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Coordinates: 52°38′N 1°8′W / 52.633°N 1.133°W / 52.633; -1.133

Leicester

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto(s): "Semper Eadem" Constant / Always the Same / "'the Eternal Urbs'"

Location within Leicestershire
Leicestershire
and England

Leicester

Location of Leicester
Leicester
in the United Kingdom Show map of England
England
Midlands

Leicester

Leicester
Leicester
(the United Kingdom) Show map of the United Kingdom

Leicester

Leicester
Leicester
(Europe) Show map of Europe

Coordinates: 52°38′N 1°08′W / 52.633°N 1.133°W / 52.633; -1.133

Sovereign state United Kingdom

Constituent country England

Region East Midlands

Ceremonial county Leicestershire

Founded AD c.47 as Ratae Corieltauvorum, by the Romans

City status Restored 1919

Government

 • Type Unitary authority

 • Body Leicester
Leicester
City Council

 • Lord Mayor Ted Cassidy[2]

 • City Mayor Peter Soulsby

 • Leadership Elected mayor and cabinet

 • Admin HQ City Hall 115 Charles St Leicester LE1 1FZ

 • MPs

Jon Ashworth
Jon Ashworth
(Lab) Liz Kendall
Liz Kendall
(Lab) Keith Vaz
Keith Vaz
(Lab)

Area: ⎋City 4.9 km ⎋Urban 8.5 km ⎋Metro 9.6 mi

 • City 28.3 sq mi (73.3 km2)

 • Urban 87 sq mi (225 km2)

 • Metro 290 sq mi (750 km2)

Elevation 205 ft (62.5 m)

Population

 • City 329,839[1]

 • Density 12,000/sq mi (4,500/km2)

 • Urban 508,916[3]

 • Urban density 5,900/sq mi (2,260/km2)

 • Metro 836,484[4]

 • Metro density 3,070/sq mi (1,185/km2)

Ethnicity (2011)[5]

 • City

50.6% White British 37.1% Asian 6.3% Black 3.5% Mixed Race 2.6% other

Time zone GMT (UTC)

 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)

Postcode LE1–LE9, LE19

Dialling code 0116

Geocode SK584044 (Grid ref.)

ISO 3166 code GB-LCE

Statistical areas UKF21 (NUTS 3) 00FN (ONS) E06000016 (GSS)

Distance to London 102.8 mi (165.4 km)

Police Leicestershire
Leicestershire
Police

Website www.leicester.gov.uk

Leicester
Leicester
(/ˈlɛstər/ ( listen) LES-tər)[6] is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands
East Midlands
of England, and the county town of Leicestershire. The city lies on the River Soar
River Soar
and close to the eastern end of the National Forest.[7] The 2016 mid year estimate of the population of the City of Leicester unitary authority was 348,300, an increase of approximately 18,500 ( 5.6%) from the 2011 census figure of 329,839, making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands
East Midlands
region. The associated urban area is also the 11th most populous in England
England
and the 13th most populous in the United Kingdom.[8] Leicester
Leicester
is at the intersection of two major railway lines—the north/south Midland Main Line
Midland Main Line
and the east/west Birmingham
Birmingham
to London Stansted CrossCountry
CrossCountry
line; as well as the confluence of the M1/M69 motorways and the A6/A46 trunk routes. Leicester
Leicester
is the home to football club Leicester
Leicester
City and rugby club, Leicester
Leicester
Tigers.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Roman 2.3 Medieval 2.4 Modern

2.4.1 Tudor 2.4.2 Stuart 2.4.3 Civil War 2.4.4 Industrial era 2.4.5 Early 20th century

2.5 Contemporary

2.5.1 Urban expansion; central rapprochement 2.5.2 Immigration

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Government

4.1 Political control 4.2 Coat of arms

5 Demography

5.1 Demographic comparatives 5.2 Languages 5.3 Population change

6 Economy

6.1 Engineering 6.2 Shopping 6.3 Food and drink

7 Landmarks 8 Panoramic view; Suburban Leicester
Leicester
WNW viewed from LE1 VII 9 Transport

9.1 Air 9.2 Buses 9.3 National Cycle Network 9.4 Rail

9.4.1 Mainline rail 9.4.2 Great Central Railway

9.5 Road

10 Education

10.1 Schools 10.2 Tertiary

11 Culture

11.1 Museums 11.2 Music 11.3 In popular culture

12 Sport 13 Public services 14 Notable people 15 Local media 16 Twin cities 17 References 18 External links

Name The name of Leicester
Leicester
is recorded in the 9th-century History of the Britons as Cair Lerion (whence Welsh Caerlŷr), and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Ligora-ceastre. In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086, it is recorded as Ledecestre.[9] The first element of the name, Ligora or Legora, is explained as a Brittonic river name, in a suggestion going back to William Somner
William Somner
(1701) an earlier name of the River Soar, cognate with the name of the Loire.[10][11] The second element of the name comes from the Latin castrum which is reflected in both Welsh cair and Anglo-Saxon ceastre. Based on the Welsh name (given as Kaerleir), Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes a king Leir of Britain
Leir of Britain
as an eponymous founder in his Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(12th century).[12] History See also: Timeline of Leicester
Timeline of Leicester
and History of Leicestershire Prehistory Leicester
Leicester
is one of the oldest cities in England, with a history going back at least two millennia.[citation needed] The native Iron Age settlement encountered by the Romans at the site seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC.[13][dead link] Little is known about this settlement or the condition of the River Soar
River Soar
at this time, although roundhouses from this era have been excavated and seem to have clustered along roughly 8 hectares (20 acres) of the east bank of the Soar above its confluence with the Trent. This area of the Soar was split into two channels: a main stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west, with a presumably marshy island between. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel. The later Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for "ramparts" (cf. Gaelic rath & the nearby villages of Ratby
Ratby
and Ratcliffe[14]), suggesting the site was an oppidum. The plural form of the name suggests it was initially composed of several villages.[14] The Celtic tribe holding the area was later recorded as the "Coritanians" but an inscription recovered in 1983 showed this to have been a corruption of the original "Corieltauvians".[15][16] The Corieltauvians are believed to have ruled over roughly the area of the East Midlands. Roman

St Nicholas's Church and the Jewry Wall.

Main article: Ratae Corieltauvorum It is believed that the Romans arrived in the Leicester
Leicester
area around AD 47, during their conquest of southern Britain.[17] The Corieltauvian settlement lay near a bridge on the Fosse Way, a Roman road
Roman road
between the legionary camps at Isca (Exeter) and Lindum (Lincoln). It remains unclear whether the Romans fortified and garrisoned the location, but it slowly developed from around the year 50 onwards as the tribal capital of the Corieltauvians under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. In the 2nd century, it received a forum and bathhouse. In 2013, the discovery of a Roman cemetery found just outside the old city walls and dating back to AD 300 was announced.[17] The remains of the baths of Roman Leicester
Leicester
can be seen at the Jewry Wall; recovered artifacts are displayed at the adjacent museum. Medieval

Leicester
Leicester
Cathedral

Knowledge of the town following the Roman withdrawal from Britain
Roman withdrawal from Britain
is limited. Certainly there is some continuation of occupation of the town, though on a much reduced scale in the 5th and 6th centuries. Its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion[18] of the History of the Britons.[19] Following the Saxon invasion of Britain, Leicester
Leicester
was occupied by the Middle Angles and subsequently administered by the kingdom of Mercia. It was elevated to a bishopric in either 679 or 680; this see survived until the 9th century, when Leicester
Leicester
was captured by Danish Vikings. Their settlement became one of the Five Burghs of the Danelaw, although this position was short-lived. The Saxon bishop, meanwhile, fled to Dorchester-on-Thames
Dorchester-on-Thames
and Leicester did not become a bishopric again until the Church of St Martin became Leicester Cathedral
Leicester Cathedral
in 1927. The settlement was recorded under the name Ligeraceaster in the early 10th century.[20]

