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The LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL is a canal in Northern England , linking the cities of Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
.

Over a distance of 127 miles (204 km), it crosses the Pennines
Pennines
, and includes 91 locks on the main line. It has several small branches, and in the early 21st century a new link was constructed into the Liverpool
Liverpool
docks system.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background

* 1.2 Construction

* 1.2.1 First phase * 1.2.2 Second phase * 1.2.3 Third phase

* 1.3 Operation * 1.4 20th century

* 2 Route * 3 Liverpool
Liverpool
link * 4 Places on route * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Citations * 8 External links

HISTORY

BACKGROUND

In the mid-18th century the growing towns of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, including Leeds, Wakefield
Wakefield
and Bradford
Bradford
, were trading increasingly. While the Aire and Calder Navigation improved links to the east for Leeds, links to the west were limited. Bradford
Bradford
merchants wanted to increase the supply of limestone to make lime for mortar and agriculture using coal from Bradford's collieries and to transport textiles to the Port of Liverpool
Liverpool
. On the west coast, traders in the busy port of Liverpool wanted a cheap supply of coal for their shipping and manufacturing businesses and to tap the output from the industrial regions of Lancashire
Lancashire
. Inspired by the effectiveness of the wholly artificial navigation, the Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
opened in 1759–60. A canal across the Pennines
Pennines
linking Liverpool
Liverpool
and Hull (by means of the Aire and Calder Navigation) would have obvious trade benefits.

A public meeting took place at the Sun Inn in Bradford
Bradford
on 2 July 1766 to promote the building of such a canal. John Longbotham was engaged to survey a route. Two groups were set up to promote the scheme, one in Liverpool
Liverpool
and one in Bradford. The Liverpool
Liverpool
committee was unhappy with the route originally proposed, following the Ribble valley through Preston , considering that it ran too far to the north, missing key towns and the Wigan coalfield. A counter-proposal was produced by John Eyes and Richard Melling, improved by P.P. Burdett , which was rejected by the Bradford
Bradford
committee as too expensive, mainly because of the valley crossing at Burnley
Burnley
. James Brindley was called in to arbitrate, and ruled in favour of Longbotham's more northerly route, though with a branch towards Wigan, a decision which caused some of the Lancashire
Lancashire
backers to withdraw their support, and which was subsequently amended over the course of development. In 1768 Brindley gave a detailed estimate of a distance just less than 109 miles (175 km) built at a cost of £259,777 (equivalent to about £32.67 million as of 2014 ).

An Act was passed in May 1770 authorising construction, and Brindley was appointed chief engineer and John Longbotham clerk of works ; following Brindley's death in 1772, Longbotham carried out both roles.

CONSTRUCTION

First Phase

Bingley Five Rise Locks

A commencement ceremony was held at Halsall , north of Liverpool
Liverpool
on 5 November 1770, with the first sod being dug by the Hon. Charles Mordaunt of Halsall Hall. The first section of the canal opened from Bingley to Skipton
Skipton
in 1773. By 1774 the canal had been completed from Skipton
Skipton
to Shipley , including significant engineering features such as the Bingley Five Rise Locks , Bingley Three Rise Locks and the seven-arch aqueduct over the River Aire
River Aire
, at Dowley Gap. Also completed was the branch to Bradford
Bradford
. On the western side, the section from Liverpool
Liverpool
to Newburgh was dug. By the following year the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
end had been extended to Gargrave
Gargrave
, and by 1777 the canal had joined the Aire and Calder Navigation in Leeds. On the western side it reached Wigan by 1781, replacing the earlier and unsatisfactory Douglas Navigation . By now, the subscribed funds and further borrowing had all been spent, and work stopped in 1781 with the completion of the Rufford Branch from Burscough
Burscough
to the River Douglas at Tarleton . The war in the American colonies and its aftermath made it impossible to continue for more than a decade.

