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The Left Opposition
Left Opposition
was a faction within the Bolshevik Party
Bolshevik Party
from 1923 to 1927, headed de facto by Leon Trotsky. The Left Opposition
Left Opposition
formed as part of the power struggle within the party leadership that began with the Soviet founder Vladimir Lenin's illness and intensified with his death in January 1924. Originally, the battle lines were drawn between Trotsky and his supporters who signed The Declaration of 46
The Declaration of 46
in October 1923, on the one hand, and a triumvirate (also known by its Russian name troika) of Comintern
Comintern
chairman Grigory Zinoviev, Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and Politburo
Politburo
chairman Lev Kamenev on the other hand. There was also the Right Opposition, which was led by the leading party theoretician and Pravda
Pravda
editor Nikolai Bukharin, and supported by Sovnarkom
Sovnarkom
Chairman (prime minister) Alexei Rykov. In late 1924, as Stalin proposed his new Socialism in One Country theory, Stalin drew closer to the Right Opposition
Right Opposition
and his triumvirate with Zinoviev and Kamenev slowly broke up over the next year. The Right Opposition
Right Opposition
were allied to Stalin's Centre from late 1924, until their alliance broke up in the years from 1928–1930 over strategy towards the Kulaks and NEPmen. Trotsky and his supporters in the Left Opposition
Left Opposition
were joined by the Group of Democratic Centralism.

Contents

1 History 2 Leading members of the Left Opposition 3 See also 4 References

History[edit] The first confrontation between the Left Opposition
Left Opposition
and the triumvirate occurred from October 1923 to January 1924, over industrialization policies. The triumvirate won decisively at the XIII Party Conference in January 1924. Following Lenin's death in January 1924, the confrontation between the Left Opposition
Left Opposition
and the triumvirate expanded more openly into a dispute over Trotsky's policies, with the triumvirate accusing Trotsky's policies of being "anti-Leninist". At the XIIIth Party Congress in May 1924, the triumvirate's position was further strengthened at the Left Opposition's expense. Another confrontation took place from October to December 1924, during the so-called "Literary Discussion" and criticism of Trotsky's Permanent Revolution
Permanent Revolution
policy, as Stalin proposed Socialism in One Country. This resulted in the removal of Trotsky from his ministerial post on 6 January 1925, although Stalin opposed Zinoviev's demand that Trotsky be expelled from the Communist
Communist
Party. With Trotsky largely marginalized, Zinoviev and Kamenev had a falling out with Stalin at the XIVth Party Conference in April 1925, over Stalin's October 1924 proposal of Socialism in One Country, which Zinoviev and Kamenev now openly opposed. By this time, the Right Opposition leader, Bukharin, had elaborated on Stalin's Socialism in One Country policy, giving it a theoretical justification. This solidified the Right Opposition
Right Opposition
as Stalin's main allies, as the triumvirate of Stalin-Zinoviev-Kamenev from recent years broke up. Soon after the April 1925 Conference, Zinoviev and Kamenev formed the New Opposition, but they were defeated by Stalin, who was again supported by Bukharin and Rykov, at the XIVth Party Congress in December 1925. Soon after their defeat at the Congress, Zinoviev and Kamenev joined forces with Trotsky's Left Opposition
Left Opposition
in early 1926, in what became known as the United Opposition. From July to October 1926, the United Opposition lost out to Stalin, and its leaders were expelled from the ruling Politburo. In October 1927, soon after catastrophic events regarding the Chinese Revolution of 1925-27, which confirmed the United Opposition's critical analysis of the Communist
Communist
Party's support for the nationalist Kuomintang, the last United Opposition members were expelled from the Communist
Communist
Party Central Committee; and in November 1927, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist
Communist
Party itself. In December 1927, the XVth Party Congress declared Left Opposition
Left Opposition
and Trotskyist views to be incompatible with Communist
Communist
Party membership and expelled all leading Left Opposition
Left Opposition
supporters from the Party. After their expulsion by the XVth Congress, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters immediately surrendered to Stalin, "admitted their mistakes" and were readmitted to the Communist
Communist
Party in 1928, although they never regained their former influence and eventually perished in the Great Purge. Trotsky and his supporters, on the other hand, refused to capitulate to Stalin and were exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in early 1928. Trotsky was eventually expelled from the country in February 1929, sent into exile in Turkey. Trotsky's supporters remained in exile, but their resolve began to waver in 1929 as Stalin turned against Bukharin and Rykov and adopted the policy of collectivization, which appeared to be close to the policies that the Left Opposition
Left Opposition
had advocated earlier. The Left Opposition
Left Opposition
attempted to field opposition candidates against the official Communist
Communist
Party candidates in the 1929 elections, but to no avail.[1] Most (but not all) prominent Left Opposition
Left Opposition
members recanted between 1929 and 1934, but they nearly all perished during the Great Purge
Great Purge
of the mid-late 1930s along with the Oppositionists who remained unrepentant. In the meantime, Trotsky founded the International Left Opposition
Left Opposition
in 1930. It was meant to be an opposition group within the Comintern, but members of the Comintern
Comintern
were immediately expelled as soon as they joined (or were suspected of joining) the ILO. The ILO therefore concluded that opposing Stalinism
Stalinism
from within the communist organizations controlled by Stalin's supporters had become impossible, so new organizations had to be formed. In 1933, the ILO was renamed the International Communist
Communist
League (ICL), which formed the basis of the Fourth International, founded in Paris in 1938. Leading members of the Left Opposition[edit]