Leicester
Leicester
Guildhall, dating from the 14th century

Following the Norman conquest, Leicester
Leicester
was recorded by William's Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Ledecestre. It was noted as a city (civitas) but lost this status in the 11th century owing to power struggles between the Church and the aristocracy[citation needed] and did not become a legal city again until 1919. Geoffrey of Monmouth composed his History of the Kings of Britain around the year 1136, naming a King Leir as an eponymous founder figure.[21] According to Geoffrey's narrative, Cordelia had buried her father beneath the river in a chamber dedicated to Janus
Janus
and his feast day was an annual celebration.[22] During the C14th the earls of Leicester
Leicester
and Lancaster enhanced the prestige of the town. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
and of Leicester founded a hospital for the poor and infirm in the area to the south of the castle now known as The Newarke (the "new work"). Henry's son, the great Henry of Grosmont, 4th Earl of Lancaster and of Leicester, who was made first Duke of Lancaster, enlarged and enhanced his father's foundation, and built the collegiate Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of The Newarke.[23] This church (a little of which survives in the basement of the Hawthorn Building of De Montfort University) was destroyed during the reign of King Edward VI. It became an important pilgrimage site because it housed a thorn said to be from the Crown of Thorns, given to the Duke by the King of France. The church (described by Leland in the C16th as "not large but exceeding fair") also became, effectively, a Lancastrian mausoleum. Duke Henry's daughter Blanche of Lancaster married John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
and their son Henry Bolingbroke became King Henry IV when he deposed King Richard II. The Church of the Annunciation was the burial place of Duke Henry, who had earlier had his father re-interred here. Later it became the burial place of Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster
Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster
(second wife of John of Gaunt) and of Mary de Bohun, first wife of Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) and mother of King Henry V (she did not become queen because she died before Bolingbroke became king). John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
died at Leicester Castle in 1399. When his son became king, the Earldom of Leicester
Earldom of Leicester
and the Duchy of Lancaster became royal titles (and the latter remains so).

The Newarke Gateway or Magazine Gateway.

At the end of the War of the Roses, King Richard III was buried in Leicester's Greyfriars Church. The site of that church is now covered by more modern buildings and a car park. There was a legend his corpse had been cast into the river, while some historians[24] argued his tomb and remains were destroyed during the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII. However, in September 2012, an archaeological investigation of the car park revealed a skeleton[25] which DNA testing
DNA testing
helped verify to be related to two descendants of Richard III's sister.[26] It was concluded that the skeleton was that of Richard III because of the DNA evidence and the shape of the spine. In 2015 Richard III was reburied in pride of place near the high altar in Leicester
Leicester
Cathedral. Main article: Exhumation and reburial of Richard III of England Modern Tudor

Leicester Abbey
Leicester Abbey
ruins, now part of Abbey Park

On 4 November 1530, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
was arrested on charges of treason and taken from York
York
Place. On his way south to face dubious justice at the Tower of London, he fell ill. The group escorting him was concerned enough to stop at Leicester. There, Wolsey's condition quickly worsened. He died on 29 November 1530 and was buried at Leicester
Leicester
Abbey, now Abbey Park. Lady Jane Grey, who claimed the English throne for nine days in June 1553, was born at Bradgate Park
Bradgate Park
near Leicester
Leicester
around 1536.[27] Queen Elizabeth I's intimate and former suitor, Robert Dudley, was given the Earldom of Leicester. Stuart The Corporation of Leicester
Leicester
opposed the efforts of Charles I of England
England
to disafforest the nearby Leicester
Leicester
Forest, believing them to be likely to throw many of its residents into poverty and need of relief. Sir Miles Fleetwood was sent to commission the disafforestation and division of lands being used in common.[28] Riots destroyed enclosures in spring 1627 and 1628, following a pattern of anti-enclosure disturbances found elsewhere including the Western Rising.[29] Petitions challenging the enclosures were presented by the Corporation of Leicester
Leicester
and borough residents to the King and Privy Council. They were unsuccessful so petitioned the House of Lords
House of Lords
in June 1628 who however supported Fleetwood but asked for proceedings made by the Crown against the rioters to be dropped. Compensation made to the legal residents of the forest was reasonably generous by comparison with other forests. The Corporation received 40 acres (16 ha) for relief of the poor.[30] Civil War Leicester
Leicester
was a Roundhead
Roundhead
stronghold during the English Civil War. In 1645, Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
decided to attack the city to draw the New Model Army away from the Royalist
Royalist
headquarters of Oxford. Royalist
Royalist
guns were set up on Raw Dykes
Raw Dykes
and, after an unsatisfactory response to a demand for surrender, the Newarke was stormed and the city was sacked on 30 May. Hundreds of people were killed by Rupert's cavalry and reports of the severity of the sacking were further exaggerated by the Parliamentary press in London.[31] Industrial era

The Leicester
Leicester
Seamstress by James Walter Butler (1990) Leicester, Hotel Street

The construction of the Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
in the 1790s linked Leicester
Leicester
to London and Birmingham. In 1832, the railway arrived in Leicester.[citation needed] in the form of The Leicester
Leicester
and Swannington Railway which provided a supply of coal to the town from nearby collieries.[32] The Midland Counties Railway
Midland Counties Railway
(running from Derby
Derby
to Rugby) linked the town to the national network by 1840. A direct link to London St Pancras Station
St Pancras Station
was established by the Midland Railway in the 1860s. These developments encouraged and accompanied a process of industrialisation which intensified throughout the reign of Queen Victoria. Factories began to appear, particularly along the canal and river, and districts such as Frog Island and Woodgate were the locations of numerous large mills. Between 1861 and 1901, Leicester's population increased from 68,100 to 211,600[citation needed]and the proportion employed in trade, commerce, building, and the city's new factories and workshops rose steadily. Hosiery, textiles, and footwear became the major industrial employers: manufacturers such as N. Corah & Sons and the Cooperative Boot and Shoe Company were opening some of the largest manufacturing premises in Europe. They were joined, in the latter part of the century, by engineering firms such as Kent Street's Taylor & Hubbard (crane makers & founders[clarification needed]), Vulcan Road's William Gimson & Company (steam boilers & founders), and Martin Street's Richards & Company (steel works & founders). The politics of Victorian Leicester
Leicester
were lively and very often bitter. Years of consistent economic growth meant living standards generally increased, but Leicester
Leicester
was a stronghold of Radicalism. Thomas Cooper, the Chartist, kept a shop in Church Gate. There were serious Chartist riots in the town in 1842 and again six years later.[33] The Leicester Secular Society
Leicester Secular Society
was founded in 1851 but secularist speakers such as George Holyoake
George Holyoake
were often denied the use of speaking halls. It was not until 1881 that Leicester Secular Hall
Leicester Secular Hall
was opened. The second half of the 19th century also witnessed the creation of many other institutions, including the town council, the Royal Infirmary, and the Leicester
Leicester
Constabulary. It also benefited from general acceptance (and the Public Health Acts )[citation needed] that municipal organisations had a responsibility to provide for the town's water supply, drainage, and sanitation. In 1853, backed with a guarrantee of dividends by the Corporation the Leicester
Leicester
Waterworks Company built a reservoir at Thornton for the supply of water to the town . This guarrantee was made possible by the Public Health Act 1847 and an amending local Act of Parliament of 1851. In 1866 another amending Act enabled the Corporation to take shares in the company to enable another reservoir at Cropston, completed in 1870. The Corporation was later able to buy the waterworks and build another reservoir at Swithland, completed in the 1890s.[34] Leicester
Leicester
became a county borough in 1889, although it was abolished with the rest in 1974 as part of the Local Government Act. The city regained its unitary status apart from Leicestershire
Leicestershire
in 1997. The borough had been expanding throughout the 19th century, but grew most notably when it annexed Belgrave, Aylestone, North Evington, Knighton, and Stoneygate
Stoneygate
in 1892. Early 20th century

Edwardian Leicester

In 1900, the Great Central Railway
Great Central Railway
provided another link to London, but the rapid population growth of the previous decades had already begun to slow by the time of Queen Victoria's death in 1901. World War I and the subsequent epidemics had further impacts. Nonetheless, Leicester
Leicester
was finally recognised as a legal city once more in 1919 and, in 1927, again became a cathedral city on the consecration of St Martin's Church as the Cathedral. A second major extension to the boundaries following the changes in 1892 took place in 1935, with the annexation of the remainder of Evington, Humberstone, Beaumont Leys, and part of Braunstone. A third major revision of the boundaries took place in 1966, with the net addition to the city of just over 450 acres (182 ha). The boundary has remained unchanged since that time.

