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LEBENSBORN E.V. (literally: "Fount of Life") was an SS -initiated, state -supported, registered association in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
with the goal of raising the birth rate of "Aryan " children of persons classified as "racially pure and healthy" based on Nazi racial hygiene and health ideology . Lebensborn
Lebensborn
provided welfare to its mostly unmarried mothers, encouraged anonymous births by unmarried women at their maternity homes, and mediated adoption of these children by likewise "racially pure and healthy" parents, particularly SS members and their families. The Cross of Honour of the German Mother was given to the women who bore the most Aryan children. Abortion was illegal at this time.

Initially set up in Germany in 1935, Lebensborn
Lebensborn
expanded into several occupied European countries with Germanic populations during the Second World War. It included the selection of "racially worthy" orphans for adoption and care for children born from Aryan women who had been in relationships with SS members. It originally excluded children born from unions between common soldiers and foreign women, because there was no proof of racial purity on both sides. During the war, many children were kidnapped from their parents and judged by "aryan" criteria for their suitability to be raised in Lebensborn homes, and fostering by German families.

At the Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
, much direct evidence was found of the Kidnapping of children by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, not just in Poland
Poland
but across Greater Germany
Greater Germany
during the period 1939-45.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Implementation * 3 Germanisation * 4 Post-war trial * 5 Post-war * 6 Self-help groups and aftermath * 7 See also * 8 References

* 9 Further reading

* 9.1 England/USA * 9.2 France
France
* 9.3 Germany * 9.4 Norway
Norway

* 10 External links

BACKGROUND

The Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e. V. (e.V. stands for eingetragener Verein or registered association), meaning "fount of life", was founded on 12 December 1935, to counteract falling birth rates in Germany, and to promote Nazi eugenics
Nazi eugenics
. Located in Munich
Munich
, the organization was partly an office within the Schutzstaffel (SS) responsible for certain family welfare programs, and partly a society for Nazi leaders.

On 13 September 1936, Heinrich Himmler wrote the following to members of the SS:

The organisation " Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e.V." serves the SS leaders in the selection and adoption of qualified children. The organisation " Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e.V." is under my personal direction, is part of the Race and Settlement Central Bureau of the SS, and has the following obligations: 1. Support racially, biologically and hereditarily valuable families with many children. 2. Placement and care of racially, biologically and hereditarily valuable pregnant women, who, after thorough examination of their and the progenitor's families by the Race and Settlement Central Bureau of the SS, can be expected to produce equally valuable children. 3. Care for the children. 4. Care for the children's mothers. It is the honorable duty of all leaders of the central bureau to become members of the organisation " Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e.V.". The application for admission must be filed prior to 23 September 1936.

In 1939, membership stood at 8,000, of which 3,500 were SS leaders. The Lebensborn
Lebensborn
office was part of SS Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt (SS Race and Settlement Main Office ) until 1938, when it was transferred to Hauptamt Persönlicher Stab Reichsführer-SS (Personal Staff of the Reichführer-SS), i.e. directly overseen by Himmler. Leaders of Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e. V. were SS-Standartenführer Max Sollmann and SS-Oberführer Dr. Gregor Ebner. Christening of a Lebensborn child, c. 1935–1936

IMPLEMENTATION

Initially the programme served as a welfare institution for wives of SS officers; the organization ran facilities – primarily maternity homes – where women could give birth or get help with family matters. The programme also accepted unmarried women who were either pregnant or had already given birth and were in need of aid, provided that both the woman and the father of the child were classified as "racially valuable". About 60% of the mothers were unmarried. The program allowed them to give birth secretly away from home without social stigma . In case the mothers wanted to give up the children, the program also had orphanages and an adoption service. When dealing with non-SS members, parents and children were usually examined by SS doctors before admission.

The first Lebensborn
Lebensborn
home (known as 'Heim Hochland') opened in 1936, in Steinhöring , a tiny village not far from Munich. The first home outside of Germany opened in Norway
Norway
in 1941. Many of these facilities were established in confiscated houses and former nursing homes owned by Jews. Leaders of the League of German Girls were instructed to recruit young women with the potential to become good breeding partners for SS officers.

While Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e. V. established facilities in several occupied countries, its activities were concentrated around Germany, Norway
Norway
and occupied northeastern Europe , mainly Poland
Poland
. The main focus in occupied Norway
Norway
was aiding children born to Norwegian women and fathered by German soldiers. In northeastern Europe the organisation, in addition to services provided to SS members, engaged in the transfer of children, mostly orphans, to families in Germany.

Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e. V. had or planned to have facilities in the following countries (some were merely field offices):

* Germany: 10 * Austria
Austria
: 3 * Poland
Poland
( General Government
General Government
– the occupied Polish territory and annexed lands of Poland): 6 (8 if Stettin and Bad Polzin are included.) * Norway
Norway
: 9 * Denmark
Denmark
: 2 * France
France
: 1 (February 1944 – August 1944) – in Lamorlaye * Belgium
Belgium
: 1 (March 1943 – September 1944) – in Wégimont , in the municipality of Soumagne * Netherlands
Netherlands
: 1 * Luxembourg
Luxembourg
: 1

About 8,000 children were born in Lebensborn
Lebensborn
homes in Germany, and between 8,000 and 12,000 children in Norway. Elsewhere the total number of births was much lower. For more information about Lebensborn
Lebensborn
in Norway, see war children .

In Norway
Norway
the Lebensborn
Lebensborn
organisation handled approximately 250 adoptions. In most of these cases the mothers had agreed to the adoption, but not all were informed that their children would be sent to Germany for adoption. The Norwegian government recovered all but 80 of these children after the war.

GERMANISATION

Main article: Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Kidnapping of Polish children during the Nazi-German resettlement operation in Zamość
Zamość
county Polish children in Nazi-German labour camp in Dzierżązna near Zgierz

In 1939, the Nazis started to kidnap children from foreign countries – mainly from Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Poland
Poland
, but also including Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Romania
Romania
, Estonia
Estonia
, Latvia
Latvia
, and Norway
Norway
– for the Lebensborn
Lebensborn
program. They started to do this because "It is our duty to take with us to remove them from their environment... either we win over any good blood that we can use for ourselves and give it a place in our people or we destroy this blood", Himmler reportedly said.

The Nazis would take children from their parents, in full view of the parents. The kidnapped children were administered several tests and were categorised into three groups:

* those considered desirable to be included into the German population, * those who were acceptable, and * the unwanted.

The children classified as unwanted were taken to concentration camps to work or were killed. The children from the other groups, if between the ages of 2 and 6, were placed with families in the programme to be brought up by them in a kind of foster child status. Children of ages 6 to 12 were placed in German boarding schools. The schools assigned the children new German names and taught them to be proud to be part of Germany. They forced the children to forget their birth parents and erased any records of their ancestry. Those who resisted Germanisation were beaten and, if a child continued to rebel, he or she would be sent to a concentration camp.

In the final stages of the war, the files of all children kidnapped for the programme were destroyed. As a result, researchers have found it nearly impossible to learn how many children were taken. The Polish government has claimed that 10,000 children were kidnapped, and less than 15% were returned to their biological parents. Other estimates include numbers as high as 200,000, although according to Dirk Moses a more likely number is around 20,000.

POST-WAR TRIAL

Max Sollmann ready for trial at Nuremberg

After the war, the branch of the Lebensborn
Lebensborn
organisation operating in north-eastern Europe was accused of kidnapping children deemed racially valuable in order to resettle them with German families. However, of approximately 10,000 foreign-born children located after the war in the American-controlled area of Germany, in the trial of the leaders of the Lebensborn
Lebensborn
organisation (United States of America v. Ulrich Greifelt, et al. ), the court found that 340 had been handled by Lebensborn
Lebensborn
e. V. The accused were acquitted on charges of kidnapping.

