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The Info List - Lee–Enfield


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The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century. It was the British Army's standard rifle from its official adoption in 1895 until 1957.[3][4] The WWI versions are often referred to as the "SMLE," which is short for the common "Short Magazine Lee-Enfield" variant, although that terminology was dropped by the British in 1926. A redesign of the Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
(adopted by the British Army
British Army
in 1888), the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
superseded the earlier Martini–Henry, Martini–Enfield, and Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
rifles. It featured a ten-round box magazine which was loaded with the .303 British
.303 British
cartridge manually from the top, either one round at a time or by means of five-round chargers. The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
was the standard issue weapon to rifle companies of the British Army
British Army
and other Commonwealth nations in both the First and Second World Wars (these Commonwealth nations included Australia, New Zealand, Canada, India
India
and South Africa, among others).[5] Although officially replaced in the UK with the L1A1 SLR in 1957, it remained in widespread British service until the early/mid-1960s and the 7.62 mm L42A1
L42A1
sniper variant remained in service until the 1990s. As a standard-issue infantry rifle, it is still found in service in the armed forces of some Commonwealth nations,[6] notably with the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Police, which makes it the second longest-serving military bolt-action rifle still in official service, after the Mosin–Nagant.[7] The Canadian Rangers
Canadian Rangers
unit still use Enfield rifles, with plans to replace the weapons sometime in 2017–2018 with the new Sako-designed Colt C-19.[8] Total production of all Lee–Enfields is estimated at over 17 million rifles.[1] The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
takes its name from the designer of the rifle's bolt system—James Paris Lee—and the factory in which it was designed—the Royal Small Arms Factory
Royal Small Arms Factory
in Enfield. In Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Southern Africa and India
India
the rifle became known simply as the "three-oh-three"[9]

Contents

1 Design and history

1.1 Models/marks of Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle and service periods

2 Magazine Lee–Enfield 3 Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk I 4 Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk III

4.1 Pattern 1913 Enfield

5 Pattern 1914/US M1917 6 Inter-war period 7 Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 1 Mk V 8 Rifle
Rifle
No. 4 9 Rifle
Rifle
No. 5 Mk I—the "Jungle Carbine" 10 Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
conversions and training models

10.1 Sniper
Sniper
rifles 10.2 .22 Training Rifles 10.3 Muskets and shotguns 10.4 Civilian conversions and variants 10.5 L59A1 Drill Rifle

11 Special
Special
service Lee–Enfields: Commando and automatic models

11.1 Charlton Automatic Rifles 11.2 De Lisle Commando carbine 11.3 Ekins Automatic Rifle 11.4 Howard Francis carbine 11.5 Howell Automatic Rifle 11.6 Rieder Automatic Rifle

12 Conversion to 7.62×51mm NATO

12.1 Ishapore
Ishapore
2A/2A1

13 Production and manufacturers

13.1 List of manufacturers

13.1.1 Australian International Arms No. 4 Mk IV

13.2 Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copies 13.3 Armalon

14 The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
in military/police use today 15 The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
in civilian use 16 Users 17 See also 18 Notes 19 References 20 External links

Design and history[edit] The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle was derived from the earlier Lee–Metford, a mechanically similar black-powder rifle, which combined James Paris Lee's rear-locking bolt system that had a barrel featuring rifling designed by William Ellis Metford. The Lee action cocked the striker on the closing stroke of the bolt, making the initial opening much faster and easier compared to the "cock on opening" (i.e., the firing pin cocks upon opening the bolt) of the Mauser Gewehr 98 design. The bolt has a relatively short bolt throw and features rear-mounted lugs and the bolt operating handle places the bolt knob just rearwards of the trigger at a favorable ergonomic position close to the operator's hand. The action features helical locking surfaces (the technical term is interrupted threading). This means that final head space is not achieved until the bolt handle is turned down all the way. The British probably used helical locking lugs to allow for chambering imperfect or dirty ammunition and that the closing cam action is distributed over the entire mating faces of both bolt and receiver lugs. This is one reason the bolt closure feels smooth. The rifle was also equipped with a detachable sheet-steel, 10-round, double-column magazine, a very modern development in its day. Originally, the concept of a detachable magazine was opposed in some British Army
British Army
circles, as some feared that the private soldier might be likely to lose the magazine during field campaigns. Early models of the Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
and Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
even used a short length of chain to secure the magazine to the rifle.[10] To further facilitate rapid aimed fire the rifle can be cycled by most riflemen without loss of sight picture. These design features facilitate rapid cycling and fire compared to other bolt-action designs like the Mauser.[4] The Lee bolt-action and 10-round magazine capacity enabled a well-trained rifleman to perform the "mad minute" firing 20 to 30 aimed rounds in 60 seconds, making the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
the fastest military bolt-action rifle of the day. The current world record for aimed bolt-action fire was set in 1914 by a musketry instructor in the British Army—Sergeant Instructor Snoxall—who placed 38 rounds into a 12-inch-wide (300 mm) target at 300 yards (270 m) in one minute.[11] Some straight-pull bolt-action rifles were thought faster, but lacked the simplicity, reliability, and generous magazine capacity of the Lee–Enfield. Several First World War accounts tell of British troops repelling German attackers who subsequently reported that they had encountered machine guns, when in fact it was simply a group of well-trained riflemen armed with SMLE Mk III rifles.[12][13]

Standard Mk VII .303 inch cartridge for Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle

The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
was adapted to fire the .303 British
.303 British
service cartridge, a rimmed, high-powered rifle round. Experiments with smokeless powder in the existing Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
cartridge seemed at first to be a simple upgrade, but the greater heat and pressure generated by the new smokeless powder wore away the shallow, rounded, Metford rifling after approximately 6000 rounds.[3] Replacing this with a new square-shaped rifling system designed at the Royal Small Arms Factory (RSAF) Enfield solved the problem, and the Lee–Enfield was born.[3] Models/marks of Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle and service periods[edit]

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Model/Mark In Service

Magazine Lee–Enfield 1895–1926

Charger Loading Lee–Enfield 1906–1926

Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk I 1904–1926

Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk II 1906–1927

Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk III/III* 1907–present

Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk V 1922–1924 (trials only; 20,000 produced)

Rifle
Rifle
No. 1 Mk VI 1930 (trials only; 1,025 produced and leftover parts assembled into rifles early in WWII)

Rifle
Rifle
No. 4 Mk I 1931–present (2,500 trials examples produced in the 1930s, then mass production from mid-1941 onwards)

Rifle
Rifle
No. 4 Mk I* 1942–present

Rifle
Rifle
No 5 Mk I "Jungle Carbine" 1944–present (produced 1944–1947) BSA-Shirley produced 81,329 rifles and ROF Fazakerley
ROF Fazakerley
169,807 rifles.

Rifle
Rifle
No. 4 Mk 2 1949–present

Rifle
Rifle
7.62mm 2A 1964–present

Rifle
Rifle
7.62mm 2A1 1965–present

Magazine Lee–Enfield[edit] The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle was introduced in November 1895 as the .303 calibre, Rifle, Magazine, Lee–Enfield,[3] or more commonly Magazine Lee–Enfield, or MLE (sometimes spoken as "emily" instead of M, L, E). The next year, a shorter version was introduced as the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Cavalry Carbine
Carbine
Mk I, or LEC, with a 21.2-inch (540 mm) barrel as opposed to the 30.2-inch (770 mm) one in the "long" version.[3] Both underwent a minor upgrade series in 1899 (the omission of the cleaning / clearing rod), becoming the Mk I*.[14] Many LECs (and LMCs in smaller numbers) were converted to special patterns, namely the New Zealand
New Zealand
Carbine
Carbine
and the Royal Irish Constabulary Carbine, or NZ and RIC carbines, respectively.[15] Some of the MLEs (and MLMs) were converted to load from chargers, and designated Charger Loading Lee–Enfields, or CLLEs.[16] Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk I[edit] A shorter and lighter version of the original MLE—the famous Rifle, Short, Magazine, Lee–Enfield, or SMLE (sometimes spoken as "Smelly", rather than S, M, L, E)[7]—was introduced on 1 January 1904.[17] The barrel was now halfway in length between the original long rifle and the carbine, at 25.2 inches (640 mm).[17] The SMLE's visual trademark was its blunt nose, with only the bayonet boss protruding a small fraction of an inch beyond the nosecap, being modeled on the Swedish Model 1894 Cavalry Carbine. The new rifle also incorporated a charger loading system,[18] another innovation borrowed from the Mauser rifle'[19] and is notably different from the fixed "bridge" that later became the standard, being a charger clip (stripper clip) guide on the face of the bolt head. The shorter length was controversial at the time: many Rifle
Rifle
Association members and gunsmiths were concerned that the shorter barrel would not be as accurate as the longer MLE barrels, that the recoil would be much greater, and the sighting radius would be too short.[20] Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk III[edit]

Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 1 Mk. III

Israeli female soldiers equipped with the SMLE Mk III during the 1948 Arab Israeli War.

Magazine Cut-Off on an SMLE Mk III rifle—this feature was removed on the Mk III* rifle.

