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Islam
Islam
(59.5%):2 (Shia,3 Sunni,3 Alawites, Ismailis, progressive Muslims[28] and Druze)4 Christianity
Christianity
(40.5%):1 (Maronite, Greek Orthodox, Melkite and Protestant)

Related ethnic groups

Other Semitic-speaking peoples

# Lebanese Christians of all denominations constitute the majority of all Lebanese worldwide, but represent only a large minority within Lebanon.

Lebanese Muslims of all denominations represent a majority within Lebanon, but add up to only a large minority of all Lebanese worldwide. Shias and Sunnis account for 54% of Lebanon's population together, even split in half (27%). In Lebanon, the Druze
Druze
quasi-Muslim sect is officially categorized as a Muslim denomination by the Lebanese government.

This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

The Lebanese people
Lebanese people
(Arabic: الشعب اللبناني‎ / ALA-LC: ash-shaʻb al-Lubnānī  Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
pronunciation: [eʃˈʃaʕeb ellɪbˈneːne]) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon. The religious groups among the Lebanese people are Shias (27%), Sunnis (27%), Maronites
Maronites
(21%), Greek Orthodox (8%), Melkites who are Greek Catholics (5%), Druze
Druze
(5.6%), 6.5 Other Christians such as Armenians Syrians, Assyrians and Copts, and Protestants (1%).[29] There is a large diaspora in North America, South America, Europe, Australia
Australia
and Africa. The term may also include those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
and Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state. As the relative proportion of the various sects is politically sensitive, Lebanon
Lebanon
has not collected official census data on ethnic background since the 1932 under the French Mandate. It is therefore difficult to have an exact demographic analysis of Lebanese society.[30] The largest concentration of people of Lebanese ancestry may be in Brazil
Brazil
having an estimated population of 5.8 to 7 million, but it may be an exaggeration, given that an official survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) showed that less than 1 million Brazilians claimed any Middle-Eastern origin.[5] The Lebanese have always traveled the world, many of them settling permanently, most notably in the last two centuries. Reduced in numbers and estimated to have lost their status as a majority in Lebanon
Lebanon
itself, largely as a result of their emigration, Christians still remain one of the principal religious groups in the country.[31] Descendants of Lebanese Christians make up the majority of Lebanese people
Lebanese people
worldwide, appearing principally in the diaspora.[32]

Contents

1 Identity 2 Population numbers

2.1 Lebanon 2.2 Diaspora

3 Religion 4 Genetics 5 Notable individuals 6 See also 7 References 8 Footnotes 9 External links

Identity Main articles: Lebanese nationalism
Lebanese nationalism
and History of Lebanon The people residing in Lebanon—both those who would become Muslim and the vast majority who would remain Christian, along with the tiny Jewish minority—still spoke Aramaic,[33] or more precisely, a Western Aramaic language.[27] However, since at least the 15th century, the majority of people of all faiths living in what is now Lebanon
Lebanon
have been Arabic-speaking,[34][35] or more specifically, speakers of Lebanese Arabic, although up until the 17th century, travellers in the Lebanon
Lebanon
still reported on several Aramaic-speaking villages.[36] Among the Lebanese Maronites, Aramaic still remains the liturgical language of the Maronite Church, although in an Eastern Aramaic form (the Syriac language,[37] in which early Christianity
Christianity
was disseminated throughout the Middle East), distinct from the spoken Aramaic of Lebanon, which was a Western Aramaic language. As the second of two liturgical languages of Judaism, Aramaic was also retained as a language in the sphere of religion (in the Talmud) among Lebanese Jews, although here too in an Eastern Aramaic form (the Talmud
Talmud
was composed in Babylonia
Babylonia
in Babylonian Aramaic). Among Lebanese Muslims, however, Aramaic was lost twice, once in the shift to Arabic
Arabic
in the vernacular (Lebanese Arabic) and again in the religious sphere, since Arabic
Arabic
(Qur'anic Arabic) is the liturgical language of Islam.[citation needed] Some Lebanese Christians particularly Maronites, identify themselves as Lebanese rather than Arab, seeking to draw "on the Phoenician past to try to forge an identity separate from the prevailing Arab culture".[38] They argue that Arabization
Arabization
merely represented a shift to the Arabic language
Arabic language
as the vernacular of the Lebanese people, and that, according to them, no actual shift of ethnic identity, much less ancestral origins, occurred. with their own histories and lore, and that therefore they do not belong to the one pan- Arab
Arab
ethnicity, and thus such categorisation is erred or inapplicable. Certain portions of Lebanon's Christian population in particular tend to stress aspects of Lebanon's non- Arab
Arab
prior history to encompass all Lebanon's historical stages, instead of considering the beginning of Lebanese history being with the Arab
Arab
conquests.[citation needed] In light of this "old controversy about identity",[38] some Lebanese prefer to see Lebanon, Lebanese culture
Lebanese culture
and themselves as part of "Mediterranean" and "Levantine" civilization, in a concession to Lebanon's various layers of heritage, both indigenous, foreign non-Arab, and Arab. Arab
Arab
influence, nevertheless, applies to virtually all aspects of the modern Lebanese culture.[citation needed] Population numbers Main article: Demographics of Lebanon The total population of Lebanese people
Lebanese people
is estimated at 13-18 million. Of these, the vast majority, or 8.6[2] - 14[3] million, are in the Lebanese diaspora
Lebanese diaspora
(outside of Lebanon), and approximately 4.3 million in Lebanon
Lebanon
itself.[29] Lebanon