Second Phase

In 1789 Robert Whitworth developed fresh proposals to vary the line of the remaining part of the canal, including a tunnel at Foulridge , lowering the proposed summit level by 40 feet (12 m), using a more southerly route in Lancashire. These proposals were authorised by a fresh Act in 1790, together with further fund-raising, and in 1791, construction of the canal finally recommenced south-westward from Gargrave, heading toward Barrowford in Lancashire. By this time planning for the competing Rochdale Canal
Canal
was under way and it was likely to offer a more direct journey to Liverpool
Liverpool
via Manchester
Manchester
and the Bridgewater Canal. The same year John Rennie surveyed a branch of the Rochdale between Todmorden and Burnley.

In 1794 an agreement was reached with the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal
Canal
company to create a link near Red Moss near Horwich . The company's experiences running the two sections of the canal had shown that coal not limestone would be its main cargo, and that there was plenty of income available from local trade between the settlements along the route. With this in mind in the same year, the route was changed again with a further Act, moving closer to that proposed by Burdett.

The Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal
Canal
company proposed another link from Bury to Accrington. This new link would have been known as the Haslingden Canal
Canal
. The Peel family asked the canal company not to construct the crossing over the River Hyndburn
River Hyndburn
above their textile printworks; such a crossing would have required the construction of embankments, and reduced the water supply to their factories. Consequently, Accrington was bypassed and the Haslingden Canal
Canal
was never built.

Yet more fund-raising took place, as the Foulridge Tunnel was proving difficult and expensive to dig. The new route took the canal south via the expanding coal mines at Burnley
Burnley
, Accrington and Blackburn
Blackburn
, but would require some sizable earthworks to pass the former. The completion in 1796 of the 1,640 yards (1,500 m) long Foulridge Tunnel and the flight of seven locks at Barrowford enabled the canal to open to eastern Burnley. At a cost of £40,000 (about £3.65 million in 2014 ) the tunnel became the most expensive single item in the whole project.

At Burnley, rather than using two sets of locks to cross the shallow Calder valley, Whitworth designed a 1,350 yards (1,234 m) long and up to 60 feet (18 m) high, embankment. It would also require another 559 yards (511 m) tunnel nearby at Gannow and a sizeable cutting to allow the canal to traverse the hillside between the two. It took 5 years to complete this work, with the embankment alone costing £22,000 (about £1.55 million in 2014 ). Whitworth died aged 64, on 30 March 1799 and Samuel Fletcher, previously the inspector of works took over as engineer. Once the Burnley
Burnley
work was completed, the canal opened to Enfield near Accrington in 1801. It would be another 9 years until it reached Blackburn
Blackburn
only 4 miles away. Following the French Revolution
French Revolution
, Britain had been at war with France from 1793 to 1802. The peace proved temporary, with the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
beginning the following year. High taxes and interest rates during this period made it difficult for the company to borrow money, and the pace of construction inevitably slowed.

Third Phase

In 1804 Samuel Fletcher also died and his brother Joseph and son James were jointly appointed to replace him and they were provided with Gannow House in Burnley. In 1805 they estimated the cost of linking Enfield to Red Moss would be £245,275 and £101,725 for the shorter continuation to Wigan (totaling about £27.36 million in 2014 ). The planned link with the Manchester, Bolton and Bury did not materialize.

The latest plan for the route had it running parallel to, and then crossing the southern section of the Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
, but common sense prevailed and the Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
connected with the Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
between Aspull and Johnson's Hillock. The main line of the canal was thus completed in 1816.

There had been various unsuccessful negotiations to connect the canal to the Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
at Leigh but agreement was finally reached in 1818 and the connection was opened in 1820, thus giving access to Manchester
Manchester
and the rest of the canal network. The Bridgewater Canal, like most of Brindley's designs was for narrow boats of 72 feet (22 m) length, whereas the Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
had been designed for broad boats of 62 feet (19 m) length. There was naturally a desire by the narrow boats to reach Liverpool
Liverpool
and the locks of the westerly end of the canal were extended to 72 feet (22 m) in 1822.

James Fletcher continued as engineer until his death in 1844.