The court found ample evidence of an existing programme of the kidnapping or forced movement of children in north-eastern Europe, but concluded that these activities were carried out by individuals who were not members of Lebensborn. Exactly how many children were moved by Lebensborn
Lebensborn
or other organisations remains unknown due to the destruction of archives by SS members prior to fleeing the advancing Allied forces.

From the trial's transcript:

The prosecution has failed to prove with the requisite certainty the participation of Lebensborn, and the defendants connected therewith in the kidnapping programme conducted by the Nazis. While the evidence has disclosed that thousands upon thousands of children were unquestionably kidnapped by other agencies or organisations and brought into Germany, the evidence has further disclosed that only a small percentage of the total number ever found their way into Lebensborn. And of this number only in isolated instances did Lebensborn
Lebensborn
take children who had a living parent. The majority of those children in any way connected with Lebensborn
Lebensborn
were orphans of ethnic Germans. Upon the evidence submitted, the defendant Sollmann is found not guilty on counts one and two of the indictment.

POST-WAR

After Germany's surrender, the press reported on the unusually good weight and health of the "super babies". They spent time outdoors in sunlight and received two baths a day. Everything that came into contact with the babies was disinfected first. Nurses ensured that the children ate everything given to them. Until the last days of the war, the mothers and the children at maternity homes got the best treatment available, including food, although others in the area were starving. Once the war ended, local communities often took revenge on the women, beating them, cutting off their hair, and running them out of the community. Many Lebensborn
Lebensborn
children were born to unwed mothers. After the war, Lebensborn
Lebensborn
survivors were often subjected to ostracization.

Himmler's effort to secure a racially pure Greater Germany
Greater Germany
and sloppy journalism on the subject in the early years after the war led to false assumptions about the programme. The main misconception was that the programme involved coercive breeding. The first stories reporting that Lebensborn
Lebensborn
was a coercive breeding programme can be found in the German magazine Revue , which ran a series on the subject in the 1950s. The 1961 German film Der Lebensborn
Lebensborn
purported that young girls were forced to mate with Nazi men in their camps.

The programme did intend to promote the growth of Aryan populations, through encouraging relationships between German soldiers and Nordic women in occupied countries. Access to Lebensborn
Lebensborn
was restricted in accordance with the Nordicist eugenic and racial policies of Nazism, which could be referred to as supervised selective breeding. Recently discovered records and ongoing testimony of Lebensborn
Lebensborn
children – and some of their parents – shows that some SS men did sire children in Himmler's Lebensborn
Lebensborn
program. This was widely rumored within Germany during the period of the programme.

SELF-HELP GROUPS AND AFTERMATH

Help, recognition, and justice for Lebensborn
Lebensborn
survivors have been varied.

In Norway, children born to Norwegian mothers by Nazi fathers were allegedly often bullied, raped and abused after the war, and placed in mental institutions. The Norwegian government attempted to deport Lebensborn
Lebensborn
to Germany, Brazil, and Australia but did not succeed. A group of survivors attempted to fight the Norwegian government into admitting complicity. In 2008, their case before the European Court of Human Rights was dismissed, but they were each offered a £8,000 token from the Norwegian government.

In November 2006, in the German town of Wernigerode, an open meeting took place among several Lebensborn
Lebensborn
children, with the intention of dispelling myths and encouraging those affected to investigate their origins.

Sweden took in several hundred Lebensborn
Lebensborn
children from Norway
Norway
after the war. A famous survivor is Anni-Frid Lyngstad
Anni-Frid Lyngstad
, a member of the music group ABBA
ABBA
. Her father was a sergeant in the Wehrmacht, and her mother was Norwegian; to escape persecution after the war, her mother took Anni-Frid to Sweden, where their personal history was not known.

Other countries that had Lebensborn
Lebensborn
clinics include France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Poland
Poland
and Luxembourg.

General documents on Lebensborn
Lebensborn
activities are administered by International Tracing Service and by German Federal Archives
German Federal Archives
. The association Verein kriegskind.de is among those that published search efforts (Suchbitten) to identify Lebensborn
Lebensborn
children.