[nb 1][1][1][39]

Ethnic Groups in Lebanon

Ethnicity

Percent

Arabs

95%

Armenians

4%

Various other ethnicities: Mideast (Kurds, Turks, Assyrians, Iranians), Europeans (Greeks, Italians, French) and others

1%

There are approximately 4.3 million Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Lebanon.[29] In addition to this figure, there are an additional 1 million foreign workers, mainly Syrians and about 400,000 Palestinian refugees in the nation.[40] Lebanon
Lebanon
is also a home to various ethnic minorities found refuge in the country over the centuries. Prominent ethnic minorities in the country include the Armenians, the Kurds, the Turks, the Assyrians, the Iranians and many European ethnicities (Greeks, Italians, French). There are also a small number of nomadic Dom Gypsies[citation needed] (part of the Roma people of South Asian, particularly, Indian descent) Diaspora Main article: Lebanese diaspora

Rima Fakih, winner of Miss USA 2010

Carlos Ghosn

Amal Clooney

In 1994, the Lebanese government estimated there were 15.4 million Lebanese immigrants worldwide with 43.2% living in Brazil
Brazil
(1996) and 26.1% of these residing in the USA.[41] The Lebanese diaspora
Lebanese diaspora
consists of approximately 8.6[2] - 14[3] million, both Lebanese-born living abroad and those born-abroad of Lebanese descent. The majority of the Lebanese in the diaspora are Christians,[42] disproportionately so in the Americas
Americas
where the vast majority reside. An estimate figure show that they represent about 75% of the Lebanese in total. Lebanese abroad are considered "rich, educated and influential"[43] and over the course of time immigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world.[44] The largest number of Lebanese is to be found in Brazil, where according to the Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim, there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[6][7][8] These figures, however, may be an exaggeration given that, according to a 2008 survey conducted by IBGE, in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East[5] Large numbers also reside elsewhere in North America, most notably in the United States
United States
(489,702),[45] Mexico
Mexico
(400,000)[46] with close to half a million in both countries. In Canada, the people of full or partial Lebanese descent are between 190,275 (by ancestry, 2011 Census)[47] to 250,000 based on estimates.[48] In the rest of the Americas, significant communities are found in Argentina,[9] Chile,[49] Colombia[10] and Venezuela, with almost every other Latin American country having at least a small presence. In Africa, Ghana
Ghana
and the Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
are home to over 100,000 Lebanese.[50] There are significant Lebanese populations in other countries throughout Western and Central Africa.[51][52] Australia hosts over 180,000 and Canada
Canada
250,000. In the Arab
Arab
world, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf harbour around 400,000 Lebanese.[53] Lebanese people
Lebanese people
also can be found in all of the 28 member states of the European Union. More than 2,500 ex-SLA members remain in Israel.[54] Currently, Lebanon
Lebanon
provides no automatic right to Lebanese citizenship for emigrants who lost their citizenship upon acquiring the citizenship of their host country, nor for the descendants of emigrants born abroad. This situation disproportionately affects Christians. Recently, the Maronite Institution of Emigrants called for the establishment of an avenue by which emigrants who lost their citizenship may regain it, or their overseas-born descendants (if they so wish) may acquire it.[55]

