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Leiden
Leiden
(/ˈlaɪdən/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlɛi̯də(n)] ( listen); in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden
Leiden
had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten
Voorschoten
and Zoeterwoude
Zoeterwoude
with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands
Netherlands
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk
Katwijk
in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden
Leiden
urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden
Leiden
urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout
Noordwijkerhout
are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden
Leiden
is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres (12 miles) from The Hague
The Hague
to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden
Leiden
has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden
Leiden
is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling, vivid and international atmosphere. Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden
Leiden
University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden
Leiden
University Medical Center. Leiden University
Leiden University
is one of Europe’s top universities, it boasts thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned highly in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden
Leiden
University and Leiden University
Leiden University
of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden
Leiden
with Boerhaave. Leiden
Leiden
is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but also in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, Rembrandt, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen
Jan van Goyen
and Jan van Steen.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Siege of 1420 1.2 16th to 18th centuries 1.3 19th and 20th centuries 1.4 Leiden
Leiden
today

2 Rivers, canals and parks 3 Buildings of interest

3.1 Fortifications 3.2 Churches 3.3 University buildings 3.4 Other buildings

4 Public transport 5 Notable inhabitants 6 International relations

6.1 Twin cities – sister cities

7 Miscellaneous 8 Sports 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Leiden

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1398 5,000 —    

1497 11,000 +0.80%

1514 14,250 +1.53%

1574 12,456 −0.22%

1581 12,144 −0.36%

1622 44,745 +3.23%

1632 44,000 −0.17%

1665 67,000 +1.28%

1732 70,000 +0.07%

1750 38,105 −3.32%

1795 30,955 −0.46%

Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 112–114

Leiden
Leiden
was formed on an artificial hill (today called the Burcht van Leiden) at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine). In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal".[6] Leiden
Leiden
has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum. This particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden
Leiden
was called Matilo.[7]

Windmill museum De Valk

The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill (motte), was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holtland or Holland. Leiden
Leiden
was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland
Ada, Countess of Holland
took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada. Leiden
Leiden
received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. Siege of 1420[edit] In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden
Leiden
in order to conquer the city since Leiden
Leiden
did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave
Burgrave
Filips of Wassenaar
Wassenaar
and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden
Leiden
first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria. The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar
Wassenaar
was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. 16th to 18th centuries[edit]

Relief of Leiden
Leiden
(1574), painting by Otto van Veen. Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.

17th-century houses along the Herengracht

Townhall and bridge (de Koornbrug)

