mg
RIBOFLAVIN (B2) (2%) 0.02 mg
NIACIN (B3) (1%) 0.1 mg
PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5) (4%) 0.19 mg
VITAMIN B6 (6%) 0.08 mg
FOLATE (B9) (3%) 11 μg
CHOLINE (1%) 5.1 mg
VITAMIN C (64%) 53 mg
CALCIUM (3%) 26 mg
IRON (5%) 0.6 mg
MAGNESIUM (2%) 8 mg
MANGANESE (1%) 0.03 mg
PHOSPHORUS (2%) 16 mg
POTASSIUM (3%) 138 mg
ZINC (1%) 0.06 mg
------------------------- Link to USDA Database entry
* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database
NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICALS
Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C , providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving (table). Other essential nutrients , however, have insignificant content (table).
Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals , including polyphenols , terpenes , and tannins . As with other citrus fruits, they have significant concentrations of citric acid (about 47 g/l in juice).
Lemon juice is also used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced (enzymatic browning ), such as apples, bananas, and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes.
Lemon juice and rind are used to make marmalade , lemon curd and
lemon liqueur .
The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked meats and seafoods.
Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation -based processes.
AS A CLEANING AGENT
The juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon
dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware.
The acid dissolves the tarnish and the abrasives assist the cleaning.
As a sanitary kitchen deodorizer the juice can deodorize, remove
grease, bleach stains, and disinfect; when mixed with baking soda, it
removes stains from plastic food storage containers. The oil of the
lemon's peel also has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and
polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax,
fingerprints, and grime.
A halved lemon is used as a finger moistener for those counting large amounts of bills, such as tellers and cashiers.
One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although very low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch. These experiments also work with other fruits and vegetables.
Lemon juice may be used as a simple invisible ink , developed by heat.
Lemons need a minimum temperature of around 7 °C (45 °F), so they are not hardy year round in temperate climates, but become hardier as they mature. Citrus require minimal pruning by trimming overcrowded branches, with the tallest branch cut back to encourage bushy growth. Throughout summer, pinching back tips of the most vigorous growth assures more abundant canopy development. As mature plants may produce unwanted, fast-growing shoots called ‘water shoots’, these are removed from the main branches at the bottom or middle of the plant.
(in millions of tonnes)
In 2014, world production of lemons (data combined with limes ) was 16.3 million tonnes . The top producers were India, Mexico, China, Argentina, and Brazil, collectively accounting for 59% of total production (table).
Many plants taste or smell similar to lemons.
* Certain cultivars of basil
Lemon balm , a mint-like herbaceous perennial in the Lamiaceae
* Two varieties of scented geranium : Pelargonium crispum (lemon
geranium) and Pelargonium x melissinum (lemon balm)
Mature lemons *
Full-sized tree *
Variegated pink lemon
* List of lemon dishes and beverages * Food portal
* ^ "The Plant List:
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck". Royal Botanic
Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Julia F. Morton (1987). "