Country Estimate Country article in English List of personalities of Lebanese origin

 Brazil 7,000,000 (Brazilian/Lebanese governments);[6][7][8] However, another study, conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East.[5]

Lebanese Brazilian List of Lebanese people (Brazil)

 United States 504,000 Lebanese American List of Lebanese people (USA)

 Argentina 1,500,000 Lebanese Argentine List of Lebanese people (Argentina)

 Colombia 700,000 Lebanese Colombian List of Lebanese people (Colombia)

 Mexico 400,000 Lebanese Mexican List of Lebanese people (Mexico)

 Venezuela 340,000 Lebanese Venezuelan List of Lebanese people (Venezuela)

 Canada 250,000 Lebanese Canadians List of Lebanese people (Canada)

 France 250,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in France List of Lebanese people (France)

 Australia 203,139 Lebanese Australian List of Lebanese people in Australia

 Egypt 131,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Egypt List of Lebanese people in Egypt

 Saudi Arabia 120,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Saudi Arabia List of Lebanese people (Saudi Arabia)

 Syria 114,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Syria List of Lebanese people in Syria

Arab
Arab
States of the Persian Gulf 100,000

 Ecuador 100,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Ecuador List of Lebanese people (Ecuador)

 Chile 90,000 Lebanese Chileans List of Lebanese people (Chile)

 United Kingdom 90,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in the United Kingdom List of Lebanese people (UK)

 Uruguay 70,000 Lebanese Uruguayan List of Lebanese people (Uruguay)

 Ghana 67,000 Ghanaian Arabs** List of Lebanese people (Ghana)

 Ivory Coast 60,000 Arab
Arab
residents in Ivory Coast**

 Germany 50,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Germany List of Lebanese people (Germany)

 Spain 12,000-67,800 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Spain List of Lebanese people (Spain)

 New Zealand 47,200 Arabs
Arabs
in New Zealand**

 Kuwait 41,775 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Kuwait

 Senegal 40,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Senegal

 Sierra Leone 33,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Sierra Leone List of Lebanese people (Sierra Leone)

 Nigeria 31,000

List of Lebanese people (Nigeria)

 Greece 30,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Greece

 Denmark 23,500 Arabs
Arabs
in Denmark** List of Lebanese people in Denmark

 Cyprus 20,000

List of Lebanese people (Cyprus)

 South Africa 20,000[23] Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in South Africa List of Lebanese people (South Africa)

 Sweden 21,000 Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Sweden List of Lebanese people (Sweden)

 Jamaica 20,000[56] Lebanese immigration to Jamaica List of Lebanese people (Jamaica)

 Haiti 15,000 Lebanese Haitians List of Lebanese people (Haiti)

 Liberia 10,000

List of Lebanese people (Liberia)

 Belgium 7,000

  Switzerland 5,800

List of Lebanese people in Switzerland

 Italy 3,860 Arabs
Arabs
in Italy** List of Lebanese people in Italy

 Angola 3,300

 Bulgaria 3,000 Arabs
Arabs
in Bulgaria** List of Lebanese people (Bulgaria)

 Austria 3,000 Arabs
Arabs
in Austria**

 Romania 3,000 Arabs
Arabs
in Romania**

 Serbia 3,000 Arabs
Arabs
in Serbia**

 Macedonia 3,000 Arabs
Arabs
in the Republic of Macedonia**

Note: An important percentage of Arabs
Arabs
in Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Bulgaria, Denmark, Austria, Romania, Serbia, Republic of Macedonia, Italy, Portugal, Spain, New Zealand, Ghana
Ghana
and Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
are of Lebanese ancestry. They are denoted ** for this purpose. Religion Main articles: Religion
Religion
in Lebanon, Islam
Islam
in Lebanon, Christianity
Christianity
in Lebanon, and Secularism in Lebanon