OPERATION

The canal took almost 50 years to complete; in crossing the Pennines the Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
had been beaten by the Huddersfield Narrow Canal
Canal
and the Rochdale Canal
Canal
. The most important cargo was always coal, with over a million tons per year being delivered to Liverpool in the 1860s, with smaller amounts exported via the old Douglas Navigation. Even in Yorkshire, more coal was carried than limestone. Once the canal was fully open, receipts for carrying merchandise matched those of coal. The heavy industry along its route, together with the decision to build the canal with broad locks, ensured that (unlike the other two trans-Pennine canals) the Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool competed successfully with the railways throughout the 19th century and remained open through the 20th century.

20TH CENTURY

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A concrete pillbox by the canal 1890s warehouse - Weavers\' Triangle - Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal

The canal suffered some damage during the Second World War
Second World War
. It was breached by a German mine in Bootle and the headquarters at Pall Mall were damaged. The canal in West Lancashire
Lancashire
was part of Britain's defensive plans against invasion. Along the canal there were tank traps , bunkers and blockhouses . Some buildings such as barns and pubs along the canal were fortified. There are still some remaining concrete pillboxes and brick built blockhouses.

Trade continued on the canal until as late as the 1980s. Coal was shipped to the power station in Wigan until 1972 and corn to Ainscough's Mill in Burscough
Burscough
until 1960. The last horse drawn barge was 'Parbold' (1960). The especially cold winters in the early 1960s was thought to have finished off commercial use of the main line of the canal, however a load of timber passed over the full length in 1965, from Liverpool
Liverpool
to Leeds. Freight returned in 1973 (coal from Castleford
Castleford
to Skipton
Skipton
), plus various other odd cargoes, then grain was carried between Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
from 1974 for some years, plus a few loads across the summit - the last being 30 tonnes of herring meal on short boat 'Weaver', from Selby to Manchester (September 1978). The last intensive use of the canal for freight was carriage of effluent from Esholt to Leeds
Leeds
( Knostrop
Knostrop
) between May 1978 and December 1979, and aggregate from Trent wharves to Shipley - this ceased in 1982. The section of canal between Aintree
Aintree
and the Liverpool terminus was classed as Remainder in the review of the waterways and therefore only receives enough maintenance to keep it structurally sound.

In the 1950s and 1960s the Mersey Motor Boat Club (MMBC) did a lot of work to keep the canal open and in use. With a variety of boats, converted lifeboats and wooden boats from the Lakes, they kept boats moving on the canal after commercial use stopped. The Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
is one of the quietest canals for leisure boating on the network.

In the 1960s, the Pall Mall terminus basin was filled in up to Chisenhale Street Bridge (Bridge A). In the 1980s the Eldonian Village housing estate was built for the community which was disrupted by the building of the Mersey Tunnel and the demolition of the Tate and Lyle sugar refinery. This meant the canal was filled in between Chisenhale Street Bridge (Bridge A) and just north of Burlington Street Bridge (Bridge B). As part of the development a new bridge was built, Vauxhall Bridge (un-numbered) which was opened in 1994 by Cilla Black .

In August 2010, a 60-mile stretch of the canal was closed due to the low reservoirs, following the driest start to the year since records began. It was reopened the following month, although some restrictions remained. Some canal boat operators temporarily relocated to other parts of the canal. As of 11 August 2010, as many as 200,000 fish were moved to different areas in the canal to prevent their death in the low-level waters.

ROUTE

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Tarleton Lock, where the Rufford Branch links into the River Douglas .

The Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
main line is 127 miles (204 km) long and crosses the country from Liverpool, Merseyside
Merseyside
to Leeds, West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
. It has two main side-branches, the Leigh Branch and the Rufford Branch. The summit level is at 487 feet (148 m). The canal was built with locks 60 ft (18 m) long and 14 ft 3 in (4.34 m) wide to accommodate the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Keel barges already in use on the Rivers Aire and Humber. However, the locks on the Leigh Branch and the mainline between Wigan and Liverpool
Liverpool
(and Rufford Branch), were extended to a length of 72 feet (22 m) to accommodate the longer boats trading on the rest of the canal network following the building of the Leigh Branch. The Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
at Wigan Pier Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
near Granary Wharf in Leeds
Leeds
Leeds
Leeds
to Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal, Saltaire
Saltaire
. Mill buildings built by Sir Titus Salt . Bingley Five Rise Locks The Double Arched bridge (number 161) at East Marton Canal
Canal
boats at Appley Bridge Bell's Swing Bridge#16 in Lydiate Original buildings from Clarkes Basin Liverpool
Liverpool

The original Liverpool
Liverpool
terminus was at Clarke's Basin in present-day Old Hall Street. This later moved to Pall Mall when land was sold to a railway company. A direct connection to the docks via Stanley Dock was built in 1846.