Arch Victorious, formerly 'The War Memorial' in Victoria Park

Leicester's diversified economic base and lack of dependence on primary industries meant it was much better placed than many other cities to weather the tariff wars of the 1920s and Great Depression
Great Depression
of the 1930s. The Bureau of Statistics of the newly formed League of Nations identified Leicester
Leicester
in 1936 as the 2nd-richest city in Europe[35] and it became an attractive destination for refugees fleeing persecution and political turmoil in continental Europe. Firms such as Corah and Liberty Shoes used their reputation for producing high-quality products to expand their businesses. These years witnessed the growth in the city of trade unionism and particularly the co-operative movement. The Co-op became an important employer and landowner; when Leicester
Leicester
played host to the Jarrow March
Jarrow March
on its way to London in 1936, the Co-op provided the marchers with a change of boots. In 1938, Leicester
Leicester
was selected as the base for Squadron 1F, the first A.D.C.C (Air Defence Cadet Corp), the predecessor of the Air Training Corps. Contemporary The years after World War II, particularly from the 1960s onwards, brought many social and economic challenges. Urban expansion; central rapprochement

Central Leicester
Leicester
(looking WNW)

Mass housebuilding continued across Leicester
Leicester
for some 30 years after 1945. Existing housing estates such as Braunstone were expanded, while several completely new estates – of both private and council tenure – were built.[citation needed] The last major development of this era was Beaumont Leys
Beaumont Leys
in the north of the city, which was developed in the 1970s as a mix of private and council housing.[citation needed] There was a steady decline in Leicester's traditional manufacturing industries and, in the city centre, working factories and light industrial premises have now been almost entirely replaced. Many former factories, including some on Frog Island and at Donisthorpe Mill, have been badly damaged by fire. Rail and barge were finally eclipsed by automotive transport in the 1960s and 1970s: the Great Central and the Leicester
Leicester
& Swannington both closed and the northward extension of the M1 motorway
M1 motorway
linked Leicester
Leicester
into England's growing motorway network. With the loss of much of the city's industry during the 1970s and 1980s, some of the old industrial jobs were replaced by new jobs in the service sector, particularly in retail. The opening of the Haymarket Shopping Centre
Haymarket Shopping Centre
in 1971 was followed by a number of new shopping centres in the city, including St Martin's Shopping Centre in 1984 and the Shire Shopping Centre in 1992.[36] The Shires was subsequently expanded in September 2008 and rebranded as Highcross.[37] By the 1990s, as well, Leicester's central position and good transport links had established it as a distribution centre; the southwestern area of the city has also attracted new service and manufacturing businesses. Immigration

1972 advertisement in the Uganda Argus newspaper to discourage Ugandan Asians from settling in Leicester

Since World War II
World War II
Leicester
Leicester
has experienced large scale immigration from across the world. Many Polish servicemen were prevented from returning to their homeland after the war by the communist regime [38], and they established a small community in Leicester. Economic migrants from the Irish Republic continued to arrive throughout the post war period. Immigrants from the Indian sub-continent
Indian sub-continent
began to arrive in the 1960s, their numbers boosted by Asians arriving from Kenya and Uganda in the early 1970s.[39][40] In 1972, Idi Amin
Idi Amin
announced that the entire Asian community in Uganda had 90 days to leave the country.[41] Shortly thereafter, the Leicester City Council
Leicester City Council
launched a campaign aimed at dissuading Ugandan Asians from migrating to the city.[42] The adverts did not have their intended effect, instead making more migrants aware of the possibility of settling in Leicester.[43] Nearly a quarter of initial Ugandan refugees (around 5000 to 6000) settled in Leicester, and by the end of the 1970s around another quarter of the initially dispersed refugees had made their way to Leicester.[44] Officially, the adverts were taken out for fear that immigrants to Leicester
Leicester
would place pressure on city services and at least one person who was a city councillor at the time says he believes they were placed for racist reasons.[45] The initial advertisement was widely condemned, and taken as a marker of anti-Asian sentiment throughout Britain as a whole, although the attitudes that resulted in the initial advertisement were changed significantly in subsequent decades,[46] not least because the immigrants included the owners of many of "Uganda's most successful businesses."[47] Forty years later, Leicester's mayor Sir Peter Soulsby
Peter Soulsby
expressed his regret for the behaviour of the council at the time.[45] In the 1990s, a group of Dutch citizens of Somali origin settled in the city. Since the 2004 enlargement of the European Union a significant number of East European
East European
migrants have settled in the city. While some wards in the northeast of the city are more than 70% South Asian, wards in the west and south are all over 70% white. The Commission for Racial Equality
Commission for Racial Equality
(CRE) had estimated that by 2011 Leicester
Leicester
would have approximately a 50% ethnic minority population, making it the first city in Britain not to have an indigenous white British majority.[48] This prediction was based on the growth of the ethnic minority populations between 1991 (Census 1991 28% ethnic minority) and 2001 (Census 2001 – 36% ethnic minority). However Professor Ludi Simpson at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
School of Social Sciences said in September 2007 that the CRE had "made unsubstantiated claims and ignored government statistics" and that Leicester's immigrant and minority communities disperse to other places.[49][50][51] The Leicester
Leicester
Multicultural Advisory Group[52] is a forum, set up in 2001 by the editor of the Leicester
Leicester
Mercury, to co-ordinate community relations with members representing the council, police, schools, community and faith groups, and the media. Geography See also: List of settlements in Leicestershire
Leicestershire
by population See also: Leicester
Leicester
Urban Area

[Full screen]

Map of Leicester
Leicester
showing some of the localities and suburbs

The Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
has defined a Leicester
Leicester
Urban Area (LUA); broadly the immediate Leicester
Leicester
conurbation, although without administrative status. The LUA contains the unitary authority area and several towns, villages and suburbs outside the city's administrative boundaries. Climate

Snow in Spinney Hill Park, 2007

Leicester
Leicester
experiences a maritime climate with mild to warm summers and cool winters, rain spread throughout the year, and low sunshine levels. The nearest official Weather Station was Newtown Linford, about 5 miles (8.0 km) northwest of Leicester
Leicester
city centre and just outside the edge of the urban area. However, observations stopped there in 2003.[citation needed] The current nearest weather station is Market Bosworth, about 10 miles (16 km) west of the city centre.[citation needed] The highest temperature recorded at Newtown Linford was 34.5 °C (94.1 °F) during August 1990,[53] although a temperature of 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) was achieved at Leicester
Leicester
University during August 2003.[54] More typically the highest temperature would reach 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) – the average annual maximum.[55] 11.3 °C (52.3 °F) days of the year should attain a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above.[56] The lowest temperature recorded at Newtown Linford was −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) during January 1963.[57] Typically, 54.9 air frosts will be recorded during the course of the year. Rainfall averages 684.4 mm per year,[58] with 1 mm or more falling on 120.8 days.[59] All averages refer to the period 1971–2000.