The iconic Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle, the SMLE Mk III, was introduced on 26 January 1907, along with a Pattern 1907 (P'07) sword bayonet and featured a simplified rear sight arrangement and a fixed, rather than a bolt-head-mounted sliding, charger guide.[7] The design of the handguards and the magazine were also improved, and the chamber was adapted to fire the new Mk VII High Velocity spitzer .303 ammunition. Many early model rifles, of Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
(MLE), Magazine Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
(MLM), and SMLE type, were upgraded to the Mk III standard. These are designated Mk IV Cond., with various asterisks denoting subtypes.[21] During the First World War, the SMLE Mk III was found to be too complicated to manufacture (an SMLE Mk III rifle cost the British Government £3/15/-) and demand was outstripping supply, so in late 1915 the Mk III* was introduced, which incorporated several changes, the most prominent of which were the deletion of the magazine cut-off mechanism, which when engaged permits the feeding and extraction of single cartridges only while keeping the cartridges in the magazine in reserve, and the long-range volley sights.[19][21][22][23] The windage adjustment of the rear sight was also dispensed with, and the cocking piece was changed from a round knob to a serrated slab.[23] Rifles with some or all of these features present are found, as the changes were implemented at different times in different factories and as stocks of existing parts were used.[24] The magazine cut-off was reinstated after the First World War ended and not entirely dispensed with in manufacturing until 1933 and some cut-offs remained on rifles so-equipped into the 1960s.[23] The inability of the principal manufacturers (RSAF Enfield, The Birmingham Small Arms
Birmingham Small Arms
Company Limited and London Small Arms Co. Ltd) to meet military production demands, led to the development of the "peddled scheme", which contracted out the production of whole rifles and rifle components to several shell companies.[25] The SMLE Mk III* (renamed Rifle
Rifle
No.1 Mk III* in 1926) saw extensive service throughout the Second World War as well, especially in the North African, Italian, Pacific and Burmese theatres in the hands of British and Commonwealth forces. Australia
Australia
and India
India
retained and manufactured the SMLE Mk III* as their standard-issue rifle during the conflict and the rifle remained in Australian military service through the Korean War, until it was replaced by the L1A1 SLR in the late 1950s.[26] The Lithgow Small Arms Factory
Lithgow Small Arms Factory
finally ceased production of the SMLE Mk III* in 1953.[21] The Rifle
Rifle
Factory at Ishapore, West Bengal, India
India
produced the MkIII* in .303 British
.303 British
and then upgraded the manufactured strength by heat treatment of the receiver and bolt to fire 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
ammunition, the model 2A, which retained the 2000 yard rear sight as the metric conversion of distance was very close to the flatter trajectory of the new ammunition nature, then changed the rear sight to 800m with a re-designation to model 2A1. Manufactured until at least the 1980s and continues to produce a sporting rifle based on the MkIII* action. Pattern 1913 Enfield[edit] Main article: Pattern 1913 Enfield Due to the poor performance of the .303 British
.303 British
cartridge during the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
from 1899–1902, the British attempted to replace the round and the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle that fired it. The main deficiency of the rounds at the time was that they used heavy, round-nosed bullets that had low muzzle velocities and poor ballistic performance. The 7mm Mauser
7mm Mauser
rounds fired from the Mauser Model 1895
Mauser Model 1895
rifle had a higher velocity, flatter trajectory and longer range, making them superior on the open country of the South African plains. Work on a long-range replacement cartridge began in 1910 and resulted in the .276 Enfield
.276 Enfield
in 1912. A new rifle based on the Mauser design was created to fire the round, called the Pattern 1913 Enfield. Although the .276 Enfield
.276 Enfield
had better ballistics, troop trials in 1913 revealed problems including excessive recoil, muzzle flash, barrel wear and overheating. Attempts were made to find a cooler-burning propellant but further trials were halted in 1914 by the onset of World War I. This proved fortunate for the Lee–Enfield, as wartime demand and the improved Mk VII loading of the .303 round, caused it to be retained for service.[27] Pattern 1914/US M1917[edit] Main articles: Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
and M1917 Enfield The Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
and M1917 Enfield
M1917 Enfield
rifles are based on the Enfield-designed P1913, itself a Mauser 98 derivative and not based on the Lee action, and are not part of the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
family of rifles, although they are frequently assumed to be.[28] Inter-war period[edit]

Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 Mk I Long Branch aperture sights

In 1926, the British Army
British Army
changed their nomenclature; the SMLE became known as the Rifle
Rifle
No. 1 Mk III or III*, with the original MLE and LEC becoming obsolete along with the earlier SMLE models.[29] Many Mk III and III* rifles were converted to .22 rimfire
.22 rimfire
calibre training rifles, and designated Rifle
Rifle
No. 2, of varying marks. (The Pattern 1914 became the Rifle
Rifle
No. 3.)[29] The SMLE design was a relatively expensive long arm to manufacture, because of the many forging and machining operations required. In the 1920s, a series of experiments resulting in design changes were carried out to help with these problems, reducing the number of complex parts and refining manufacturing processes. The SMLE Mk V (later Rifle
Rifle
No. 1 Mk V), adopted a new receiver-mounted aperture sighting system, which moved the rear sight from its former position on the barrel.[30] The increased gap resulted in an improved sighting radius, improving sighting accuracy and the aperture improved speed of sighting over various distances. In the stowed position, a fixed distance aperture battle sight calibrated for 300 yd (274 m) protruded saving further precious seconds when laying the sight to a target. An alternative developed during this period was to be used on the No. 4 variant, a "battle sight" was developed that allowed for two set distances of 300 yards and 600 yards to be quickly deployed and was cheaper to produce than the "ladder sight". The magazine cutoff was also reintroduced and an additional band was added near the muzzle for additional strength during bayonet use.[30] The design was found to be even more complicated and expensive to manufacture than the Mk III and was not developed or issued, beyond a trial production of about 20,000 rifles between 1922 and 1924 at RSAF Enfield.[30] Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 1 Mk V[edit] Long before the No. 4 Mk I, Britain had obviously settled on the rear aperture sight prior to WWI, with modifications to the SMLE being tested as early as 1911, as well as later on the No. 1 Mk III pattern rifle. These unusual rifles have something of a mysterious service history, but represent a missing link in SMLE development. The primary distinguishing feature of the No. 1 Mk V is the rear aperture sight. Like the No. 1 Mk III* it lacked a volley sight and had the wire loop in place of the sling swivel at the front of magazine well along with the simplified cocking piece. The Mk V did retain a magazine cut-off, but without a spotting hole, the piling swivel was kept attached to a forward barrel band, which was wrapped over and attached to the rear of the nose cap to reinforce the rifle for use with the standard Pattern 1907 bayonet. Other distinctive features include a nose cap screw was slotted for the width of a coin for easy removal, a safety lever on the left side of the receiver was slightly modified with a unique angular groove pattern, and the two-piece hand guard being extended from the nose cap to the receiver, omitting the barrel mounted leaf sight. No. 1 Mk V rifles were manufactured solely by R.S.A.F. Enfield from 1922–1924, with a total production of roughly 20,000 rifles, all of which marked with a “V”. The No. 1 Mk VI also introduced a heavier "floating barrel" that was independent of the forearm, allowing the barrel to expand and contract without contacting the forearm and interfering with the 'zero', the correlation between the alignment of the barrel and the sights. The floating barrel increased the accuracy of the rifle by allowing it to vibrate freely and consistently, whereas wooden forends in contact with barrels, if not properly fitted, affected the harmonic vibrations of the barrel. The receiver-mounted rear sights and magazine cutoff were also present and 1,025 units were produced in the 1930 period.[31] Rifle
Rifle
No. 4[edit]

Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 Mk I

Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 Mk 2 with the ladder aperture sight flipped up and 5-round charger