From Liverpool
Liverpool
to Appley Locks, the canal runs for 27 miles (43 km) without locks, across the West Lancashire
Lancashire
Coastal Plain .

The two main side-branches both connect to other waterways. The Rufford Branch links into the River Douglas and, via the Ribble Link and the River Ribble to the previously isolated Lancaster Canal. The Leigh Branch from Wigan leads to the Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
and thus to Manchester
Manchester
and the Midlands .

At 127 miles (204 km) long, The Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
is the longest single canal in the UK constructed by one company, though it is shorter than the longest merged canal in the UK, Grand Union Canal , by 286.3 miles (460.8 km) (281.3 miles (452.7 km) when excluding the shared line with the Oxford Canal
Canal
) which was made up of many smaller canals merged. Though like the Grand Union Canal
Canal
where it shares a 5-mile line with the Oxford Canal, The Leeds
Leeds
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* ^ Comparing the historic opportunity cost of £259,777 in 1768 with 2014. * ^ Comparing the historic opportunity cost of £40,000 in 1796 with 2014. * ^ Comparing the historic opportunity cost of £22,000 in 1801 with 2014. * ^ Comparing the historic opportunity cost of £347,000 in 1805 with 2014.

CITATIONS

* ^ A B "Origin ">(pdf). Bradford
Bradford
Council. Retrieved 27 February 2011. * ^ Clarke, Mike (1994). The Leeds
Leeds
& Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal. Carnegie Publishing. ISBN 1-85936-013-0 . * ^ A B C D Officer, Lawrence H. (2009), "Five Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a UK Pound Amount, 1270 to Present", MeasuringWorth, retrieved 29 August 2015 * ^ Priestley 1831 , p. 386 * ^ A B C D E F "The Leeds
Leeds
& Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
Society Chronology". Northern Heritage. 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2008. * ^ A B Clarke, Mike. "The Leeds- Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal". cottontown.org. Retrieved 18 August 2008. * ^ Boucher, Cyril (1963). John Rennie The life and Work of A Great Engineer 1761–1821. Manchester
Manchester
University Press. p. 124. * ^ Priestley 1831 , p. 435 * ^ " Lancashire
Lancashire
Historic Town Survey Programme Burnley" (pdf). Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council. Retrieved 3 March 2011. * ^ UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com. * ^ Johnson, Gill (2014). "Canals came at high cost to human life". Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph (published 12 February 2014). Retrieved 25 January 2015. * ^ Brian Hall (1977). Burnley: A Short History. Burnley: Burnley Historical Society. p. 40. ISBN 0-9500695-3-1 . * ^ Skempton 2002 , pp. 230, 781 * ^ Historic England
Historic England
. "Gannow House, Burnley
Burnley
(1244807)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ A B Skempton 2002 , p. 230 * ^ British Waterways announces phased reopening of Leeds
Leeds
& Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal
Canal
British Waterways 15 September 2010. * ^ "Walking and Cycling guide to the Canal". Towpath Treks. 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2008. * ^ "Photographs of current work". Pennine Waterways. Retrieved 14 June 2008. * ^ "New canal link to boost tourism". BBC News. 25 March 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2009. * ^ "New Lock Gates For Stanley Lock Flight On Leeds
Leeds
& Liverpool Canal". British Waterways. 23 January 2007. Archived from the original on 25 April 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2016.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Clarke, Mike (1990). The Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal. Preston: Carnegie Press. ISBN 0-948789-40-9 . * Skempton, Sir Alec; et al. (2002). A Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers in Great Britain and Ireland: Vol 1: 1500 to 1830. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0-7277-2939-X . * Priestley, Joseph (1831). Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals and Railways of Great Britain. Longman, Green.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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