Members of the Left Opposition
Left Opposition
in 1927

Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
(Lev Davidovich Bronstein) (1879–1940), People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar
People's Commissar
of War during the Russian Civil War, and de facto leader of the Left Opposition. Expelled from the USSR in 1929, he went on to found the Fourth International. Murdered by a Soviet agent in 1940. Alexander Beloborodov (1891–1938). Mikhail Boguslavsky (1886–1937). Andrei Bubnov
Andrei Bubnov
(1884–1938), signed the Declaration of the 46 in October 1923, but defected to Stalin soon thereafter. Later head of the Communist
Communist
Party organization within the Red Army
Red Army
and then People Commissar (minister) of Education. Expelled from the Party Central Committee in November 1937, arrested and perished in the Great Purge. Chen Duxiu (1879–1942): founder of the Chinese Communist
Communist
Party, from which he was expelled in 1927, and went on to found the Chinese Left Opposition Yakov Drobnis (1890–1937). Adolph Joffe
Adolph Joffe
(1883–1927). Iosif Kosior (1893–1937). Nikolai Krestinsky
Nikolai Krestinsky
(1883–1938). Sergei Mrachkovsky (1883–1936). Nikolai Muralov (1877–1937), a hero of the Civil War, once Deputy People's Commissar
People's Commissar
of Agriculture. Valerian Obolensky (also known as N. Osinsky) (1887–1938), one of the leaders of the Group of Democratic Centralism. Georgy Oppokov (also known as A. Lomov) (1888–1937). Yevgeni Preobrazhensky
Yevgeni Preobrazhensky
(1886–1937), the economic theoretician of the Left Opposition, the author of The New Economics. Georgy Pyatakov
Georgy Pyatakov
(1890–1937). Karl Radek
Karl Radek
(1885–1939). Christian Rakovsky
Christian Rakovsky
(1873–1941). Timofei Sapronov
Timofei Sapronov
(1887–1939?), one of the leaders of the Group of Democratic Centralism. Victor Serge
Victor Serge
(1890–1947), went into exile. Ivar Smilga
Ivar Smilga
(Ivar Tenisovich Smilga) (1892–1937), chairman of the Regional Committee of the Soviets in Finland
Finland
in 1917, chairman of Tsentrobalt, Central Committee of the Baltic Fleet, 1917–1918). Ivan Nikitich Smirnov
Ivan Nikitich Smirnov
(1881–1936). Vladimir Smirnov (1887–1937), one of the leaders of the Group of Democratic Centralism. Lev Sosnovsky (1886–1937), a journalist.

See also[edit]

Dewey Commission Anti-Stalinist left International Bureau of Revolutionary Youth Organizations

References[edit]

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 1999. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. New York: Oxford University

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