Climate data for Newtown Linford, elevation 119 m, 1971–2000, extremes 1960–2003

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.6 (56.5) 17.9 (64.2) 21.7 (71.1) 23.9 (75) 26.5 (79.7) 31.5 (88.7) 32.3 (90.1) 34.5 (94.1) 27.7 (81.9) 23.3 (73.9) 16.2 (61.2) 14.6 (58.3) 34.5 (94.1)

Average high °C (°F) 6.3 (43.3) 6.9 (44.4) 9.7 (49.5) 12.2 (54) 16.0 (60.8) 18.6 (65.5) 21.4 (70.5) 21.1 (70) 17.7 (63.9) 13.5 (56.3) 9.1 (48.4) 7.1 (44.8) 13.3 (55.9)

Average low °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 0.5 (32.9) 2.1 (35.8) 3.3 (37.9) 6.0 (42.8) 8.7 (47.7) 10.8 (51.4) 10.7 (51.3) 8.8 (47.8) 6.0 (42.8) 2.8 (37) 1.3 (34.3) 7.1 (44.8)

Record low °C (°F) −16.1 (3) −11.7 (10.9) −11.1 (12) −6.6 (20.1) −3.3 (26.1) −0.9 (30.4) 2.8 (37) 2.8 (37) 0.0 (32) −6.2 (20.8) −7.4 (18.7) −14.4 (6.1) −16.1 (3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.65 (2.4272) 48.91 (1.9256) 51.86 (2.0417) 43.86 (1.7268) 50.83 (2.0012) 63.07 (2.4831) 46.08 (1.8142) 59.25 (2.3327) 61.50 (2.4213) 60.58 (2.385) 60.34 (2.3756) 68.82 (2.7094) 684.37 (26.9437)

Source: KNMI[60]

Government Leicester
Leicester
is divided into three Parliamentary constituencies, all controlled by the Labour Party : Leicester
Leicester
East, represented by Keith Vaz, Leicester
Leicester
South, represented by Jon Ashworth, and Leicester West represented by Liz Kendall. In April 2011 the then Leicester South MP Sir Peter Soulsby
Peter Soulsby
left the House of Commons to seek election as Mayor of Leicester. On 5 May 2011, Peter Soulsby
Peter Soulsby
became the first directly elected Mayor of Leicester. Before the creation of an elected executive Mayor the post of civic mayor and later Lord Mayor existed. The first mayor of Leicester
Leicester
was a Norman knight, Peter fitz Roger ("Peter, son of Roger") in 1251.[61][62] Following the restoration of city status this title was elevated to "Lord Mayor." In 1987 the first Asian Mayor of Leicester was indirectly elected by the councillors, Councillor Gordhan Parmar.[63] After institution of a directly elected mayor in 2011 the Lord Mayor of Leicester still exists as a ceremonial role under Leicester
Leicester
City Council.[64]

Sir Peter Soulsby, the first and current directly elected mayor of Leicester

On 1 April 1997, Leicester City Council
Leicester City Council
became a unitary authority. Before then, local government was a two-tier system: the city and county councils were responsible for different aspects of local government services: this system is still in place in the rest of Leicestershire. Leicestershire
Leicestershire
County Council retained its headquarters at County Hall in Glenfield, just outside the city boundary but within the urban area. The administrative offices of Leicester City Council
Leicester City Council
are in the centre of the city at 115 Charles Street, having moved from Welford Place. The buildings at Welford Place have been demolished and the site is to be developed into a complex of offices and plazas. Some services (particularly the police and the ambulance service) still cover the whole of the city and county/ies, but for the most part the councils are independent. Leicester
Leicester
is divided into 21 administrative wards: Abbey, Aylestone, Beaumont Leys, Belgrave, Braunstone Park & Rowley Fields, Castle, Evington, Eyres Monsell, Fosse, Humberstone & Hamilton, Knighton, North Evington, Rushey Mead, Saffron, Spinney Hills, Stoneygate, Thurncourt, Troon, Westcotes, Western, and Wycliffe.[65] After a long period of Labour administration (since 1979), the city council from May 2003 was run by a Liberal Democrat/Conservative coalition under Roger Blackmore, which collapsed in November 2004. The minority Labour group ran the city until May 2005, under Ross Willmott, when the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives formed a new coalition, again under the leadership of Roger Blackmore. In the local government elections of 3 May 2007, Leicester's Labour Party once again took control of the council in what can be described as a landslide victory. Gaining 18 new councillors, Labour polled on the day 38 councillors, creating a governing majority of +20. Significantly however, the Green Party gained its first councillors in the Castle Ward, after losing on the drawing of lots in 2003, though one of these subsequently resigned and the seat was lost to Labour in a by-election on 10 September 2009.[66] The Conservative Party saw a decrease in their representation. The Liberal Democrat Party was the major loser, dropping from 25 councillors in 2003 to only 6 in 2007. In the local government elections of 5 May 2011 and those of May 2015, Labour won 52 of the city's 54 seats, with the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats winning one seat each.[67] Political control The current composition of Leicester City Council
Leicester City Council
is as follows:

Party Seats[68]

Labour 52

Conservative 1

Liberal Democrat 1

Coat of arms

Arms of the City of Leicester: Gules, a cinquefoil ermine pierced of the field

The Corporation of Leicester's coat of arms was first granted to the city at the Heraldic Visitation of 1619, and is based on the arms of the first Earl of Leicester, Robert Beaumont. The charge is a cinquefoil ermine, on a red field, and this emblem is used by the city council. After Leicester
Leicester
became a city again in 1919, the city council applied to add to the arms. Permission for this was granted in 1929, when the supporting lions, from the Lancastrian Earls of Leicester, were added. The motto "Semper Eadem" was the motto of Queen Elizabeth I, who granted a royal charter to the city. It means "always the same" but with positive overtones meaning unchanging, reliable or dependable, and united. The crest on top of the arms is a white or silver legless wyvern with red and white wounds showing, on a wreath of red and white. The legless wyvern distinguishes it as a Leicester
Leicester
wyvern as opposed to other wyverns. The supporting lions are wearing coronets in the form of collars, with the white cinquefoil hanging from them.

Demography Main article: Demography of Leicester Demographic comparatives In the 2011 census, the population of the Leicester
Leicester
unitary authority was 329,839, an increase of 11.8% compared to the United Kingdom Census 2001 figure of 279,921. The wider Leicester
Leicester
Urban Area,[69] showed an estimated population of 509,000. The population of the Leicester
Leicester
unitary authority is marginally higher than that of Nottingham, while Nottingham
Nottingham
has a higher urban area population compared to Leicester. Eurostat's Larger Urban Zone listed the population of the Leicester
Leicester
LUZ at 836,484 (2011) just above that of their East Midland neighbour; metropolitan and city region populations tend to be similar. According to the 2011 census Leicester
Leicester
had the largest proportion of people aged 19-and-under in the East Midlands
East Midlands
at 27 per cent. Coventry, to the south west, has a population of 352,900 (2016 est.) compared to Leicester's 348,300 at the same date. Nonetheless, Coventry
Coventry
has an area one third greater than Leicester's, approximately equivalent to a combined ' Leicester
Leicester
+ Oadby
Oadby
and Wigston' with a respective population of 404,100 (2016 est.). The Eurostat
Eurostat
regional yearbook 2015 classifies Leicester
Leicester
as one of country's eleven 'Greater Cities', together with Birmingham
Birmingham
and Nottingham
Nottingham
in the Midlands. Leicester
Leicester
is second only to Bristol
Bristol
as the largest unitary authority city in England
England
(List of English districts by population 2015 estimates), and ninth largest counting both unitary authority cities and cities within metropolitan counties.