The 1852 Sijthoff printing office, Leiden

Leiden's west gate, the Morspoort

Leiden's east gate, the Zijlpoort

The Singel
Singel
at night, showing the chimney of the Light Factory

Leiden
Leiden
flourished in the 16th and 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden
Leiden
baize and Leiden
Leiden
camlet were familiar terms.[citation needed] In the same period, Leiden
Leiden
developed an important printing and publishing industry. The influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir (1547–1617), who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted (in a variant spelling) by contemporary publisher Elsevier.[citation needed] In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden
Leiden
was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden
University of Leiden
was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.[8] Leiden
Leiden
is also known as the place where the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam)[9][10] lived (and operated a printing press)[11] for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in the New World.[12] In the 17th century, Leiden
Leiden
prospered, in part because of the impetus to the textile industry by refugees from Flanders. While the city had lost about a third of its 15,000 citizens during the siege of 1574, it quickly recovered to 45,000 inhabitants in 1622, and may have come near to 70,000 circa 1670. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden
Leiden
was the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam.[citation needed] Particularly due to the work by Herman Boerhaave
Herman Boerhaave
(1668–1738), it played a crucial role in the establishment of modern chemistry and medicine. From the late 17th century onwards Leiden
Leiden
slumped, mainly due to the decline of the cloth industries. In the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up, although industry remained central to Leiden
Leiden
economy. This decline is painted vividly by the fall in population. The population of Leiden
Leiden
had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044.[citation needed] From the 17th to the early 19th century, Leiden
Leiden
was the publishing place of one of the most important contemporary journals, Nouvelles Extraordinaires de Divers Endroits, known also as Gazette de Leyde.[citation needed] 19th and 20th centuries[edit] On 12 January 1807, a catastrophe struck the city when a boat loaded with 17,400 kilograms (38,360 pounds) of gunpowder blew up in the middle of Leiden. 151 persons were killed, over 2,000 were injured and some 220 homes were destroyed. King Louis Bonaparte
Louis Bonaparte
personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Although located in the centre of the city, the area destroyed remained empty for many years. In 1886 the space was turned into a public park, the Van der Werff park.[citation needed] In 1842, the railroad from Leiden
Leiden
to Haarlem
Haarlem
was inaugurated and one year later the railway to Den Haag
Den Haag
was completed, resulting in some social and economic improvement. Perhaps the most important piece of Dutch history contributed by Leiden
Leiden
was the Constitution of the Netherlands. Johan Rudolf Thorbecke
Johan Rudolf Thorbecke
(1798–1872) wrote the Dutch Constitution in April 1848 in his house at Garenmarkt 9 in Leiden. Leiden's reputation as the "city of books" continued through the 19th century with the establishment of publishing dynasties by Evert Jan Brill and Albertus Willem Sijthoff.[13] Sijthoff, who rose to prominence in the trade of translated books, wrote a letter in 1899 to Queen Wilhelmina regarding his opposition to becoming a signatory to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. He felt that international copyright restrictions would stifle the Dutch publishing industry.[14]

Leiden
Leiden
grew 12-fold in size between 1896 and 1981, annexing land from neighboring municipalities

Leiden
Leiden
began to expand beyond its 17th-century moats around 1896 and the number of citizens surpassed 50,000 in 1900. After 1920, new industries were established in the city, such as the canning and metal industries. During World War II, Leiden
Leiden
was hit hard by Allied bombardments. The areas surrounding the railway station and Marewijk were almost completely destroyed. Leiden
Leiden
today[edit] The city's biggest and most popular annual festival is celebrated at 3 October and is called simply 3 Oktober. The people of Leiden
Leiden
celebrate the end of the Spanish siege of 1574.[15] It typically takes place over the course of two to three days (usually two but three if there's a Sunday involved) and includes parades, a hutspot feast, historical reenactments, a funfair and other events. The city has recently started to host the Leiden
Leiden
International Film Festival, the fastest growing festival of its type in the Netherlands.[16] Leiden
Leiden
has important functions as a shopping and trade centre for communities around the city. The University of Leiden
University of Leiden
is famous for its many discoveries including Snells law (by Willebrord Snellius), the famous Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, invented in Leiden
Leiden
by Pieter van Musschenbroek
Pieter van Musschenbroek
in 1746. Another development was in cryogenics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
(1913 Nobel prize
Nobel prize
winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908) and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above the absolute minimum. Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
also spent some time at Leiden
Leiden
University during his early to middle career. The city also houses the Eurotransplant, the international organization responsible for the mediation and allocation of organ donation procedures in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Slovenia. Leiden
Leiden
also houses the headquarters of Airbus, a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide. The group includes Airbus, the leading manufacturer of commercial aircraft worldwide. Rivers, canals and parks[edit] The two branches of the Oude Rijn, which enter Leiden
Leiden
on the east, unite in the centre of the city. The city is further intersected by numerous small canals with tree-bordered quays. On the west side of the city, the Hortus Botanicus and other gardens extend along the old Singel, or outer canal. The Leidse Hout
Leidse Hout
park, which contains a small deer park, lies on the northwest border with Oegstgeest. The Van der Werf Park is named after the mayor Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff (nl), who defended the city against the Spaniards in 1574. The city was beleaguered for months and many died from famine. The open space for the park was formed by the accidental explosion of a ship loaded with gunpowder in 1807, which destroyed hundreds of houses, including that of the Elsevier
Elsevier
family of printers. Buildings of interest[edit] Because of the economic decline from the end of the 17th until the middle of the 19th century, much of the 16th- and 17th-century city centre is still intact. It is the second largest 17th-century town centre in the Netherlands, the largest being Amsterdam's city centre. A hundred buildings in the centre are decorated with large murals of poetry, part of a wall poem project active from 1992, and still ongoing.[17][18]