In the early 1930s, a batch of 2,500 No. 4 Mk. I rifles were made for Trials. These were similar to the No. 1 Mk. VI but had a flat left side and did away with the chequering on the furniture. Observed examples are dated 1931 and 1933. Roughly 1,400 of these were converted to No. 4 MK. I (T) sniper rifles in 1941-1942 at RSAF Enfield. By the late 1930s, the need for new rifles grew and the Rifle, No. 4 Mk I was officially adopted in 1941.[32] The No. 4 action was similar to the Mk VI, but stronger and most importantly, easier to mass-produce.[33] Unlike the SMLE, that had a nose cap, the No 4 Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
barrel protruded from the end of the forestock. The charger bridge was no longer rounded for easier machining. The iron sight line was redesigned and featured a rear receiver aperture battle sight calibrated for 300 yd (274 m) with an additional ladder aperture sight that could be flipped up and was calibrated for 200–1,300 yd (183–1,189 m) in 100 yd (91 m) increments. This sight line like other aperture sight lines proved to be faster and more accurate than the typical mid-barrel rear sight elements sight lines offered by Mauser, previous Lee–Enfields or the Buffington battle sight of the 1903 Springfield. The No. 4 rifle was heavier than the No. 1 Mk. III, largely due to its heavier barrel. A new bayonet was designed to go with the rifle: a spike bayonet, which was essentially a steel rod with a sharp point and was nicknamed "pigsticker" by soldiers.[33] Towards the end of the Second World War, a bladed bayonet was developed, originally intended for use with the Sten
Sten
gun—but sharing the same mount as the No. 4's spike bayonet—and subsequently the No. 7 and No. 9 blade bayonets were issued for use with the No. 4 rifle as well.[34] During the course of the Second World War, the No. 4 rifle was further simplified for mass-production with the creation of the No. 4 Mk I* in 1942, with the bolt release catch replaced by a simpler notch on the bolt track of the rifle's receiver.[35] It was produced only in North America, by Small Arms Limited at Long Branch in Canada
Canada
and Stevens-Savage Firearms in the USA.[35] The No.4 Mk I rifle was primarily produced for the United Kingdom.[36] In the years after the Second World War, the British produced the No. 4 Mk 2 (Arabic numerals replaced Roman numerals for official designations in 1944) rifle, a refined and improved No. 4 rifle with the trigger hung forward from the butt collar and not from the trigger guard, beech wood stocks (with the original reinforcing strap and centre piece of wood in the rear of the forestock on the No.4 Mk I/Mk I* being removed in favour of a tie screw and nut) and brass buttplates (during World War II, the British replaced the brass buttplates on the No.4 rifles with zinc alloy (Zamak) ones to reduce costs and to speed up rifle production).[37] With the introduction of the No. 4 Mk 2 rifle, the British refurbished many of their existing stocks of No. 4 rifles and brought them up to the same standard as the No. 4 Mk 2.[38] No. 4 Mk 1 rifles so upgraded were re-designated No. 4 Mk I/2, whilst No. 4 Mk I* rifles that were brought up to Mk 2 standard were re-designated No. 4 Mk I/3.[35] Rifle
Rifle
No. 5 Mk I—the "Jungle Carbine"[edit] Main article: Jungle Carbine Later in the war, the need for a shorter, lighter rifle forced the development of the Rifle, No. 5 Mk I (the "Jungle Carbine").[39] With a cut-down stock, a prominent flash hider, and a "lightening-cut" receiver machined to remove all unnecessary metal, reduced barrel length of 18.8 in (478 mm) the No. 5 was shorter and 2 lb (0.9 kg) lighter. Despite a rubber butt-pad, the .303 round produced excessive recoil due to the shorter barrel. It was unsuitable for general issue and production ceased in 1947, due to an "inherent fault in the design", often claimed to be a "wandering zero" and accuracy problems.[40] The No. 5 iron sight line was similar to the No. 4 Mark I and featured a rear receiver aperture battle sight calibrated for 300 yd (274 m) with an additional ladder aperture sight that could be flipped up and was calibrated for 200–800 yd (183–732 m) in 100 yd (91 m) increments. The No. 5 Mk I was popular with soldiers owing to its light weight, portability and shorter length than a standard Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle.[41] The No. 5 was first issued to the British 1st Airborne Division and used during their liberation of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
in 1945. BSA-Shirley, Birmingham
Birmingham
produced 81,329 rifles and ROF Fazakerley, Liverpool 169,807 rifles. It was equipped with a No. 5 Mk. I blade bayonet which had a large muzzle ring to fit over the flash hider. The No. 7 Mk. I/L bayonet, which has a rotating handle and a large ring on the cross-guard was not for the No. 5 Mk. I rifle as many collectors believe. An Australian experimental version of the No. 5 Mk I, designated Rifle, No. 6, Mk I[42] was also developed, using an SMLE MK III* as a starting point (as opposed to the No. 4 Mk I used to develop the No. 5 Mk I). The Australian military were not permitted to manufacture the No. 4 Mk I, because the Lithgow Small Arms Factory
Lithgow Small Arms Factory
was producing the SMLE Mk III. The No. 6 Mk I never entered full production and examples are rare and valuable to collectors.[39] A "Shortened and Lightened" version of the SMLE Mk III* rifle was also tested by the Australian military and a very small number were manufactured at SAF Lithgow during the course of the Second World War.[43] The term "Jungle Carbine" was popularised in the 1950s by the Santa Fe Arms Corporation, a U.S. importer who refurbished many surplus rifles, converting many of the No. 4 marks, in the hope of increasing sales of a rifle that had little U.S. market penetration. It was never an official military designation but British and Commonwealth troops serving in the Burmese and Pacific theatres during World War II
World War II
had been known to unofficially refer to the No. 5 Mk I as a "Jungle Carbine".[39] The No. 4 and No. 5 rifles served in Korea (as did the No.1 Mk III* SMLE and sniper 'T' variants, mostly with Australian troops).[7] Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
conversions and training models[edit] Sniper
Sniper
rifles[edit]

Canadian sniper Sergeant Harold Marshall carries a No. 4 Mk. I (T) chambered in .303 British.

L42A1
L42A1
sniper rifle chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO.

During both World Wars and the Korean War, a number of Lee–Enfield rifles were modified for use as sniper rifles. The Australian Army modified 1,612[44] Lithgow SMLE No. 1 Mk. III* rifles by adding a heavy target barrel, cheek-piece, and a World War I
World War I
era Pattern 1918 telescope, creating the SMLE No. 1 Mk. III* (HT). (HT standing for "Heavy Barrel, Telescopic Sight),[7] which saw service in the Second World War, Korea, and Malaya and was used for Sniper
Sniper
Training through to the late 1970s.[45] There is evidence that some SMLE No. 1 Mk. III* (HT) sniper rifles were used by Australian forces during the later stages of the Vietnam War.[citation needed] During the Second World War, standard No. 4 rifles, selected for their accuracy during factory tests, were modified by the addition of a wooden cheek-piece, and telescopic sight mounts designed to accept a No. 32 3.5X telescopic sight.[46] The accuracy requirement was ability to place 7 of 7 shots in a 5 inches (12.7 cm) circle at 200 yards (183 m). The wooden cheek-piece was attached with two screws. The rear "battle sight" was ground off to make room to attach the No. 32 telescope sight to the left side of the receiver. Each No. 32 and its bracket (mount) were matched and serial numbered to a specific rifle.[47] In British service, the No. 32 telescope progressed through three marks with the Mk. I introduced in 1942, the Mk. II in 1943 and finally the Mk. III (Mk. 3) in 1944. A transitional model the No. 32 Mk. 2/1 was also made. The Canadian scopes made by Research Enterprises Limited and were prefixed with a letter C and went through C no. 32 Mk. I, Mk. I A (a transitional model), Mk. II and Mk. 3. Many Mk. 3s and Mk. 2/1s (Mk. 2s Modified to Mk. 3 standard) were later modified for use with the 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
L42A1
L42A1
Sniper
Sniper
Rifle. They were then known by the designation Telescope Straight, Sighting L1A1. Initial production was 1,403 conversions of 1931–1933 troop trials No. 4 Mk. I rifles at RSAF Enfield and a few others including Stevens-Savage No. 4s. These were converted in late 1941 and into the later part of 1942. Then, the work was assigned to Holland & Holland, the famous British sporting gun manufacturers, which converted about 23,000 No. 4 Mk. I (T) and No. 4 Mk. I* (T) sniper rifles. The Holland & Holland conversions usually have the contractor code "S51" on the underside of the buttstock. BSA Shirley undertook 100 conversions to .22". James Purdey and Sons fitted special buttstocks later in the war. About 3,000 rifles, mostly Stevens-Savage, appear to have been partially converted by Holland & Holland but never received brackets, scopes of the final "T" mark. Canada
Canada
converted about 1,588 rifles at Small Arms Limited (to the end of 1945) and, in 1946, at Canadian Arsenals Limited. Both were located at Long Branch, Ontario. Most of the Canadian made No.4 Mk.I* (T) sniper equipments went into British service. The No.4 (T) rifles were extensively employed in various conflicts until the late 1960s. The British military switched over to the 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
round in the 1950s; starting in 1970, over 1,000 of the No. 4 Mk I (T) and No. 4 Mk. I* (T) sniper rifles were converted to this new calibre and designated L42A1.[37] The L42A1
L42A1
sniper rifle continued as the British Army's standard sniper weapon being phased out by 1993, and replaced by Accuracy International's L96.[48] .22 Training Rifles[edit] Numbers of Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles were converted to .22 calibre training rifles,[49] in order to teach cadets and new recruits the various aspects of shooting, firearms safety, and marksmanship at a markedly reduced cost per round. Initially, rifles were converted from obsolete Magazine Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
and Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles[50][51] but from the First World War onwards SMLE rifles were used instead. These were known as .22 Pattern 1914 Short Rifles[52] during The First World War and Rifle, No. 2 Mk. IV[53] from 1921 onwards.[54] They were generally single-shot affairs, originally using Morris tubes chambered for cheap .22L cartridge and some larger types, circa 1907. Some were later modified with special adaptors to enable magazine loading. In 1914, Enfield produced complete .22 barrels and bolts specifically for converting .303 units, and these soon became the most common conversion. A five-round .22 cal 'Parker-Hiscock' magazine was also developed and in service for a relatively short period during the later period of the First World War, but was subsequently withdrawn from issue due to reliability problems with its quite complicated loading and feeding mechanism.[55][56] No. 2 Mk. IV rifles are externally identical to a .303 calibre SMLE Mk III* rifle, the only difference being the .22 calibre barrel, empty magazine case, bolthead and extractor which have been modified to fire .22 calibre rimfire cartridges.[57] After the Second World War, the Rifle, No. 7, Rifle, No. 8 and Rifle, No. 9, all .22 rimfire
.22 rimfire
trainers and/or target rifles based on the Lee action, were adopted or in use with Cadet units and target shooters throughout the Commonwealth, the No.8 as of 2017 has been replaced among cadet forces due to obsolescence.[58][59] In Britain, a .22RF version of the No.5 Rifle
Rifle
was prototyped by BSA and trialled with a view to it becoming the British Service training rifle when the .303"CF No.5 was initially mooted as being a potential replacement for the No.4 Rifle.[60] The C No.7 22" MK.I rifle is a .22 single shot, manually fed, training version of the No.4 Mk I* rifle manufactured at Long Branch.[61] Production of this model was 1944-1946 and a few in 1950 to 1953. [62] Muskets and shotguns[edit] Conversion of rifles to smoothbored guns was carried out in several locations, at various times, for varying reasons. SAF Lithgow, in Australia, produced shotguns based on the MkIII action under the "Slazenger" name, chambering the common commercial .410 shotgun shell.[63] Commercial gunsmiths in Australia
Australia
and Britain converted both MkIII and No4 rifles to .410 shotguns. These conversions were prompted by firearms legislation that made possession of a rifle chambered in a military cartridge both difficult and expensive. Smoothbored shotguns could be legally held with far less trouble. RFI, in India, converted a large number of MkIII rifles to single shot muskets, chambered for the .410 Indian Musket cartridge. These conversions were for issue to police and prison guards, to provide a firearm with a much-reduced power and range in comparison to the .303 cartridge. A further likely consideration was the difficulty of obtaining replacement ammunition in the event of the rifle's theft or the carrier's desertion. While British and Australian conversions were to the standard commercially available .410 shotgun cartridge (though of varying chamber lengths) the Indian conversions have been the source of considerable confusion. The Indian conversions were originally chambered for the .410 Indian Musket cartridge, which is based on the .303 British
.303 British
cartridge, and will not chamber the common .410 shotgun cartridge. Many of these muskets were rechambered, after being sold as surplus, and can now be used with commercially available ammunition. Unmodified muskets require handloading of ammunition, as the .410 Indian Musket cartridge was not commercially distributed and does not appear to have been manufactured since the 1950s. Numerous attempts have been made to convert the various single-shot .410 shotgun models to a bolt-action repeating model by removing the wooden magazine plug and replacing it with a standard 10-round SMLE magazine. None of these is known to have been successful,[64] though some owners have adapted 3-round magazines for Savage and Stevens shotguns to function in a converted SMLE shotgun, or even placing such a magazine inside a gutted SMLE magazine. Civilian conversions and variants[edit] From the late 1940s, legislation in New South Wales, Australia, heavily restricted .303 British
.303 British
calibre (and other "military calibre") rifles,[65] so large numbers of SMLEs were converted to "wildcat" calibres such as .303/25, .303/22, .303/270 and the popular 7.7×54mm round.[66] 303/25 calibre sporterised SMLEs are very common in Australia
Australia
today, although ammunition for them has been very scarce since the 1980s.[65] The restrictions placed on "military calibre" rifles in New South Wales were lifted in 1975, and many people who had converted their Lee–Enfields to the "wildcat" rounds converted their rifles back to .303 British.[65] Post-Second World War, SAF Lithgow converted a number of SMLE rifles to commercial sporting rifles- notably the .22 Hornet model- under the "Slazenger" brand.[67] In the early 1950s Essential Agencies Ltd. (E.A.L.), of Toronto, Ontario, produced a run of several thousand survival rifles based on the No. 4 action, but lightened and shortened, chambered in .303 British. Serial numbers below 6000 were for civilian sale, serial numbers 6000 and higher were built under contract to the Canadian government. The Royal Canadian Air Force also used these as a survival rifle in the remote parts of Canada.[citation needed] L59A1 Drill Rifle[edit]