SEE ALSO

* Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal

* European sexuality leading up to and during World War II
World War II
* Nazi eugenics
Nazi eugenics
* Lidice
Lidice
* War children * RuSHA Trial * Desaparecidos – Children of the Desaparecidos in Argentina
Argentina
were taken by the military junta in the Dirty War
Dirty War
and placed with junta supporters for adoption and raising. * Eugenics
Eugenics
* Breeding back

REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ Albanese, Patrizia (2006). Mothers of the Nation: Women, Families and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century Europe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8020-9015-7 . Retrieved 15 August 2011. * ^ A B Kate Bissell (13 June 2005). "Fountain of Life". Nazi past haunts \'Aryan\' children. BBC Radio 4. Missing or empty series= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Office of United States Chief of Counsel For Prosecution of Axis Criminality (1946). Barrett, Roger W.; Jackson, William E., eds. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (PDF). 5. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. pp. 465–6. Retrieved 16 August 2011. * ^ Archived 29 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Crossland, David (7 November 2006). "Nazi Program to Breed Master Race: Lebensborn
Lebensborn
Children Break Silence". Der Spiegel. Hamburg. Retrieved 15 August 2011. * ^ "Lebensborn". * ^ Bydgoszcz, Kraków, Helenówek pod Łodzią, Otwock, Smoszew koło Krotoszyna, Smoszewo; 8 if you include Stettin and Połczyn-Zdrój
Połczyn-Zdrój
(which became a part of Poland
Poland
only after the war) * ^ A B Eva Simonsen: "Into the open – or hidden away? – The construction of war children as a social category in post-war Norway and Germany" In: NORDEUROPAforum (2006:2), pp. 25–49, http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/nordeuropaforum/2006-2/simonsen-eva-25/PDF/simonsen.pdf * ^ *"The Lebensborn
Lebensborn
Origination", Southern Illinois University * ^ *"The Lebensborn", Jewish Virtual Library's description of the Lebensborn
Lebensborn
program * ^ "The Lebensborn
Lebensborn
Orgization", Southern Illinois University * ^ A. Dirk Moses (2004). Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-57181-410-4 . Retrieved 2008-09-16. * ^ Trial of Ulrich Greifelt and Others, United Nations War Crimes Commission. Part III * ^ ""Super Babies": Illegitimate children of SS men are housed in a German chateau". Life. 15 August 1942. p. 37. Retrieved 12 September 2015. * ^ d/europe/article626101.ece "Himmler was my godfather", Times (UK) Online, 6 November 2006 * ^ Richard Grunberger , The 12-Year Reich, pp. 246–7, ISBN 0-03-076435-1 * ^ Rob Sharp, "The chosen ones: The war children born to Nazi fathers in a sinister eugenics scheme speak out", The Independent, 20 January 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ "Nazi \'master race\' children meet", BBC News, 4 November 2006 * ^ David Crossland, "Nazi Program to Breed Master Race: Lebensborn Children Break Silence", Spiegel, 07 November 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ Kate Connolly, "Torment of the Abba star with a Nazi father", The Guardian, 29 June 2002. Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ New "Findbuch" (register) to still existing general „Lebensborn“-documents its-arolsen.org, site looked at on 30 March 2017 * ^ "Search efforts (Suchbitten) for Lebensborn-children", kriegskind.de

FURTHER READING

ENGLAND/USA

* Catrine Clay & Michael Leapman: Master race: the Lebensborn experiment in Nazi Germany. Publisher: Hodder Graml, H.; Weiß, H.(1997): Enzyklopädie des Nationalsozialismus. Published: Digitale Bibliothek, CD-ROM, Band 25, Directmedia GmbH, Berlin.

NORWAY

* Kåre Olsen: „Vater: Deutscher.“ Das Schicksal der norwegischen Lebensbornkinder und ihrer Mütter von 1940 bis heute. Campus, Frankfurt 2002, ISBN 3-593-37002-6

EXTERNAL LINKS

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