Shakespeare on a Leiden
Leiden
wall

Langston Hughes on a Leiden
Leiden
wall

e.e. cummings

Waring Cuney

Fortifications[edit]

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At the strategically important junction of the two arms of the Oude Rijn stands the old castle de Burcht, a circular tower built on an earthen mound. The mound probably was a refuge against high water before a small wooden fortress was built on top of it in the 11th century. The citadel is a so-called motte-and-bailey castle.[19] Of Leiden's old city gates only two are left, the Zijlpoort and the Morspoort, both dating from the end of the 17th century. Apart from one small watch tower on the Singel
Singel
nothing is left of the town's city walls. Another former fortification is the Gravensteen. Built as a fortress in the 13th century it has since served as house, library and prison. Presently it is one of the University's buildings. Churches[edit]

Hooglandse Kerk, Leiden

Church (de Sint Lodewijkskerk)

The chief of Leiden's numerous churches are the Hooglandse Kerk
Hooglandse Kerk
(or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and containing a monument to Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff) and the Pieterskerk (church of St Peter
St Peter
(1315)) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave
Boerhaave
and other famous scholars. From a historical perspective the Marekerk
Marekerk
is interesting too. Arent van 's Gravesande designed that church in 1639. Other fine examples of his work in Leiden
Leiden
are in the Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal (the municipal museum of fine arts), and the Bibliotheca Thysiana. The growing city needed another church and the Marekerk
Marekerk
was the first Protestant church to be built in Leiden
Leiden
(and in Holland) after the Reformation. It is an example of Dutch Classicism. In the drawings by Van 's Gravesande the pulpit is the centrepiece of the church. The pulpit is modelled after the one in the Nieuwe Kerk at Haarlem
Haarlem
(designed by Jacob van Campen). The building was first used in 1650, and is still in use. The Heilige Lodewijkkerk
Heilige Lodewijkkerk
is first catholic church in Leiden
Leiden
that was built after the Reformation. This church was given to the Catholics after the gunpowder explosion in 1807, which killed 150 inhabitants and destroyed a large part of the city centre.[20][21] The 'Waalse Kerk' (Breestraat 63) was originally part of the Katharina Hospital. In 1584 it became the church of Protestant refugees from the Southern Netherlands
Netherlands
(Brugge) and France. Later churches in the centre include the St. Joseph in expressionistic style. University buildings[edit]

The 1860 Leiden
Leiden
Observatory, after restoration (2013)

The city centre contains many buildings that are in use by the University of Leiden. The Academy Building is housed in a former 16th-century convent. Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the museum of antiquities (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden); and the ethnographical museum, of which P. F. von Siebold's Japanese collection was the nucleus (Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde). This collection is now housed in a separate museum called the SieboldHuis. The Bibliotheca Thysiana occupies an old Renaissance
Renaissance
building of the year 1655. It is especially rich in legal works and vernacular chronicles. Noteworthy are also the many special collections at Leiden University
Leiden University
Library among which those of the Society of Dutch Literature
Society of Dutch Literature
(1766) and the collection of casts and engravings. In recent years the university has built the Leiden
Leiden
Bio Science Park at the city's outskirts to accommodate the Science departments.[citation needed]

De Waag (1900)

Other buildings[edit]