Leicester
Leicester
compared[70]

UK Census 2011 Leicester East Midlands England

Total population 329,839 4,533,222 53,012,456

Foreign born 33.6% 9.9% 13.8%

White (2001) 63.9% 93.5% 90.9%

White (2011) 50.6% 89.3% 85.5%

South Asian (2001) 29.9% 4.0% 4.6%

South Asian (2011) 31.8% 5.1% 5.5%

Black (2001) 3.1% 0.9% 2.3%

Black (2011) 6.3% 1.7% 3.4%

Mixed (2001) 2.3% 1.9% 1.3%

Mixed (2011) 3.5% 1.4% 2.2%

East Asian and Other (2001) 0.8% 0.5% 0.9%

East Asian and Other (2011) 5.3% 1.3% 2.2%

Christian 32.4% 58.8% 59.4%

Muslim 18.6% 3.1% 5.0%

No religion 17.4% 15.2% 24.7%

Hindu 15.2% 2.0% 1.5%

OTHERS n% N2% N3%

English as a main language 69.3% 93.3% 90.9%

In terms of ethnic composition, according to the 2011 census, 50.6% of the population was White (45.1% White British, 0.8% White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 4.6% Other White), 37.1% Asian (28.3% Indian, 2.4% Pakistani, 1.1% Bangladeshi, 1.3% Chinese, 4.0% Other Asian), 3.5% of mixed race (1.4% White and Black Caribbean, 0.4% White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 0.7% Other Mixed), 6.3% Black (3.8% African, 1.5% Caribbean, 1.0% Other Black), 1.0% Arab and 1.6% of other ethnic heritage.[71] Christians were the largest religious group in the city in 2011 at 32.4%, with Muslims
Muslims
next (18.6%), followed by Hindus
Hindus
(15.2%), Sikhs (4.4%), Buddhists
Buddhists
(0.4%), and Jews
Jews
(0.1%). In addition, 0.6% belonged to other religions, 22.8% identified with no religion and 5.6% did not respond to the question.[72] The city is home to places of worship or gathering for all the faith groups mentioned and many of their respective sub-denominations. In the case of Judaism, for example, with only 0.1% declaring it as their faith, the city hosts three active synagogues: one Liberal, one Orthodox and one Messianic. Leicester
Leicester
is the second fastest growing city in the country.[73] Languages A demographic profile of Leicester
Leicester
published by the city council in 2008 noted:

Alongside English, around 70 languages and/or dialects spoken in the city. In addition to English and the primary western and central European languages, eight ethnic languages are sometimes heard: Gujarati is the preferred language of 16% of the city's residents, Punjabi 3%, Somali 4% and Urdu 2%. Other smaller language groups include Hindi, Bengali. With continuing migration into the city, new languages and or dialects from Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe are also being spoken in the city. In certain primary schools in Leicester, English may not be the preferred language of 45% of pupils and the proportion of children whose first language is known, or believed to be, other than English, is significantly higher than other cities in the Midlands or the UK as a whole.[74]

Certain European languages such as Polish will undoubtedly feature in current statistics, although their prevalence may reduce subsequently as future generations rapidly assimilate or return to places of origin, given cultural and geographic proximity and changes in the geo-political environment. Leicester
Leicester
is also believed to be the birthplace of the modern standard English language.[75] Population change

Historic and projected Population growth
Population growth
in Leicester
Leicester
since 1901

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961 1971 2001 2011

2016

2021 2026 2031

Population 211,579 227,222 234,143 239,169 261,339 285,181 273,470 284,208 279,921 329,839

348,343

362,500 376,000 390,000

Source: A Vision of Britain through Time[76]

ONS [77]

ONS Projections [78]

As one of the fastest growing cities in the country, the ONS 2014 basis population projections indicate the city will be home to 400,000 inhabitants by around 2035. Economy

Highcross Leicester
Highcross Leicester
shopping centre

Leicester
Leicester
has the largest economy in the East Midlands. A recent study by emda/Experian estimated the GVA to be £15.3 billion.[79] Companies that have their principal offices or significant sites in Leicester
Leicester
and the surrounding area include; Brantano Footwear, Dunelm Mill, Next, Shoe Zone, Everards
Everards
brewing and associated, KPMG, Mazars, Cambridge
Cambridge
& Counties Bank, HSBC
HSBC
& Santander banking, Hastings Insurance, British Gas, British Telecom, Caterpillar
Caterpillar
(Inc.), Topps Tiles and DHL.[80] The city has historically had a strong association with the production of textiles, clothing and shoes. While important companies such as Corah, Liberty Shoes and Equity Shoes have closed, companies such as Next and Boden are still active in the city. Moreover, in recent years the higher transport prices and longer lead-times associated with globalised production in Asia mean some textile manufacturers are locating to the city.[81][82] Engineering Engineering is an important part of the economy of Leicester.[citation needed] Companies include Jones & Shipman (machine tools and control systems), Richards Engineering (foundry equipment), Transmon Engineering (materials handling equipment) and Trelleborg (suspension components for rail, marine, and industrial applications). Local commitment to nurturing British engineers includes apprenticeship schemes with local companies, and academic-industrial connections with the engineering departments at Leicester
Leicester
University, De Montfort University, and nearby Loughborough
Loughborough
University. Leicester
Leicester
was also home to the famous Gents' of Leicester
Gents' of Leicester
clock manufacturers. Shopping Central Leicester
Leicester
has two primary shopping "malls" – Highcross Leicester
Leicester
and the Haymarket Shopping Centre: - The Haymarket Shopping Centre was opened on the site in 1974, and was the first to be built in the City, with parking for up to 500 cars on several levels, two levels of shopping with bus station, and was also the site of the former Haymarket Theatre. - Highcross Leicester
Highcross Leicester
opened in 2008 after work to redevelop "The Shires Centre" was completed at a cost of £350 million (creating 120 stores, 15 restaurants, a cinema, 110,000 m2 of shopping space). St Martin's Square and the Leicester
Leicester
Lanes area has numerous designer and specialist shops; several of the city's Victorian arcades are located in the same neighbourhood. Leicester Market
Leicester Market
is the largest outdoor covered market in Europe selling a wide variety of goods. Central Leicester
Leicester
is the location for several department stores including House of Fraser, John Lewis, Debenhams. The Golden Mile is the name given to a stretch of Belgrave Road renowned for its authentic Indian restaurants, sari shops, and jewellers; the Diwali
Diwali
celebrations in Leicester
Leicester
are focused on this area and are the largest outside the sub-continent[83] Food and drink

Leicester
Leicester
Market

Henry Walker was a successful pork butcher who moved from Mansfield
Mansfield
to Leicester
Leicester
in the 1880s to take over an established business in High Street. The first Walker's crisp production line was in the empty upper storey of Walker's Oxford
Oxford
Street factory in Leicester. In the early days the potatoes were sliced by hand and cooked in an ordinary fish and chip fryer. In 1971 the Walker's crisps business was sold to Standard Brands, an American firm, who sold on the company to Frito-Lay. Walker's crisps makes 10 million bags of crisps per day at two factories in Beaumont Leys, and is the UK's largest grocery brand.[84] The Beaumont Leys
Beaumont Leys
manufacturing plant is world's largest crisp factory.[85] Meanwhile, the sausage and pie business was bought out by Samworth Brothers in 1986. Production outgrew the Cobden Street site and pork pies are now manufactured at a meat processing factory and bakery in Beaumont Leys, coincidentally near to the separately owned crisp factories. Sold under the Walker's name and under UK retailers own brands such as Tesco,[86] over three million hot and cold pies are made each week.[citation needed] Henry Walker's butcher shop at 4–6 Cheapside sold Walker's sausages and pork pies until March 2012 when owner Scottish Fife Fine Foods went bust, although the shop is temporarily open and selling Walker's pies for the Christmas 2012 season.[87] Landmarks