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The L59A1 was a conversion of the No4 Rifle
Rifle
(all Marks) to a Drill Purpose Rifle
Rifle
that was incapable of being restored to a firing configuration. It was introduced in service in the 1970s. A conversion specification of No.1 rifles to L59A2 Drill Purpose was also prepared but was abandoned due to the greater difficulty of machining involved and the negligible numbers still in the hands of cadet units. The L59A1 arose from British government concerns over the vulnerability of Army Cadet Force and school Combined Cadet Forces' (CCF) stocks of small arms to theft by terrorists, in particular the Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
following raids on CCF armouries in the 1950s and 1960s. Previous conversions to Drill Purpose (DP) of otherwise serviceable rifles were not considered to be sufficiently incapable of restoration to fireable state and were a potential source of reconversion spares. L59A1 Drill Rifles were rendered incapable of being fired, and of being restored to a fireable form, by extensive modifications that included the welding of the barrel to the receiver, modifications to the receiver that removed the supporting structures for the bolt's locking lugs and blocking the installation of an unaltered bolt, the removal of the striker's tip, the blocking of the striker's hole in the bolt head and the removal of most of the bolt body's locking lugs. Most bolts were copper plated for identification. A plug was welded in place forward of the chamber, and a window was cut in the side of the barrel. The stock and fore end was marked with broad white painted bands and the letters "DP" for easy identification. Special
Special
service Lee–Enfields: Commando and automatic models[edit] Charlton Automatic Rifles[edit] Main article: Charlton Automatic Rifle

Charlton Automatic Rifle.

Small numbers of Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles were built as, or converted to, experimental automatic loading systems, such as the British Howell and South African Rieder and the best-known of which was the Charlton Automatic Rifle, designed by a New Zealander, Philip Charlton in 1941 to act as a substitute for the Bren and Lewis gun
Lewis gun
light machine guns which were in chronically short supply at the time.[68][69] During the Second World War, the majority of New Zealand's land forces were deployed in North Africa. When Japan
Japan
entered the war in 1941, New Zealand found itself lacking the light machine guns that would be required for local defence should Japan
Japan
choose to invade, and so the New Zealand
New Zealand
Government funded the development of self-loading conversions for the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle.[70] The end result was the Charlton Automatic Rifle
Charlton Automatic Rifle
(based on the obsolete MLE),[71] which was issued to Home Guard units in NZ from 1942. Over 1,500 conversions were made, including a handful by Electrolux
Electrolux
using Lithgow SMLE Mk III* rifles.[72] The two Charlton designs differed markedly in external appearance (amongst other things, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Charlton had a forward pistol grip and bipod, whilst the Australian one did not), but shared the same operating mechanism.[73] Most of the Charlton Automatic Rifles were destroyed in a fire after the Second World War,[74] but a few examples survive in museums and private collections. De Lisle Commando carbine[edit] Main article: De Lisle carbine

The initial wooden-stocked De Lisle with a fitted suppressor.

The Commando units of the British military requested a suppressed rifle for killing sentries, guard dogs and other clandestine operational uses during the Second World War. The resulting weapon, designed by W.G. De Lisle, was effectively an SMLE Mk III* receiver redesigned to take a .45 ACP
.45 ACP
cartridge and associated magazine, with a barrel from a Thompson submachine gun
Thompson submachine gun
and an integral suppressor.[22] It was produced in very limited numbers and an experimental folding stock version was made. Ekins Automatic Rifle[edit] The Ekins Automatic Rifle
Rifle
was one of the numerous attempts to convert a Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
SMLE to an automatic rifle.[70] Similar developments were the South African Rieder and Charlton of Australian/New Zealand origin. Howard Francis carbine[edit]

Howard Francis Self-Loading Carbine

Type Carbine

Place of origin United Kingdom

Production history

Designer Howard Francis

Specifications

Weight 3.7 kg (8.2 lb)

Length 812 mm (32.0 in)

Barrel length 324 mm (12.8 in)

Cartridge 7.63×25mm Mauser

Rate of fire Semi-automatic

Feed system 12-round box magazine

Sights Iron sights

The Howard Francis Self-Loading Carbine
Carbine
was a conversion of a No. 1 Mk III to the 7.63×25mm Mauser
7.63×25mm Mauser
pistol cartridge.[75] It fired in semi-automatic only and suffered some feeding and extraction problems and, despite meeting accuracy and soundness of design concept, never made it past the prototype stage. Howell Automatic Rifle[edit] Main article: Howell Automatic Rifle The Howell Automatic Rifle
Howell Automatic Rifle
was the first attempt to convert the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
SMLE into a semi-automatic rifle. The weapon was reliable but unergonomic for the user as the force of the recoiling bolt interfered with handling. The Howell Automatic Rifle
Howell Automatic Rifle
was used by the British Home Guard as an anti-aircraft weapon. Rieder Automatic Rifle[edit] Main article: Rieder Automatic Rifle The Rieder Automatic Rifle was an automatic (full automatic only) Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
SMLE rifle of South African origin. The Rieder device could be installed straight away without the use of tools. Conversion to 7.62×51mm NATO[edit] During the 1960s, the British Government
British Government
and the Ministry of Defence converted a number of Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 rifles to 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
as part of a programme to retain the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
as a reserve weapon.[76] The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 series rifles that were converted to 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
were re-designated as the L8 series of rifles with the rifles being refitted with 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
barrels, new bolt faces and extractor claws, new rear sights and new 10-round 7.62×51mm NATO magazines that were produced by RSAF Enfield to replace the old 10-round .303 British
.303 British
magazines.[77] The appearance of the L8 series rifles were no different from the original No. 4 rifles, except for the new barrel (which still retained the original No.4 rifle bayonet lugs) and magazine.[78] The L8 series of rifles consisted of L8A1 rifles (converted No.4 Mk2 rifles), L8A2 rifles (converted No.4 Mk1/2 rifles), L8A3 rifles (converted No.4 Mk1/3 rifles), L8A4 rifles (converted No.4 Mk1 rifles), and L8A5 rifles (converted No.4 Mk1* rifles). Sterling Armaments of Dagenham, Essex produced a conversion kit comprising a new 7.62mm barrel, magazine, extractor and ejector for commercial sale. The main difference between the two conversions was in the cartridge ejection arrangement; the Enfield magazine carried a hardened steel projection that struck the rim of the extracted case to eject it, the Sterling system employed a spring-loaded plunger inserted into the receiver wall. The results of the trials that were conducted on the L8 series rifles were mixed and the British Government
British Government
and the Ministry of Defence decided not to convert their existing stocks of Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 rifles to 7.62×51mm NATO. Despite this, the British learned from the results of the L8 test program and used them in successfully converting their stocks of No. 4 (T) sniper rifles to 7.62×51mm NATO, which led to the creation of the L42A1
L42A1
series sniper rifles.[79] In the late 1960s, RSAF Enfield entered the commercial market by producing No.4-based 7.62×51mm rifles for sale. The products were marketed under alliterative names e.g. Enfield Envoy, a rifle intended for civilian competition target shooting and Enfield Enforcer, a rifle fitted with a Pecar telescopic sight to suit the requirements of police firearms teams. Ishapore
Ishapore
2A/2A1[edit] Main article: Ishapore
Ishapore
2A1 rifle

Ishapore
Ishapore
2A1.