Stadhuis (City Hall), a 16th-century building that was badly damaged by a fire in 1929 but has its Renaissance
Renaissance
façade designed by Lieven de Key still standing Gemeenlandshuis van Rijnland
Gemeenlandshuis van Rijnland
(1596, restored in 1878) De Waag (weigh house in Dutch), built by Pieter Post Gravensteen – a former 15th century jail at the Gerecht square (former court-house) Stedelijk Gymnasium (aka Latijnse School) – the old gymnasium (1599) Stadstimmerwerf – the city carpenter's yard and wharf (1612), both built by Lieven de Key
Lieven de Key
(c. 1560–1627) Heilige Geest Weeshuis (a former Holy Spirit Orphanage) – a complex of 16th century buildings. Molen de Valk – a corn-grinding windmill, now home to a museum (1743) Pesthuis, which was built during 1657–1661 at that time just outside the city for curing patients suffering the bubonic plague. However, after it was built the feared disease did not occur in the Netherlands anymore so it was never used for its original purpose. The building has been used as a military hospital, prison, national asylum and army museum. It now serves as the entrance of Naturalis, one of the largest natural history museums in the world.[22]

Public transport[edit]

Leiden, central railway station

Topographic map image of Leiden
Leiden
(city), Sept. 2014

Bus transport in Leiden
Leiden
is provided by Arriva.[23] Railway stations within the municipality of Leiden
Leiden
are:

Leiden
Leiden
Centraal Leiden
Leiden
Lammenschans De Vink

Leiden
Leiden
is on the planned route of the RijnGouweLijn, the Netherlands' first Light rail
Light rail
project. This project has, however been shelved for the foreseeable time. Notable inhabitants[edit]

See also People from Leiden

The following is a selection of important Leidenaren throughout history:

William II, 1228–1256, count of Holland, later also king of Germany. Peter Blomevenna, 1466-1546, Carthusian author. Cornelius Engelbrechtszoon, 1468–1533, painter. Lucas van Leyden, 1494–1533, engraver and painter. John of Leiden, 1509–1536, leader of the Anabaptist
Anabaptist
Münster Rebellion. Charles de L'Écluse, 1526–1609, botanist, director of Leiden's Hortus Botanicus, where his cultivation of tulips led to the Dutch tulip industry. Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff (nl), 1529–1604, mayor of Leiden
Leiden
during the Spanish Siege. Ludolph van Ceulen, 1540–1610, mathematician, computed Pi. William Brewster, 1567–1644, pilgrim. Willebrord Snell, 1580–1626, astronomer and mathematician. William Bradford, 1590–1657, pilgrim, leader of the American Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. Jan van Goyen, 1596–1656, painter. Rembrandt
Rembrandt
van Rijn, 1606–1669, painter. Love Brewster, 1611–1650/1, pilgrim. Frans Post, 1612–1680, painter. Gerard Dou, 1613–1675, painter. Pieter de Ring, ca 1615–1660, painter. Jan Steen, 1626–1679, painter. Hendrick van der Burgh, 1627–after 1664, painter. Gabriel Metsu, 1629–1667, painter. Herman Boerhaave, 1668–1738, humanist and physician. Johann Bachstrom, 1688–1742, writer, scientist and Lutheran theologian. Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, 1697–1770, anatomist. Gottfried van Swieten, 1733–1803, diplomat, friendship and collaboration with several great composers. Philipp Franz Bathasar von Siebold, 1796–1866, physician, collector, 'Japanologist'. Johannes Diderik van der Waals, 1837–1923, physicist. Jan Elias Kikkert, 1843–1925, watercolorist. Hendrik Lorentz, 1853–1928, physicist. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, 1853–1926, physicist. Willem Einthoven, 1860–1927, physician, physiologist. Pieter Zeeman, 1865–1943, physicist. Willem de Sitter, 1872–1934, mathematician, physicist, astronomer. Albert Einstein, 1879–1955, lecturer/researcher at Leiden University, various dates between 1916 and 1930. Paul Ehrenfest, 1880–1933, physicist. Theo van Doesburg, 1883–1931, painter, architect, writer. Jan Hendrik Oort, 1900–1992, astronomer. Marinus van der Lubbe, 1909–1934, accused of setting fire to the Reichstag in Berlin. Hendrik Casimir, 1909–2000, physicist. Nina Foch, 1924–2008, actress/ acting teacher. Jouke de Vries, 1960, professor at Leiden University
Leiden University
and runner-up candidate for the PVDA elections in 2002 (lost to Wouter Bos). Armin van Buuren, 1976, producer/DJ, DJ Magazine's # 1 DJ 2007–2010 & 2012. Carice van Houten, 1976, singer and film/television actress Dyro, 1992, producer/DJ, DJ Magazine's #30 DJ 2013, #27 DJ 2014 & 2015 and #93 DJ 2016. Buurtpoes Bledder, 2011–2013, Cat covered by national media for his exploits around the city.[24]