St Martins a-glow

Leicester
Leicester
Cathedral

There are ten Scheduled Monuments in Leicester
Scheduled Monuments in Leicester
and thirteen Grade I listed buildings: some sites, such as Leicester Castle
Leicester Castle
and the Jewry Wall, appear on both lists. 20th-century architecture: Leicester University
Leicester University
Engineering Building (James Stirling
Stirling
& James Gowan : Grd II Listed), Kingstone Department Store, Belgrave Gate (Raymond McGrath : Grd II Listed), National Space Centre
National Space Centre
tower. Older architecture: Parks: Abbey Park, Botanic Gardens, Castle Gardens, Gorse Hill City Farm, Grand Union Canal, Knighton Park, Nelson Mandela Park, River Soar, Victoria Park, Watermead Country Park. Industry: Abbey Pumping Station, National Space Centre, Great Central Railway. Places of worship: Shree Jalaram Prarthana Mandal (Hindu temple),[88] the Stake Centre of the LDS Church's Stake,[citation needed] four Christadelphian
Christadelphian
meeting halls,[89] Jain
Jain
Centre,[90] Leicester Cathedral, Leicester
Leicester
Central Mosque,[91] Masjid Umar[92] (Mosque),[93] Guru Nanak Gurdwara (Sikh), Neve Shalom Synagogue (Progressive Jewish). Historic buildings: Town Hall, Guildhall, Belgrave Hall, Jewry Wall, Secular Hall, Abbey, Castle, St Mary de Castro, The City Rooms, Newarke Magazine Gateway. Shopping: Abbey Lane-grandes surfaces, Beaumont Shopping Centre, Belvoir Street/Market Street, Fosse Shopping Park, Golden Mile, Haymarket Shopping Centre, Highcross, Leicester
Leicester
Lanes, Leicester Market, Oadby, St Martin's Square, Silver Arcade
Silver Arcade
area, Thurmaston Retail Village & Wigston. Sport: King Power Stadium
King Power Stadium
Leicester
Leicester
City FC, Welford Road – Leicester
Leicester
Tigers, Grace Road
Grace Road
Leicestershire
Leicestershire
County Cricket Club, Beaumont Sports Complex - Leicester Lions
Leicester Lions
Speedway, Leicester
Leicester
Sports Arena – Leicester
Leicester
Riders, Saffron Lane sports centre
Saffron Lane sports centre
– Leicester Coritanian Athletics Club

Panoramic view; Suburban Leicester
Leicester
WNW viewed from LE1 VII

Leicester
Leicester
as viewed looking west to north from the top floor of the Attenborough Tower
Attenborough Tower
at the University of Leicester. In the foreground are Welford Road Cemetery and various buildings associated with the University of Leicester, and more distant landmarks visible include the King Power Stadium
King Power Stadium
( Leicester
Leicester
City FC), Welford Road (Leicester Tigers RFC), Leicester
Leicester
Royal Infirmary, /New Walk Centre (since demolished)( Leicester
Leicester
City Council)/

Transport

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Air East Midlands
East Midlands
Airport (EMA), at Castle Donington
Castle Donington
20 miles (32 km) north northwest of the City is the closest international airport and can be reached by car or on frequent bus routes. From here both scheduled and charter operators provide regular passengers services. The airport is also a significant national hub for the mail/freight networks of the major distributors. Alternatively, Birmingham
Birmingham
Airport (BHX),located 38 miles (61 km) west southwest of Central Leicester, is about a 45 to 60 minute drive and can be reached by train, changing at Birmingham
Birmingham
(New Street). London Luton Airport
London Luton Airport
(LTN), about 74 miles (119 km) to the southeast, can be reached in 1 h 30 mins to 1 h 45 mins by road or main line train services. Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
(LHR) is a 102 miles (164 km) 2 - 3 hour journey to the south by motorway, or rail travelling on East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains & LUL/Heathrow Express/Heathrow Connect. Leicester Airport
Leicester Airport
(LRC) is a small airport some 6 miles (10 km) east of Leicester City Centre
Leicester City Centre
and does not currently operate scheduled services. Note: distances from Every Street, Leicester
Leicester
LE1 VI Buses Leicester
Leicester
has two main bus stations: St Margaret's Bus Station
St Margaret's Bus Station
and the new and re-commissioned (May 2016) Haymarket Bus Station. There are three permanent Park and Ride
Park and Ride
sites at Meynells Gorse ( Leicester Forest
Leicester Forest
East), Birstall and Enderby; buses operate every 15 mins from all sites. The park and ride services are branded as quicksilver shuttle and are contracted to Roberts Coaches from the City Council and County Council, buses use a purpose built terminal near St. Nicholas Circle. The main bus operators for Leicester
Leicester
and the surrounding area are Arriva Fox County, Centrebus, First Leicester, Hinckley
Hinckley
Bus (Part of Arriva Midlands), Kinchbus, Leicester
Leicester
Bus, and Stagecoach Midlands. National Cycle Network National Cycle Network
National Cycle Network
Route 6 passes through Leicestershire
Leicestershire
along with other secondary routes. The Leicester Bike Park
Leicester Bike Park
is also in Town Hall Square. 'Cycle Works' Bike Mechanic Training Centre is in Wellington Street Adult Education Centre and former Central Lending Library. Rail Mainline rail

Leicester railway station
Leicester railway station
lies on the eastern side of the city centre on the A6 London Road.

The rail network is of growing importance in Leicester, and with the start of Eurostar
Eurostar
international services from London St Pancras International in November 2007 Leicester railway station
Leicester railway station
has gained connections at St Pancras station to Lille, Brussels and Paris onwards. InterCity services are operated by East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains providing connectivity on 'fast' and 'semi-fast' services to London and the south east, and to major cities and towns in the East Midlands
East Midlands
and Yorkshire in addition to providing local services within the East Midlands region. Trans-regional services to the West Midlands and East Anglia are provided by CrossCountry, enabling connexions at nearby Nuneaton onto the West Coast mainline and at Peterborough
Peterborough
with the East Coast mainline. The 99 miles (159 km) from Leicester Railway Station
Leicester Railway Station
to London St Pancras International on the Midland Main Line, are covered in an average of 1h 25m during the morning peak, with journey times as low as 1h 06m later in the day. Transfers onto London Underground
London Underground
or Thameslink train services to London City or West End add another 15 to 25 minutes to the journey time and to Canary Wharf, double. The journey time to Sheffield
Sheffield
is around one hour, with Leeds and York taking approximately two. Birmingham
Birmingham
is 50 minutes away and Cambridge via Peterborough
Peterborough
can be reached in around 1 hour 55m with further direct services available onto Stansted Airport in north Essex. Great Central Railway Main article: Great Central Railway The decommissioned Leicester Central railway station
Leicester Central railway station
is on the late Victorian Great Central Railway
Great Central Railway
line that ran from London Marylebone northwards. Beeching cuts
Beeching cuts
closed the route in the late 1960s. A preserved section, however, remains operational in the East Midlands centred on Loughborough
Loughborough
Great Central railway station providing touristic services through central Leicestershire, passing Swithland Reservoir on to the Leicester North railway station
Leicester North railway station
terminus. Road Leicester
Leicester
is at the midpoint; Junctions 21, 21A and 22, of the primary English north/south M1 motorway
M1 motorway
between London and Leeds/York. This is where the M1 motorway
M1 motorway
transects with one of the primary northeast/southwest routes; the M69 motorway/A46 corridor linking to the A1 and M6 motorway
M6 motorway
at Newark-on-Trent and Coventry
Coventry
respectively. The M42 motorway
M42 motorway
towards Birmingham
Birmingham
Airport terminates in North West Leicestershire
Leicestershire
some 12 miles (19 km) west northwest of the Leicester
Leicester
urban area. Leicester
Leicester
is at the nexus of the A6/(A14), A50, A47 and A607 trunk roads and A426 and A5199 primary routes. Education Schools Main article: List of schools in Leicester Leicester
Leicester
is home to a number of comprehensive schools and independent schools. Leicester
Leicester
Grammar School, a HMC member school, was founded in the 1980s after the city's loss of its state-funded grammar schools. There are three sixth form colleges, all of which were previously grammar schools. The Leicester
Leicester
City Local Education Authority initially had a troubled history when formed in 1997 as part of the local government reorganisation – a 1999 Ofsted
Ofsted
inspection found "few strengths and many weaknesses", although there has been considerable improvement since then. Recent plans to improve the city's education system included the opening of Samworth Enterprise Academy, an academy whose catchment area draws in children from the Saffron and Eyres Monsell
Eyres Monsell
estates, co-sponsored by the Church of England
England
and David Samworth, chairman of Samworth Brothers. Under the "Building Schools for the Future" project, Leicester
Leicester
City Council has contracted with developers Miller Consortium for £315 million to rebuild Beaumont Leys
Beaumont Leys
School, Judgemeadow Community College, the City of Leicester College
City of Leicester College
in Evington, and Soar Valley College in Rushey Mead, and to refurbish Fullhurst Community College in Braunstone.[94] Leicester City Council
Leicester City Council
underwent a major reorganisation of children's services in 2006, creating a new Children & Young People's Services department. Leicester
Leicester
was one of the last places in the UK where milk was supplied to primary schools in one-third-of-a-pint glass bottles.[citation needed] In 2007 the supplier changed to plastic bottles. Tertiary