At some point just after the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
of 1962, the Ishapore Rifle
Rifle
Factory in India
India
began producing a new type of rifle known as the Rifle
Rifle
7.62 mm 2A, which was based on the SMLE Mk III*[80] and was slightly redesigned to use the 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
round. Externally the new rifle is very similar to the classic Mk III*, with the exception of the buttplate (the buttplate from the 1A SLR is fitted) and magazine, which is more "square" than the SMLE magazine, and usually carries twelve rounds instead of ten,[81] although a number of 2A1s have been noted with 10-round magazines. Ishapore
Ishapore
2A and Ishapore
Ishapore
2A1 receivers are made with improved (EN) steel (to handle the increased pressures of the 7.62×51mm round)[82] and the extractor is redesigned to suit the rimless cartridge. From 1965–1975 (when production is believed to have been discontinued), the sight ranging graduations were changed from 2000 to 800, and the rifle re-designated Rifle
Rifle
7.62 mm 2A1.[83] The original 2,000 yards (1,800 m) rear sight arm was found to be suitable for the ballistics of the 7.62×51mm, which is around 10% more powerful and equates to a flatter trajectory than that of the .303 British
.303 British
MkVII ammunition, so it was a simple matter to think of the '2000' as representing metres rather than yards. It was then decided that the limit of the effective range was a more realistic proposition at 800 m. The Ishapore
Ishapore
2A and 2A1 rifles are often incorrectly described as ".308 conversions". The 2A/2A1 rifles are not conversions of .303 calibre SMLE Mk III* rifles. Rather, they are newly manufactured firearms and are not technically chambered for commercial .308 Winchester ammunition. However, many 2A/2A1 owners shoot such ammunition in their rifles with no problems, although it should be noted that some factory loaded .308 Winchester cartridges may appear to generate higher pressures than 7.62×51mm NATO, even though the rounds are otherwise interchangeable – this is due to the different systems of pressure measurement used for NATO and commercial cartridges. Production and manufacturers[edit] In total, over 16 million Lee–Enfields had been produced in several factories on different continents when production in Britain shut down in 1956, at the Royal Ordnance Factory ROF Fazakerley
ROF Fazakerley
in Liverpool after that factory had been plagued with industrial unrest. The machinery from ROF Fazakerley
ROF Fazakerley
was sold to Pakistan
Pakistan
Ordnance Factories (POF) in Rawalpindi where production and repair of the No.4 rifle was continued. Also contributing to the total was the Rifle
Rifle
Factory Ishapore
Ishapore
(RFI) at Ishapore
Ishapore
in India, which continued to produce the SMLE in both .303 and 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
until the 1980s, and is still manufacturing a sporting rifle based on the SMLE Mk III action, chambered for a .315 calibre cartridge[84] the Birmingham
Birmingham
Small Arms Company factory at Shirley near Birmingham, and SAF Lithgow in Australia, who finally discontinued production of the SMLE Mk III* with a final 'machinery proving' batch of 1000 rifles in early 1956, using 1953-dated receivers. During the First World War alone, 3.8 million SMLE rifles were produced in the UK by RSAF Enfield, BSA, and LSA.[85]

The wristguard markings on a 1918-dated Short Magazine Lee–Enfield Mk III* rifle manufactured by the London Small Arms Co. Ltd. The "G.R." under the crown stands for "George Rex" and refers to the reigning monarch at the time the rifle was manufactured.

List of manufacturers[edit] The manufacturer's names found on the MLE, CLLE, and SMLE Mk I—Mk III* rifles and variants are:

Marking Manufacturer Country

Enfield Royal Small Arms Factory
Royal Small Arms Factory
Enfield United Kingdom

Sparkbrook Royal Small Arms Factory
Royal Small Arms Factory
Sparkbrook United Kingdom

BSA Co The Birmingham Small Arms
Birmingham Small Arms
Company Limited United Kingdom

LSA Co London Small Arms Co. Ltd United Kingdom

Lithgow Lithgow Small Arms Factory Australia

GRI Ishapore
Ishapore
Rifle
Rifle
Factory British India

RFI Ishapore
Ishapore
Rifle
Rifle
Factory India
India
(Post-Independence)

Note 1: "SSA" and "NRF" markings are sometimes encountered on First World War-dated SMLE Mk III* rifles. These stand for "Standard Small Arms" and "National Rifle
Rifle
Factory", respectively. Rifles so marked were assembled using parts from various other manufacturers, as part of a scheme during the First World War to boost rifle production in the UK. Only SMLE Mk III* rifles are known to have been assembled under this program. Note 2: GRI stands for "Georgius Rex, Imperator" (Latin for "King George, Emperor (of India)", denoting a rifle made during the British Raj. RFI stands for " Rifle
Rifle
Factory, Ishapore", denoting a rifle made after the Partition of India
Partition of India
in 1947. For the No. 4 Mk I, No. 4 Mk I* and No. 4 Mk 2 rifles:

Marking Manufacturer Country

ROF (F) Royal Ordnance Factory Fazakerley United Kingdom

ROF (M) Royal Ordnance Factory Maltby United Kingdom

B The Birmingham Small Arms
Birmingham Small Arms
Company Limited United Kingdom

M47 and later M47C Birmingham Small Arms
Birmingham Small Arms
Factory (Shirley) United Kingdom

Long Branch Small Arms Limited and later, Canadian Arsenals Limited Canada

Squared S and US PROPERTY Savage Arms U.S.

POF Pakistan
Pakistan
Ordnance Factories Pakistan

Note 1: Second World War UK production rifles had manufacturer codes for security reasons. For example, BSA Shirley is denoted by M47C, ROF(M) is often simply stamped "M", and BSA is simply stamped "B". Note 2: Savage-made Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 Mk I and No. 4 Mk I* rifles are all stamped "US PROPERTY". They were supplied to the UK under the Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
programme during the Second World War. No Savage Lee–Enfields were ever issued to the US military; the markings existed solely to maintain the pretence that American equipment was being lent to the UK rather than permanently sold to them.[86] Australian International Arms No. 4 Mk IV[edit]

AIA M10-B2 Match Rifle

The Brisbane-based Australian International Arms also manufactured a modern reproduction of the No. 4 Mk II rifle, which they marketed as the AIA No. 4 Mk IV. The rifles were manufactured by parts outsourcing and were assembled and finished in Australia, chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO and fed from modified M14 magazines. The No. 4 Mk IV was designed with the modern shooter in mind, and has the ability to mount a telescopic sight without drilling and tapping the receiver.[87] AIA also offered the AIA M10-A1 rifle, a Jungle Carbine-styled version chambered in 7.62×39mm
7.62×39mm
Russian, which uses AK-47
AK-47
magazines[88] . Magazine supply/importation (M14 and AK 10 single stack mag) whilst legal in Australia, it has been spasmodically curtailed by Australian Federal Customs (for more information, see Gun politics in Australia). It is possible to obtain a 10-round (the maximum allowed by law) M14 magazines for the M10-B2 match rifles in particular, provided an import permit from the appropriate Licensing Services Division can be obtained in some States, yet Australian Federal Customs may still refuse importation on no valid grounds.[89] Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copies[edit] A number of British Service Rifles, predominantly the Martini–Henry and Martini–Enfield, but also the various Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles, have been produced by small manufacturers in the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
region of the Pakistani/Afghan border.[90] " Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copies", as they are known, tend to be copied exactly from a "master" rifle, which may itself be a Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copy, markings and all, which is why it's not uncommon to see Khyber Pass rifles with the "N" in "Enfield" reversed, amongst other things.[91] The quality on such rifles varies from "as good as a factory-produced example" to "dangerously unsafe", tending towards the latter end of the scale. Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copy rifles cannot generally stand up to the pressures generated by modern commercial ammunition,[91] and are generally considered unsafe to fire under any circumstances.[7] Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copies can be recognised by a number of factors, notably:

Spelling errors in the markings; as noted the most common of which is a reversed "N" in "Enfield") V.R. (Victoria Regina) cyphers dated after 1901; Queen Victoria died in 1901, so any rifles made after 1901 should be stamped "E.R" (Edwardius Rex— King Edward VII
King Edward VII
or King Edward VIII) or "G.R" (Georgius Rex—King George V
George V
or King George VI). Generally inferior workmanship, including weak/soft metal, poorly finished wood, and badly struck markings.[91]

Armalon[edit] British company Armalon Ltd[92] developed a number of rifles based on the Lee Enfield No 4. The PC Gallery Rifle
Rifle
is a carbine in pistol and revolver calibres, the AL42 a 5.56 mm rifle and the AL30C, a carbine in .30 Carbine. The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
in military/police use today[edit]

An Afghan mujahid carries a Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
in August 1985

Canadian Rangers, photographed in Nunavut, June 2011

The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
family of rifles is the second oldest bolt-action rifle design still in official service, after the Mosin–Nagant.[7] Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles are used by reserve forces and police forces in many Commonwealth countries, including Malawi. In Canada
Canada
the .303" and .22" models are being phased out [2016]. Indian police officers carrying SMLE Mk III* and Ishapore
Ishapore
2A1 rifles were a familiar sight throughout railway stations in India
India
after Mumbai train bombings of 2006 and the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. They are also still seen in the hands of Pakistani and Bangladeshi second-line and police units. However, the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
was mainly replaced in main-line service in the Pakistani Police in the mid-1980s by the AK 47, in response to increasing proliferation of the Kalashnikov in the black market and civilian use. In Jordan, the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
was in use with the Police and Gendarmerie until 1971, and with the Armed Forces until 1965. In Iraq
Iraq
and Egypt, the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
was replaced by the Kalashnikov as the standard issue rifle in the Armed Forces by the late 1950s, and in Police Forces by the late 1970s. In the UK, the single-shot .22 calibre Rifle
Rifle
No. 8 is in regular use with UK Cadet Forces as a light target rifle.[93] Enfields continue to be used as drill weapons by the National Ceremonial Guard of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).[94] Many Afghan participants in the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
were armed with Lee–Enfields.[95] The CIA's Operation Cyclone
Operation Cyclone
provided hundreds of thousands of Enfields to the Mujahideen, funneling them through Pakistan's ISI. CIA officer Gust Avrakotos later arranged for the Egyptian Ministry of Defence to set up production lines of Enfield .303 ammunition specifically for the conflict. Later on when Avrakotos asked Michael Vickers to revamp their strategy, he stopped the Enfield system and, with the large amounts of money available thanks to Charlie Wilson, replaced them with a mix of modern weapons like AK-47s and mortars.[96]

An SMLE owned by Maoist rebels in Nepal, 2005.

Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
Copies patterned after the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
are still manufactured in the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
region, as bolt-action rifles remain effective weapons in desert and mountain environments where long-range accuracy is more important than rate of fire.[7] Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles are still popular in the region, despite the presence and ready availability of more modern weapons such as the SKS-45, the AKM, the Chinese Type 56 assault rifle, and the AK-74.[7][97] As of 2012[update], Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles (along with Mosin–Nagants) are still being used by the Taliban insurgents against NATO/Allied forces in Afghanistan. Photos from the recent civil war in Nepal
Nepal
showed that the government troops were being issued SMLE Mk III/III* rifles to fight the Maoist rebels, and that the Maoists were also armed with SMLE rifles, amongst other weapons.[98] Police in Kathmandu may also be seen equipped with SMLE rifles. Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles have also been seen in the hands of both the Naxalites and the Indian police in the ongoing Maoist insurgency in rural India. Police forces in both the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
continue to operate and maintain stocks of SMLE Mk IVs.[99] The Tongan security forces also retain a substantial number of Mk IVs donated from New Zealand's reserve stocks.[99] Lee Enfield rifles are used by the Jamaica
Jamaica
Constabulary force for training recruits during field-craft exercises and drills. The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
in civilian use[edit] Lee–Enfields are very popular as hunting rifles and target shooting rifles. Many surplus Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles were sold in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States after the Second World War, and a fair number have been 'sporterised', having had the front furniture reduced or removed and a scope fitted so that they resemble a bolt-action sporting rifle.[7] Top-notch accuracy is difficult to achieve with the Lee–Enfield design,[33] as it was intended to be a battle rifle rather than a sharpshooter's weapon,[33] and thus the Enfield is nowadays overshadowed by derivatives of Paul Mauser's design as a target shooting arm. They did, however, continue to be used at Bisley up into the 1970s with some success, and continue to perform extremely well at Military Service Rifle
Rifle
Competitions throughout the world.[7] Many people still hunt with as-issued Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles, with commercial .303 British
.303 British
ammunition proving especially effective on medium-sized game.[7] Soft-point .303 ammunition is widely available for hunting purposes, though the Mark 7 military cartridge design often proves adequate because its tail-heavy design makes the bullet yaw violently and deform after hitting the target.[100][101] The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle is a popular gun for historic rifle enthusiasts and those who find the 10-round magazine, loading by charger clips, and the rapid bolt-action useful for Practical Rifle events. Since formation in 1998, organisations such as the Lee Enfield Rifle
Rifle
Association have assisted in not just preserving rifles in shooting condition (many Lee–Enfields are being deactivated and sold as "wall-hangers" to collectors who do not hold a Firearms Licence in countries where they are required), but holding events and competitions. Lee–Enfields are also popular with competitors in service rifle competitions in many Commonwealth countries. The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
series is very popular for service rifle shooting competitions in the UK and Australia
Australia
due to the prohibitions on the legal ownership of semi-automatic centrefire rifles in Great Britain and restrictions on the legal ownership of semi-automatic centrefire rifles in Australia.[102][103] (For more information see Gun politics in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Gun politics in Australia.) Rhineland Arms produces .45 ACP
.45 ACP
conversion kits for the Lee–Enfield action using M1911 pistol
M1911 pistol
magazines.[104] The Lee-Speed Sporter was a higher quality British made version of the Lee–Enfield. Users[edit]

Turkish 8×57mm conversion of a Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
captured during World War I.

Members of the Milice, armed with captured British No. 4 Lee–Enfield Rifles and Bren Guns

 Afghanistan[105][106][107]  Australia: No.1 MkIII/MkIII* manufactured at Lithgow Arsenal in Lithgow, New South Wales[44][108]  Bangladesh: extensively used during 1971 war. Used by Police, Ansar and BNCC personnel in modern times.  Barbados[109]  Belgium: post-WW2 British and Canadian donations were used by Belgian soldiers in the Korean War
Korean War
until 1952.  Bermuda: used by the Bermuda
Bermuda
Volunteer Rifle
Rifle
Corps  British Hong Kong: used by the Royal Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Regiment  Brunei: used by the Royal Brunei
Brunei
Armed Forces and Royal Brunei Police Force during the early days, replaced by M16 series.  Canada:[5][108] The No.4 rifle was manufactured starting in 1941 by Small Arms Limited and later by Canadian Arsenals Limited, in Long Branch, Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Militia received the MK. I Long Lee Enfield rifle in 1896. They used this rifle in the Boer War 1899 to 1902. They used the MK.III & MK.III* in WWI as well as the No.4 Lee Enfield in WWII, the Korean War
Korean War
and into the late 1950s in general is due. The No.4 rifle is still used for drill and was used for range shooting by the Royal Canadian Army Cadets, Royal Canadian Sea Cadets and the Royal Canadian Air Cadets. Most units are stripped of the mechanism that fires the round but at many Cadet Training Centres the rifles are in full working order, the rifle is used at the Vernon Summer Training Center for Feu du joix. The No.4 was being phased out by the Canadian Rangers
Canadian Rangers
as a service rifle starting in 2016.  Republic of China Lend leased by the UK during WWII.  Czechoslovakia: used by free Czechoslovak forces during WWII.  Denmark: used as Rifle
Rifle
M/45E by the Danish brigade in occupied Germany from 1945, eventually replaced by the US M1 rifle as Rifle M/50 in 1950.[110]  Falkland Islands  Fiji   Finland
Finland
Used some small numbers during Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
and WWII.  France: (Foreign Legion, Free French Forces).[111][112] Also used during WW2 by the French Resistance
French Resistance
and some captured from the Resistance were used by the pro-Nazi French militia Milice
Milice
française (see picture to the right)  Nazi Germany: some captured No. 1 Mk. III* Lee–Enfields were used by the Volkssturm
Volkssturm
in 1944 and 1945[113] The German designation was Gewehr 281 (e).[114]  Greece: Used by Hellenic armed forces during World War II
World War II
and post- World War II
World War II
period.[115] Greece
Greece
used the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
and British small arms until they were replaced by the M1 Garand
M1 Garand
and American small arms.  Grenada  Hong Kong[116]  Iceland: Once used by Icelandic Coast Guard
Icelandic Coast Guard
and National Police of Iceland.[citation needed]   British Raj
British Raj
 India: In service with British Indian Army throughout First and Second World Wars. Now made under licence by Ishapore Rifle Factory as the Ishapore
Ishapore
2A1 rifle[117]  Indonesia: Used by republicans in Indonesian National Revolution; some were taken from the Dutch.  Italy: post- World War II
World War II
Italian Army and Navy [118] Kingdom of Iraq[5]  Ireland: both No1 MkIII/III* and No4 were used by Irish Defence Forces1922-60 and with the reserve till 1988 replace with Belgian FN from 1960 on[5] Also captured from British forces etc. and used by Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
from 1914 on and by other Irish Republican groups.  Israel: used during the first few years of independence.  Jamaica: still used by the Jamaica
Jamaica
Constabulary Force, Correctional Services and Jamaica
Jamaica
Combined Cadet Force  Japan: Captured from British Army
British Army
during World War II.[119]  Jordan  Katanga: bought for police force but also used by army  Kenya  Kiribati  Luxembourg: used by the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
detachment in the Korean War  Malaysia[120]  Malta  Myanmar: used by Myanmar
Myanmar
Police Force for ceremonial purposes    Nepal[117]  Netherlands: Both the Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 1 Mark III and No. 4 Mark I would be adopted in 1941 and serve until 1952, until replaced by the M1 Garand.[121]  New Zealand[5]  Nigeria: Used by the Nigeria
Nigeria
Regiment.  Norway: Received from Allied airdrops to the resistance during WW2 and given by Britain to the Norwegian Brigade during the occupation of Germany in 1947. Returned to Britain in 1952 in exchange for P-17 rifles. A total of 24992 .303 rifles were in Norwegian inventory at the time. Replaced by M-1 Garand and M-1 Carbines. [122]  Oman  Ottoman Empire: Captured rifles, used as reserve weapons.[123]  Pakistan[117]  Papua New Guinea[124]  Poland: used by the Polish exiled army  Portugal: used by the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps, during the First World War[125]  Qatar[126]  Rhodesia[127][128]  Rwanda  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Singapore: reserve units until the late 1960s. Still used by Singapore
Singapore
Armed Forces Military Police Command for ceremonial purposes.  Solomon Islands: used by the Royal Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Police Force.[99]  South Africa[5]  South Korea[129]  South Yemen  Sri Lanka: Most assumed to be sourced from India.[130]  Tanzania[131]  Tibet  Thailand: (the contract was concluded on 10 December 1920 when the king received shipment of 10,000 rifles.) [132]  Tonga[99]  Trinidad & Tobago: Trinidad & Tobago Cadet Force  Turkey: converted Ottoman-captured rifles to 7.92×57mm Mauser.[123]  Uganda  United Kingdom[120][133]  United States: Used by units of the American Expeditionary Force attached to British and Australian units during the First World War.[134][135] No.4 MkI/MkI* rifles manufactured by Savage-Stevens Firearms under Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
for the British and Commonwealth forces during WWII. Some US Army units attached to British Commonwealth units in Burma during WWII were issued Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles on logistics grounds.  Vanuatu[99]