Lebanese Muslims[29][57] [58][59][60][61][62]

Year

Percent

1932

49%

1985

75%

2010

61%

2014

59.5%

Lebanese Christians[57][58][59][60][61]

Year

Percent

1932

51%

1985

25%

2010

39%

2014

40.5%

Part of a series of articles on

Lebanese people

Coat of arms of Lebanon

Lebanese people

Lebanese people
Lebanese people
by religion: Lebanese Muslim

Shia Sunni Druze1

Lebanese Christian

Maronite Eastern Orthodox Melkite Protestant

Communities Native communities outside of Lebanon:

Cyprus Syria

Lebanese diaspora: Europe

Germany France United Kingdom Sweden Greece Spain

Overseas

United States Canada Australia New Zealand Argentina Brazil Mexico Colombia Uruguay Chile Ecuador Venezuela Haiti Jamaica Paraguay Ivory Coast Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa

Middle East

Egypt Kuwait United Arab
Arab
Emirates Qatar Saudi Arabia Iran

Culture

Lebanese culture

Religion

Cultural Heritage sites Architecture

Art Literature

Music Cinema

Cuisine

Sport

History

History of ancient Lebanon History of Lebanon Timeline of Lebanese history Phoenicia County of Tripoli Ottoman rule

1860 conflict Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
Mutasarrifate

1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis Greater Lebanon Lebanese Civil War

South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict Taif Agreement

Language

Arabic

Lebanese Arabic

Foreign French

French language
French language
in Lebanon

English

Politics

Lebanese politics President Prime Minister List of political parties in Lebanon National Pact Lebanese nationalism Phoenicianism Coat of arms of Lebanon Flag of Lebanon

Lebanon
Lebanon
portal

v t e

Lebanon
Lebanon
has several different main religions. The country has the most religiously diverse society in the Middle East, encompassing 17 recognized religious sects.[63] The main two religions are Christianity
Christianity
(the Maronite Church, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Melkite, the Protestant Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
Church) and Islam
Islam
(Shia and Sunni). There is also the Druze
Druze
quasi-Muslim sect. No official census has been taken since 1932, reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon
Lebanon
over confessional (i.e. religious) balance.[64] A study conducted by Statistics Lebanon, a Beirut-based research firm, cited by the United States
United States
Department of State found that of Lebanon's population of approximately 4.3 million is estimated to be:[29]

54% Islam
Islam
(Shia and Sunni, 27% each) 40.5% Christian (21% Maronite, 8% Greek Orthodox, 5% [[Melkite Catholics, 1% Protestant, 6.5% other Christian denominations like Latin Rite Catholics, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Syriac Orthodox, Chaldean, Assyrian and Copt) 5.5% Druze
Druze
(a quasi-Muslim sect who do not consider themselves to be Muslim, even though under the terms of the Lebanese Constitution the Druze
Druze
community is designated as a part of the Lebanese Muslim community.)