The National Space Centre
National Space Centre
in Leicester

University of Leicester
University of Leicester
seen from Victoria Park – Left to right: the Department of Engineering, the Attenborough Tower, the Charles Wilson Building.

Magazine Square, with the Grade I listed Magazine Gateway
Magazine Gateway
and De Montfort University's Hugh Aston building.

Leicester
Leicester
is home to two universities, the University of Leicester, which attained its Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1957 and is one of Britain's leading universities ranked 12th by the 2009 Complete University Guide,[95] and De Montfort University, which opened in 1969 as Leicester Polytechnic
Leicester Polytechnic
and achieved university status in 1992. It is also home to the National Space Centre
National Space Centre
off Abbey Lane, due in part to the University of Leicester
University of Leicester
being one of the few universities in the UK to specialise in space sciences.

Culture

Curve theatre

The city hosts an annual Pride Parade
Pride Parade
( Leicester
Leicester
Pride), a Caribbean Carnival (the largest in the UK outside London), the largest Diwali celebrations outside of India
India
and the largest comedy festival in the UK Leicester
Leicester
Comedy Festival. One of the best known places in the city is Melton Road, near the city centre, which contains many diverse retail stores and restaurants for both locals and tourists. From clothing to fine cuisines, specialist bridal/groom makeup and home appliances, this road promotes and holds many authentic cultures globally. Melton Road is regarded[by whom?] as the pin point of Leicester
Leicester
as a multifaith city. For many residents of Leicester, Melton Road is a place with strong links to their roots and origins. The Leicester
Leicester
International Short Film Festival is an annual event; it commenced in 1996 under the banner title of "Seconds Out". It has become one of the most important short film festivals in the UK and usually runs in early November, with venues including the Phoenix Arts Centre.[96][97][98]

Phoenix Square
Phoenix Square
cinema and media complex

Notable arts venues in the city include:

Curve: New purpose-designed performing arts centre, designed by Rafael Viñoly, opened in Autumn 2008,[99] replacing and upgrading the facilities formerly provided by the Haymarket Theatre. In the Cultural Quarter. The De Montfort Hall The Little Theatre The City Gallery, one of the region's leading contemporary art galleries The Peepul Centre, Designed by Andrzej Blonski Architects, the £15 million building was opened in 2005 and houses an auditorium, restaurant, cyber café, gym and dance studio for the local people, as well as being used for conferences and events. The centre has even been host to former Prime Minister Gordon Brown and other senior Labour Party figures for hustings during the deputy leadership contest. Phoenix Square, which replaced the Phoenix Arts Centre
Phoenix Arts Centre
in 2009.

Museums

Newarke Houses Museum
Newarke Houses Museum
(Grade II*)

New Walk Museum

Abbey Pumping Station

Jewry Wall
Jewry Wall
Museum

Belgrave Hall

Gas Museum (Leicester)

The Guildhall

Music Main article: Music in Leicester In popular culture Leicester
Leicester
is the setting for the fictional diaries of Adrian Mole, created by Sue Townsend. In the early books he lives in a suburb of Leicester
Leicester
and attends a local school where he first meets "the love of his life", Pandora Braithwaite. After a period of years spent working in Oxford
Oxford
and London Mole returns to Leicester
Leicester
and gets a job in a second-hand bookshop and a flat in an "upmarket" development on a swan-infested waterfront which is a barely disguised representation of the area near to St. Nicholas Circle. Vastly in debt he is forced to move to the fictional village of Mangold Parva. The local (fictional) MP for the town of Ashby de la Zouch is none other than his old flame Pandora Braithwaite. Leicester
Leicester
is the setting for Rod Duncan's novels, the Fall of the Gas-Lit Empire series and the Riot trilogy. Leicester
Leicester
and the surrounding county are also settings for several Graham Joyce
Graham Joyce
novels, including Dark Sister, The Limits of Enchantment and Some Kind of Fairy Tale. The Clarendon Park and New Walk areas of the city, along with an unnamed Charnwood village ("vaguely based upon Cossington", according to the author) are some of the settings of the 2014 novel "The Knot of Isis" by Chrid McGordon. Leicester
Leicester
is the setting for the British children book series, The Sleepover Club, by authors Rose Impey, Narinder Dhami, Lorna Read, Fiona Cummings, Louis Catt, Sue Mongredien, Angie Bates, Ginny Deals, Harriet Castor and Jana Novotny Hunter. Notable feature films made in the city are The Girl with Brains in Her Feet 1997, Jadoo 2013 and Yamla Pagla Deewana 2
Yamla Pagla Deewana 2
2013. Sport Main articles: Sport in Leicester
Sport in Leicester
and Leicester
Leicester
City F.C. Leicester Tigers
Leicester Tigers
have been the most successful English rugby union club since the introduction of a league in 1987, winning it a record ten times, four more than either Bath or Wasps. They last won the Premiership title in 2013.[100][101]

King Power Stadium, home of Leicester
Leicester
City F.C.

Leicester City F.C.
Leicester City F.C.
are a professional football club based at the King Power Stadium who play in the Premier League. They were promoted as champions of the Football League Championship
Football League Championship
in the 2013–14 season, a return to the top flight of English football after a decade away, and won the Premier League
Premier League
title in 2016, despite the odds of them winning at the start of the season being 5000/1.[102][103][104] Leicester Riders
Leicester Riders
are the oldest basketball team in the country. In 2016, they moved into the new Charter Street Leicester
Leicester
Community Sports Arena.[105] Leicestershire
Leicestershire
County Cricket Club plays in the second tier of the county championship.[106] Public services In the public sector, University Hospitals Leicester NHS Trust is one of the larger employers in the city, with over 12,000 employees working for the Trust. Leicester
Leicester
City Primary Care Trust employs over 1,000 full and part-time staff providing healthcare services in the city. Leicestershire
Leicestershire
Partnership NHS Trust[107] employs 3,000 staff providing mental health and learning disability services in the city and county. In the private sector are Nuffield Hospital Leicester
Leicester
and the Spire Hospital Leicester. Notable people Main article: List of people from Leicester
Leicester
and Leicestershire Local media There is a new radio station in Leicester
Leicester
called " Leicester
Leicester
Community Radio" to service English speaking over 35's. Leicester
Leicester
has no other non-BBC station for this demographic. It is on a demo license on 87.7mhz which runs lower power and online. This is with support from various local councillors, Leicester
Leicester
City Council, etc. Leicester
Leicester
is home to the Leicester Mercury
Leicester Mercury
newspaper, and the Midlands Asian Television channel known as MATV Channel 6.