See also[edit]

Table of handgun and rifle cartridges

Notes[edit]

^ a b Skennerton 1993, p. 153, 230. ^ a b "Rifle, Short Magazine Lee Enfield". The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Rifle Website. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2010.  ^ a b c d e Skennerton 2007, p. 90. ^ a b Hogg 1978, p. 215. ^ a b c d e f Skennerton 2007, p. 587. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 264. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Wilson 2007. ^ Pugliese, David (17 October 2011). "Military draws blanks in bids for rifles Firms don't want to give up secrets". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.  ^ Military Production at Lithgow SAF ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 60. ^ Skennerton, Ian. "Arms and Militaria, Bulletin Board". Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 159. ^ Tucker 2013, p. 279. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 91. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 453–454. ^ Skennerton 1997, p. 8. ^ a b Skennerton 1994c, p. 5. ^ LOC § 11715 ^ a b Skennerton 2007, p. 132. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 126. ^ a b c Skennerton 1994c, p. 9. ^ a b Skennerton 2001, p. 7. ^ a b c Skennerton 2007, p. 161. ^ Skennerton 1994c, p. 7. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 171–172. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 338. ^ THE .256 INCH BRITISH: A LOST OPPORTUNITY by Anthony G Williams Archived 6 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ War Office 1999, p. 7–8. ^ a b Skennerton 1994c, p. 8. ^ a b c Skennerton 2007, p. 187. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 189, 194. ^ Skennerton 1994b, p. 5. ^ a b c d Smith 1979, p. 21. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 406. ^ a b c Skennerton 1994b, p. 9. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 230. ^ a b Skennerton 1994b, p. 7. ^ Skennerton 1994b, p. 6. ^ a b c Wilson 2006. ^ Skennerton (1994a), p.8 ^ Skennerton 1994a, p. 7. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 349. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 347. ^ a b Skennerton 2007, p. 345. ^ Skennerton 2004a, p. 36. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 227. ^ Keefe, Mark A. IV (2007). "British Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
No. 4 (T) Sniper Rifle". American Rifleman. National Rifle Association
National Rifle Association
(August): 88.  ^ "Enfield Enforcer". Amstevens.fsnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
and other Training Rifles and Associated Equipment". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Rifle
Rifle
RF Short Mks.I and II (II)". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Skennerton (2007), pp.481–483 ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Rifle
Rifle
.22RF Pattern 14". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 484–489. ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Pattern 18 – ".303 cum .22" (II)". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 484,488. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 489. ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
and other Training Rifles and Associated Equipment". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 504–509. ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Rifle
Rifle
No.5 .22RF". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ SHOT Backwards Design Company. "The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Rifle
Rifle
C. No.7 (Canadian)". Rifleman.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ http://www.milsurps.com/content.php?r=152-1944-C-No.7-.22-Caliber-Lee-Enfield-Training-Rifle ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 379. ^ Griffiths 1998. ^ a b c Enright 1998. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 351. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 549. ^ Skennerton 2001, p. 33. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 203. ^ a b Special
Special
Service Lee Enfields: Commando and Auto Models by Ian Skennerton. Published by Ian D Skennerton, PO Box 80, Labrador 4215, Australia, 2001. ISBN 0-949749-37-0. Paperback, 48 pp, 50 plus b & w drawings and photos, 210 × 274 mm ^ Skennerton 2001, p. 37. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 37–38. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 505. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 205. ^ Special
Special
Service Lee Enfields: Commando and Auto Models by Ian Skennerton. Published by Ian D Skennerton, 2001. ISBN 0-949749-37-0. ^ "Blogger: Aanmelden". Anonymous-generaltopics.blogspot.com. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Skennerton (2007), pp.255–259 ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 255–260. ^ Skennerton (2007), pp.260–264 ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 515. ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 370. ^ Skennerton 2004b, p. 5. ^ Skennerton 2004b, p. 14. ^ ".315" Sporting Rifle". Indian Ordnance Factories. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 171. ^ Skennerton (2007), Chapter 15 ^ "Improved Enfield Rifles". Australian International Arms Rifles/Lawrance Ordnance. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 553. ^ Firearms Act, SCHEDULE 2, Part (8)(b), accessed 11 January 2010 ^ Skennerton 2007, p. 368. ^ a b c Skennerton 1993, p. 334. ^ The Armalon Web Site. "Company web site". Retrieved 2014-12-20.  ^ " Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Rifle
Rifle
No.8 for the British Forces". UK N.R.A Historic Arms Resource Centre. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ Mashamaite, Kgabo (2012-04-08). "The SANDF opens the 2012 Rand Easter Show". South African Department of Defence. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-20.  ^ Modern Warfare, Published by Mark Dartford, Marshall Cavendish (London) 1985 ^ Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History, George Crile, 2003, Grove/Atlantic. ^ "Infantry: No Known Cure For The AK-47
AK-47
Disease". Strategypage.com. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ "Nepalese army begins arms storage". BBC. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ a b c d e Capie, David (2004). Under the Gun: The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific. Wellington: Victoria University Press. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0864734532.  ^ "The Box O' Truth No. 37 – The Deadly .303 British". The Box O' Truth. Retrieved 28 January 2009. [self-published source] ^ War Office 1999, p. 364. ^ "Firearms Law". Sporting Shooter Magazine (UK). Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2009.  ^ "SSAA—National Firearms Licensing Guide". Sporting Shooters' Association of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2009.  ^ Holt Bodinson (April 2005), "Rhineland .45 ACP
.45 ACP
Carbine: fun conversions for surplus Enfields and Mausers", Guns Magazine, archived from the original on 27 May 2010  ^ "Anistoriton: An Essay". Anistor.gr. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ "Afghan War Rugs: A Sub-group with Iranian Influence". Rugreview.com. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ "Photo from Getty Images". Daylife.com. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ a b Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X. ^ Jon Rupinski. " Barbados
Barbados
Defence Force". pinterest. Retrieved 2017-08-24.  ^ "Ad Gevar, Vis records [ Id: 114 ]". Arma Dania. Retrieved 28 February 2017.  ^ Jordon, David (2005). The History of the French Foreign Legion: From 1831 to Present Day. The Lyons Press. p. 159. ISBN 1-59228-768-9.  ^ Sumner, Ian (1998). The French Army 1939–45. Osprey. p. 14. ISBN 1-85532-707-4.  ^ Scarlata, Paul (20 January 2011). " Small arms
Small arms
of the Deutscher Volkssturm
Volkssturm
part I". http://www.thefreelibrary.com/. Shotgun
Shotgun
News. Retrieved 6 July 2015. The Volkssturm
Volkssturm
even received some No. 1 Mk. III* Lee-Enfields that had been abandoned by the British during their evacuation from Dunkirk or captured in North Africa.  External link in website= (help) ^ Heber, Dr Thorsten (2008), Kennblätter fremden Geräts: Heft 1, Handwaffen, Books on Demand, ISBN 978-3837040425 p. 85 (in German) ^ Sazanidis 1995. ^ Cite error: The named reference jones2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b c Skennerton 2007, Chapter 11. ^ "Enfield Rifles From Italian Navy". Euroarms. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Cite error: The named reference bishop2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Skennerton 2007. ^ Talens, Martien. De ransel op de rug deel 2. Brabantia Nostra. p. 372. ^ Karl Egil Hanevik (1998). Norske Militærgeværer etter 1867.Hanevik Våpen. p. 371. ISBN 8299314313 ^ a b "Enfauser". Turk Mauser. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Alpers, Philip (2010). Karp, Aaron, ed. The Politics of Destroying Surplus Small Arms: Inconspicuous Disarmament. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge Books. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-0-415-49461-8.  ^ " France
France
at War – Portugal
Portugal
in the Great War". Worldwar1.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Cite error: The named reference WG was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Neil Grant. Rhodesian Light Infantryman 1961–80. pp. 14, 28.  ^ Xande Anderer (2012-04-01). "War Continued... Vietnam Veterans in the Rhodesian Bush War". vvaveteran.org. Retrieved 2017-08-15.  ^ Cite error: The named reference bishop2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Smith, Chris (October 2003). In the Shadow of a Cease-fire: The Impacts of Small Arms Availability and Misuse in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(PDF). Small Arms Survey.  ^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2017/11/24/wwii-weapons-in-tanzania/ ^ "ปืนพระราม 6 ( ปืนเสือป่า ) หมายเลข 1". Thailandoutdoor.com. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4. ^ "Weapons of the 107th: Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Mk.III". Retrieved 11 September 2009.  ^ Shurtleff, Leonard G. (2003). "Doughboy's Rifle: (It wasn't necessarily a Springfield)". Doughboy Center: The Story of the American Expeditionary Forces. The Great War Society. Retrieved 11 September 2009. 