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin cities and sister cities in the Netherlands Twin cities – sister cities[edit] Leiden
Leiden
is twinned with:

Juigalpa, Nicaragua Krefeld, Germany Oxford, United Kingdom[25] Toruń, Poland[26] Buffalo City, South Africa Nagasaki, Japan

Miscellaneous[edit]

Eastern gate 'Zijlpoort' at the Singel

The coat of arms of Leiden
Leiden
is two red keys, crossed in an X-shape on a white background. These keys are those to the gates of heaven held by St.Peter, for whom a large church in the city centre is named. Because of this coat of arms, Leiden
Leiden
is referred to as the "Sleutelstad" ("the key city").[27] For a time Leiden
Leiden
held the title "The Coldest Place on Earth" because of the developments in cryogenics in a laboratory there. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913 Nobel prize
Nobel prize
winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908), and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above Absolute zero. The Norwegian cheese "nøkkelost" ("key cheese") is named after the keys in coat of arms of Leyden, as it is a variation of Leyden cheese. The following places and things are named after this city:

Leyden, New York, USA Leyden, Massachusetts, USA[28] Leyden High School District 212 in Franklin Park, Illinois, USA. Leiden
Leiden
scale, for measuring extreme low temperatures. Factor V Leiden is named after the city of Leiden
Leiden
where it was discovered in 1994. The Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, was invented here by Pieter van Musschenbroek
Pieter van Musschenbroek
in 1746. It was actually first invented by Ewald Georg von Kleist
Ewald Georg von Kleist
the year before, but the name "Leyden jar" stuck.

Leiden's Stadhuis (Town Hall) has a poem in the form of a cryptogram on its façade that records the date 1574 in Roman numerals, the year of the "Black Famine" or Spanish siege (W equals two Vs):

The poem on Leiden's Stadhuis

Nae zWarte HVnger-noot GebraCht had tot de doot bInaest zes-dVIzent MensChen;

aLst god den heer Verdroot gaf hI Vns Weder broot zo VeeL WI CVnsten WensChen.

(Dutch: "When the Black Famine had brought to the death nearly six thousand persons, then God the Lord repented, and gave bread again as much as we could wish".)[29] Sports[edit]

Zorg en Zekerheid Leiden
Zorg en Zekerheid Leiden
is the basketball club of Leiden. In 2011 and 2013 they won the National Title, in 2010 and 2012 the National Cup and in 2011 and 2012 the National Super Cup. The club also played in the FIBA EuroChallenge
FIBA EuroChallenge
and reached the Second Round (Best 16) in 2011/2012.

See also[edit]

Geography
Geography
portal Netherlands
Netherlands
portal

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Leiden.