Film crew at work during an "anti-Fascist" march in Leicester, August 1974

BBC Radio Leicester
BBC Radio Leicester
was the first BBC Local Radio
BBC Local Radio
station in Britain, opening on 8 November 1967. Other analogue FM radio stations are Leicester
Leicester
Community Radio for English speaking over 35's, Demon FM which is Leicester's community & student radio station broadcasting from Demontfort University, Takeover Radio is the first ever children's radio station in the UK to be produced and presented by children, Capital FM East Midlands
East Midlands
Gem 106, 106.6 Smooth Radio and Hindu Sanskar Radio, which only broadcasts during Hindu religious festivals. BBC Asian Network
BBC Asian Network
and Sabras Radio
Sabras Radio
broadcast on AM. The local DAB multiplex has the following stations:

Capital FM East Midlands BBC Radio Leicester Sabras Radio Highways Agency Traffic Radio XFM Classic Gold GEM Gem 106 Asian Plus – also known as Hindu Sanskar Radio Takeover Radio Smooth Radio

There are two hospital radio stations in Leicester, Radio Fox and Radio Gwendolen. The first children's radio station, Takeover Radio, broadcasts in Leicester. Twin cities See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom Leicester
Leicester
is twinned with six cities.[108]

Strasbourg, France
France
(1960)[109][110] Krefeld, Germany
Germany
(1969) Masaya, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1987)

Chongqing, China
China
(1993) Rajkot, India
India
(1996) Haskovo, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2008)

Since 1973, the fire services of Leicester
Leicester
and twin city Krefeld
Krefeld
have played each other in an annual 'friendly' football match.[111] References

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Coritani
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from Geoffrey; there is now[year needed] a statue of the final scene of Shakespeare's Lear in Watermead Country Park.Paul A. Biggs, Sandra Biggs, Leicestershire
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Leicester City Council
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Leicester
councillor". BBC News. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2013.  ^ Marett, Valerie (1989). Immigrants settling in the city. Leicester: Leicester University
Leicester University
Press. ISBN 978-0718512835.  ^ "Forty years ago today: A tyrant's whim boosted our city's fortunes". Leicester
Leicester
Mercury. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ Equality and Human Rights Commission – home page Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Research (The University of Manchester)". [permanent dead link] ^ Research2 Archived 29 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Research". cre.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.  ^ http://www.media4diversity.eu/en/content/leicester-multicultural-advisory-group[permanent dead link] ^ "August 1990 Maximum". Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ "August 2003 Maximum". Archived from the original on 19 August 2003. Retrieved 23 February 2012.  ^ "1971-00 Average annual maximum". Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ "Max > 25 °C days". Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ "Jan 1963 Minimum". Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ "1971-00 average rainfall". Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ "1971-00 average raindays". Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ "Climate Normals and extremes". KNMI. July 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ Agnes Johnson Glimpses of ancient Leicester
Leicester
– Page 60 1891 "The first Mayor of Leicester, A.D. 1251. ^ The history of the boroughs and municipal corporations of the ... – Page 229 Henry Alworth Merewether, Archibald John Stephens – 1835 "The mayor of Leicester
Leicester
and his brethren, having, with the consent of the commonalty, by the last ordinance, placed the town under the government of the aldermen, appear, in the 4th year of the reign of King Henry VII., to have adopted 1488. a ..." ^ What participation by foreign residents in public life at local ... – Page 91 Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe – 2000 "In 1981 serious riots broke out in the city that were dubbed "race riots" in Highfields and the City centre. ... In 1987 the first Asian Mayor of Leicester
Mayor of Leicester
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Leicester
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Leicester
City Council, July 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2017 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-17.  ^ "Elections and voting".  ^ "LOCAL ELECTIONS 2011: Leicester
Leicester
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United Kingdom
Census 2001 (2001). " Leicester
Leicester
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England
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United Kingdom
Census 2011. Office for National Statistics.  ^ "Our fast-growing city needs backing from Government". Leicester Mercury. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ "The Diversity of Leicester
Leicester
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Leicester
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Mercury. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ "Far Eastern costs boost textile firm". Leicester
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Mercury. 15 September 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ Panesar, Jeevan (13 October 2006); " Diwali
Diwali
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Secondary sources

Biggs, Paul A.; Biggs, Sandra (2002). Leicestershire
Leicestershire
& Rutland Walks with Children. Sigma Leisure.  Dudley, John (1848). "Etymology of the Name of Leicester". The Gentleman's Magazine. Vol. 184.  Gelling; et al., eds. (1970). The names of towns and cities in Britain. B. T. Batsford.  Hoskins, W. G. (1957). Leicestershire: an illustrated essay on the history of the landscape. London: Hodder & Stoughton.  Pascale, Adele (2 November 2005). " Leicester
Leicester
Short Film Festival: CAN 2005". BBC Leicester.  Sharp, Buchanan (1980). In contempt of all authority. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 58–59, 70–1, 88. ISBN 0-520-03681-6.  Stevenson, W. H. (1918). "A note on the derivation of the name 'Leicester'". The Archaeological Journal. Royal Archaeological Institute (London). 75.  Geoffrey of Monmouth (1966). Thorpe, Lewis, ed. The History of the Kings of Britain. Harmondsworth.  Tomlin, R S O (1983). "Roman Leicester, a Corrigendum: For Coritani should we read Corieltauvi?". Transactions of the Leicester Archaeological and Historical Society: 48.  Tomlin, R S O (1983). "Non Coritani
Coritani
sed Corieltauvi". The Antiquaries Journal: 63.  Nennius. Mommsen, Theodor, ed. "Historia Brittonum" (in Latin). VI: 830.  Turner, Barry (2009). The Screenwriter's Handbook 2010. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 218.  Wilford, J. (1812). "History of Leicester". Asiatick Researches. ii. (2).  William, David (13 October 2010). UK Cities: A Look at Life and Major Cities in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. New Africa Press. ISBN 9987160212.  Williamson, David (1998). The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens of England. National Portrait Gallery Publications. 

Newspapers

Turner, Robin (7 March 2013). "So Where's the Main Threat to the Welsh Bid to Be City of Culture?". Western Mail.  Martin, Dan J. (21 May 2015). "Ted Cassidy takes the chains as Leicester's new ceremonial lord mayor". Leicester
Leicester
Mercury.  BBC news Leicester
Leicester
(4 May 2013). "Richard III team makes second Leicester
Leicester
car park find". 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leicester.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Leicester.

" Leicester
Leicester
City Council". 

v t e

Suburbs of Leicester

Wards

Abbey Aylestone Beaumont Leys Belgrave Braunstone Park & Rowley Fields Castle Charnwood Coleman Evington Eyres Monsell Fosse Freemen Humberstone & Hamilton Knighton Latimer New Parks Rushey Mead Spinney Hills Stoneygate Thurncourt Westcotes Western Park

Areas

Abbey Rise Ashton Green Aylestone Beaumont Leys Bede Island Belgrave Blackfriars Braunstone Frith City Centre Clarendon Park Crown Hills Dane Hills Evington Evington
Evington
Valley Eyres Monsell Frog Island Gilmorton Goodwood Hamilton Highfields Horston Hill Humberstone Humberstone Garden Kirby Frith Knighton Montrose Mowmacre Hill Netherhall Newfoundpool New Parks North Evington Northfields Rowlatts Hill Rowley Fields Rushey Mead Saffron Southfields South Knighton Spinney Hills Stocking Farm Stoneygate St. Matthew's St. Mark's St. Peters Thurnby Lodge West End West Knighton Western Park Woodgate

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Unitary authorities

Leicester

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Oadby
and Wigston

Major settlements

Ashby-de-la-Zouch Braunstone Town Castle Donington Coalville Earl Shilton Enderby Hinckley Leicester
Leicester
( Leicester
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Urban Area) Loughborough Lutterworth Market Bosworth Market Harborough Melton Mowbray Oadby Shepshed Syston Wigston
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Magna See also: List of civil parishes in Leicestershire

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 439145857899923020

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