References[edit]

UK-NRA – Historic Arms Resource Centre – Enfield and Lee–Enfield Training Rifles Reference Pages § 11715, List of Changes in British War Material ("LoC"), H.M. Stationer's Office (HMSO), periodical Enright, John (February 1998). Centrefires in Australia—1948 and On. Australian Shooter's Journal.  Griffiths, Clarrie (February 1998). 1948? Yes, I Remember... Australian Shooter's Journal.  Hogg, Ian V. (1978). The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of the World's Firearms. A&W Publishers. ISBN 978-0-89479-031-7.  Sazanidis, Christos (1995). Τα όπλα των Ελλήνων (Arms of the Greeks). Thessaloniki (Greece): Maiandros.  Skennerton, Ian (2007). The Lee–Enfield. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-82-6.  Skennerton, Ian (2004a). Small Arms Identification Series No. 19: Australian S.M.L.E. Variations. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-49-4.  Skennerton, Ian (2004b). Small Arms Identification Series No. 18: 7.62mm L42A1
L42A1
Sniper, L39A1, 2A & Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Conversions. Labrador, QLD: Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-48-6.  Skennerton, Ian (2001). Small Arms Identification Series No. 12: Special
Special
Service Lee–Enfields (Commando & Auto Models). Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-29-X.  Skennerton, Ian (2001). Small Arms Identification Series No. 14: .303 Lewis Machine Gun. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-42-7.  Skennerton, Ian (1997). Small Arms Identification Series No. 7: .303 Magazine Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
and Magazine Lee–Enfield. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-25-7.  Skennerton, Ian (1994a). Small Arms Identification Series No. 4: .303 Rifle, No. 5 Mk I. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-21-4.  Skennerton, Ian (1994b). Small Arms Identification Series No. 2: .303 Rifle, No. 4, Marks I & I*, Marks 1/2, 1/3 & 2. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-20-6.  Skennerton, Ian (1994c). Small Arms Identification Series No. 1: .303 Rifle, No. 1, S.M.L.E. Marks III and III*. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 0-949749-19-2.  Skennerton, Ian (1993). The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
Story. Gold Coast QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. ISBN 1-85367-138-X.  Tucker, Spencer.C (2013). The European Powers in the First World War. An Encyclopedia. New York (USA): Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-0399-8.  Smith, W.H.B. (1979). 1943 Basic Manual of Military Small Arms (Facsimile Edition). Harrisburg PA (USA): Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1699-6.  War Office (1999) [1929]. Textbook of Small Arms 1929. London: Dural (NSW): H.M.S.O/Rick Landers.  Wilson, Royce (September 2007). SMLE: The Short Magazine Lee–Enfield Mk III. Australian Shooter Magazine.  Wilson, Royce (May 2006). Jungle Fever: The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
.303 Rifle. Australian Shooter Magazine.  Wilson, Royce (August 2007). Straight Up With a Twist: The Martini–Enfield
Martini–Enfield
.303 Rifle. Australian Shooter Magazine.  Lee Enfield No1 Mk.V

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lee-Enfield.

Demonstration of rapid aimed fire at Bisley Demonstration of rapid fire – 10 aimed shots in 9 seconds

v t e

British Empire
British Empire
small arms and ordnance of the First World War

Rifles

Lee-Metford Magazine Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
(MLE) rifle Short Magazine Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
(SMLE) rifle Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield
rifle Ross Rifle
Rifle
(Canada)

Machine guns

Maxim gun Vickers machine gun Hotchkiss Mark I Lewis Gun

Side arms

Webley .455" Revolver Mk. IV–VI Webley .455" Pistol
Pistol
Mk. I Colt New Service Smith & Wesson Triple Lock

Hand grenades

No. 1 No. 2 Hales Pattern Nos. 3, 20, 24, 35 Hales rifle grenades Nos. 5, 23, 36 Mills No. 6 Nos. 8, 9 Jam Tin No. 13 Battye No. 14 Pitcher No. 15 Ball No. 16 Oval No. 17 Opera hat No. 18 No. 19 No. 21 "Spherical" No. 22 Newton-Pippin No. 25 Sangster No. 27 No. 28 Chemical No. 29 Gas No. 31 Day Signal No. 32 Night Signal No. 32 "Spherical E" No. 34 Egg No. 37 No. 39 Steuart Pattern

Artillery

Tank guns

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss QF 6 pounder 6 cwt

Infantry guns

1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II
("Vickers-Crayford rocket gun")

Field Artillery

BL 12 pounder 6 cwt QF 12 pounder 8 cwt QF 12 pounder 18 cwt QF 13 pounder BL 15 pounder BLC 15 pounder QF 15 pounder QF 18 pounder QF 4 inch gun Mk III BL 4 inch gun Mk VII QF 4.5 inch Howitzer

Mountain artillery

RML 2.5 inch Mountain Gun BL 10 pounder Mountain Gun BL 2.75-inch Mountain Gun QF 2.95 inch Mountain Gun QF 3.7-inch mountain howitzer

Howitzers, medium, and heavy artillery

QF 4.7 inch Gun BL 5 inch Howitzer BL 5.4 inch Howitzer BL 60 pounder gun BLC 6 inch siege gun BL 6 inch Gun Mk VII BL 6 inch Gun Mk XIX BL 6-inch 26 cwt howitzer BL 6-inch 30 cwt howitzer BL 8 inch Howitzer
Howitzer
Mk I - V BL 8 inch Howitzer
Howitzer
Mk VI - VIII

Siege artillery

BL 7.5 inch Mk III naval gun BL 9.2-inch howitzer BL 9.2 inch Mk X naval gun BL 12 inch Howitzer BL 12 inch Mk X naval gun BL 15 inch Howitzer

Coastal artillery

QF 12 pounder 12 cwt QF 4 inch naval gun Mk I – III BL 6 inch Mk VII naval gun BL 9.2 inch gun Mk IX–X RML 9 inch

Mortars

Garland Trench Mortar 3 inch Stokes Mortar Light Mortar (IJA Artillery) 3.7 inch mortar 4 inch mortar Vickers 1.57 inch mortar 2 inch Medium Mortar Newton 6 inch Mortar 9.45 inch Heavy Mortar

Grenade launchers

Leach Trench Catapult West Spring Gun Sauterelle

Smoke and chemical weapons

4 inch Stokes Mortar Livens Projector Livens Large Gallery Flame Projector

Railway guns

BL 9.2 inch Railway Gun BL 12 inch Railway Gun BL 12 inch railway howitzer BL 14 inch Railway Gun

Anti-aircraft guns

QF 1 pounder pom-pom QF 2 pounder "pom-pom" Mk II 75 mm AA gun QF 12 pounder 12 cwt QF 3 inch 5 cwt QF 13 pounder 6 cwt QF 13 pounder Mk IV QF 13 pounder 9 cwt QF 3 inch 20 cwt QF 18 pounder QF 4 inch Mk V

Foreign weapon designs in British Empire
British Empire
Armies use

Hotchkiss Mark I Lewis Gun Light Mortar (IJA Artillery) 75 mm AA gun QF 15 pounder 9.45 inch Heavy Mortar Sauterelle

v t e

British Commonwealth small arms of World War II
World War II
and Korea

Side-arms

Webley Mk IV & Mk VI Revolvers Enfield No. 2
Enfield No. 2
Mk I Revolver Browning P-35 "High Power" Pistol M1911/M1911A1 pistol Smith & Wesson "Victory" Revolver Welrod

Rifles & submachine guns

SMLE No.1 Mk III* & Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
No.4 Mk.I Pattern 1914 Enfield Lee-Enfield
Lee-Enfield
No.5 Mk.I "Jungle Carbine" Ross Rifle
Rifle
Mk.III De Lisle Commando Carbine Sten Lanchester Sterling Austen Kokoda Owen Gun Welgun M1921/M1928/M1 Thompson

Machine-guns & other larger weapons

Besa machine gun Bren Gun Charlton Automatic Rifle Lewis Gun Vickers MG PIAT Rifle, Anti-Tank, .55 in, Boys 29 mm Spigot Mortar "Blacker Bombard" SBML 2inch Mortar Projector, 2½-inch Mk. II "Northover" ML 3-inch Mortar ML 4.2 inch Mortar 3-inch Mk. I OSB Gun "Smith Gun" No.2 "Lifebuoy" Flamethrower

Grenades

British grenades of WWI and WW2 Mills Bomb

Small arms
Small arms
cartridges

.303 British 9mm Parabellum .45 ACP .455 Webley .38/200 .38 Special .50 BMG .55 Boys 15×104 mm Brno

v t e

Current UK individual weapons and cartridges

Pistols

L9A1 L106A1 L117A2 L131A1

Assault rifles carbines Designated marksman rifles

L85A2 IW L86A2 LSW L22A2 L129A1 L119A1 HK 417

Sniper
Sniper
rifles

Arctic Warfare Covert L96A1, L118A1 L115A1, L115A3 L121A1 L82A1

Submachine guns

L80A1 (MP5K), L90A1 (MP5K A1) L91A1 (MP5 A2/A3), L92A1 (MP5 SD2/SD3)

Shotguns

L74A1 L128A1

Machine guns

L108A1, L110A1 L7A2 L2A1 (M2HB), L111A1 (M2HB-QCB)

Grenade non-lethal launchers

L17A1/A2 L67A1 L134A1

Rockets

LASM LAW 80 M3 Carl Gustav L2A1 (ILAW) L142A1 (AT4CS HP)

Missiles

MILAN FGM-148 Javelin Starstreak SAM (shoulder launched or 3-shot multiple launcher)

Mortars

L9A1 M6-640 L16A2

Modern cartridges used

5.56×45mm NATO 7.62×51mm NATO 12.7×99mm NATO .338 Lapua 9×19mm P

.