Leiden Classical A distributed computing project Oudt Leyden, former Michelin starred restaurant Wireless Leiden

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ "College van burgemeester en wethouders" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch). Gemeente Leiden. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ "Postcodetool for 2312AT". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary".  ^ Jona Lendering. "Towns in Germania Inferior: Lugdunum (Brittenburg)". Livius.org. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ John E. Sandrock. "Siege Notes - Windows To The Past" (PDF). thecurrencycollector.com. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ "The New York Genealogical and Biographical Society – Access Denied". Newyorkfamilyhistory.org. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ [1] Archived 2 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Pilgrim Press". Pilgrimhall.org. 18 May 2005. Archived from the original on 3 May 1999. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ "The Dutch Door to America". Americanheritage.com. April 1999. Retrieved 28 November 2011.  ^ "History: Leiden, city of books". Burgersdijk & Niermans. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ "The Netherlands
Netherlands
and the Berne Convention". The Publishers' circular and booksellers' record of British and foreign literature, Vol. 71. Sampson Low, Marston & Co. 1899. p. 597. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ Film & Television Coll Europe. Routledge. 2012. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-135-10295-1.  ^ Dawson, Nick (28 September 2013). " Leiden
Leiden
International Film Festival Announces New US Indie Competition". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 8 October 2013.  ^ Fihn, Stephan (2005), "Poetry on the Wall", in Garg, Anu, Another Word A Day: An All-new Romp Through Some Of The Most Unusual And Intriguing Words In English, John Wiley & Sons, p. 59, ISBN 978-0-471-71845-1  ^ Khouw, Ida Indawati (15 July 2001), "Leiden, the Dutch city of poems", Jakarta Post, archived from the original on 25 April 2013  ^ "10 Best Spots in Leiden". visitleiden.nl. 18 March 2016.  ^ "404". lodewijkparochie.nl. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ Hein van Woerden (eindred.): Lodewijk in Leiden. Geschiedenis van kerk en orgel. Leiden, Parochie van de Heilige Lodewijk, 2005. ^ Gallery, Saatchi. " Naturalis
Naturalis
– National Museum of Natural History :: The Saatchi Gallery". www.saatchigallery.com. Retrieved 22 March 2016.  ^ Busways (5 July 2013). "English – Arriva". Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.  ^ "Dood van Bledder dompelt Leiden
Leiden
in rouw". De Telegraaf. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013. ^ "Oxford's International Twin Towns". Oxford
Oxford
City Council. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń
Toruń
Council] (in Polish). Retrieved 22 August 2013.  ^ " Leiden
Leiden
Information". Orientation Week. Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 186.  ^ Handbook to Holland (7th edition). Ward Lock. 1925. p. 92. 

[1] Sources[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Leiden

Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leiden.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Leiden.

Official website Scenic video ' Leiden
Leiden
Sleutelstad' ('Leiden, city of keys') (time lapse)

Places adjacent to Leiden

Katwijk Oegstgeest, Teylingen

Wassenaar

Leiden

Zijl, Oude Rijn / Leiderdorp

Voorschoten Leidschendam-Voorburg Zoeterwoude

v t e

Municipalities of South Holland

Alblasserdam Albrandswaard Alphen aan den Rijn Barendrecht Binnenmaas Bodegraven-Reeuwijk Brielle Capelle aan den IJssel Cromstrijen Delft Dordrecht Giessenlanden Goeree-Overflakkee Gorinchem Gouda Hardinxveld-Giessendam Hellevoetsluis Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Hillegom Kaag en Braassem Katwijk Korendijk Krimpen aan den IJssel Krimpenerwaard Lansingerland Leerdam Leiden Leiderdorp Leidschendam-Voorburg Lisse Maassluis Midden-Delfland Molenwaard Nieuwkoop Nissewaard Noordwijk Noordwijkerhout Oegstgeest Oud-Beijerland Papendrecht Pijnacker-Nootdorp Ridderkerk Rijswijk Rotterdam Schiedam Sliedrecht Strijen Teylingen The Hague Vlaardingen Voorschoten Waddinxveen Wassenaar Westland Westvoorne Zederik Zoetermeer Zoeterwoude Zuidplas Zwijndrecht

See also Netherlands Provinces Municipalities

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143615766 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 3310 GND: 4074118-7 BNF: cb11945024w (data)

^ "Hendrick van der Burgh"..

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