There are also very small numbers of other religions such as Judaism, Mormons, Bahá'í Faith, and also religions practiced by foreigner workers like Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism.[29] The CIA
CIA
World Factbook specifies that of those residing in Lebanon, 59.7% are Muslims (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Sufi
Sufi
and Alawites) and 39% are Christians (mostly Maronites, Greek Orthodox, Melkite, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
Church, Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox, Chaldean Catholic, Syriac Catholics) and 1.3% "Other".[1] The International Foundation for Electoral Systems provides source for the registered voters in Lebanon
Lebanon
for 2011[65] (it has to be noted that voter registration does not include people under 18 and unregistered voters) that puts the numbers as following: Sunni Islam
Islam
27.65 %, Shia Islam
Islam
27.34%, Maronite Catholic 21.05%, Greek Orthodox 7.34%, Druze
Druze
5.74%, Melkite Catholic 4.76%, Armenian Apostolic 2.64%, other Christian Minorities 1.28%, Alawite Shia Islam
Islam
0.88%, Armenian Catholic 0.62%, Evangelical Protestant 0.53%, and other 0.18% of the population. However, as soon as the diaspora is included, the Christians become an absolute majority. Lebanon
Lebanon
has a population of Mhallamis also known as Mardinli), most of whom migrated from northeast Syria
Syria
and southeast Turkey
Turkey
are estimated to be between 75,000 and 100,000 and considered to be part of the Sunni population. These have in recent years been granted Lebanese citizenship and, coupled with several civil wars between Islamic extremists and the Lebanese military that have caused many Christians to flee the country, have re-tipped the demographic balance in favour of the Muslims and the Sunnis in particular.[66] In addition, many thousands of Arab
Arab
Bedouins in the Bekaa and in the Wadi Khaled region, who are entirely Sunnis, were granted Lebanese citizenship. Lebanon
Lebanon
also has a Jewish population, estimated at less than 100. Even though Lebanon
Lebanon
is a secular country, family matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance are still handled by the religious authorities representing a person's faith. Calls for civil marriage are unanimously rejected by the religious authorities but civil marriages held in another country are recognized by Lebanese civil authorities. Legally registered Muslims form around 54% of the population (Shia, Sunni, Alawite). Legally registered Christians form up to 41% (Maronite, Greek Orthodox Christian, Melkite, Armenian, Evangelical, other). Druze
Druze
form around 5%. A small minority of 0.1% includes Jews, and foreign workers who belong to Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
religions. Even though non-religion is not recognized by the state, in 2009, the Minister of the Interior Ziad Baroud
Ziad Baroud
made it possible to have the religious sect removed from the Lebanese identity card, this does not, however, deny the religious authorities complete control over civil family issues inside the country.[67][68] Genetics

A Druze
Druze
family of the Lebanon, late 1800s

According to a study published by the American Journal of Human Genetics, present-day Lebanese derive most of their ancestry from a Canaanite-related population, which therefore implies substantial genetic continuity in the Levant
Levant
since at least the Bronze Age.[69][70] More specifically, according to Chris Tyler-Smith, a geneticist and his colleagues at the Sanger Institute
Sanger Institute
in Britain, who compared "sampled ancient DNA
DNA
from five Canaanite people
Canaanite people
who lived 3,750 and 3,650 years ago" to modern people. "The comparison revealed that 90 percent of the genetic ancestry of people in Lebanon
Lebanon
came from the Canaanites. (The other 10 percent was of a Eurasian steppe population.)"[71] In recent years efforts have been made by various genetic researchers,[who?] both in Lebanon
Lebanon
and abroad, to identify the ancestral origins of the Lebanese people, their relationship to each other, and to other neighbouring and distant human populations. Like most DNA
DNA
studies that attempt to identify a population's origins and migration patterns in the region that may have influenced the genetic make-up—these studies have focused on two human genome segments, the Y chromosome
Y chromosome
(inherited only by males and passed only by fathers) and mt DNA
DNA
(mitochondrial DNA, which passes only from mother to child). Both segments are unaffected by recombination, thus they provide an indicator of paternal and maternal origins, respectively.[citation needed] Theories from some studies propose to corroborate that the Lebanese trace genetic continuity with earlier inhabitants, regardless of their membership to any of Lebanon's different religious communities today. "The genetic marker which identifies descendants of the ancient Levantines is found among members of all of Lebanon's religious communities"[72] as well as some Syrians and Palestinians. By identifying the ancient type of DNA
DNA
attributed to the Phoenicians, geneticist Pierre Zalloua was also able to chart their spread out of the eastern Mediterranean. These markers were found in unusually high proportions in non-Lebanese samples from other parts of the " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast where the Phoenicians are known to have established colonies, such as Carthage
Carthage
in today's Tunisia."[38] The markers were also found among samples of Maltese and Spaniards, where the Phoenicians were also known to have established colonies. The study shows that 1 out of 17 people in the countries surrounding the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
basin can be identified with the Phoenician genetic markers in their Male Chromosomes. However, the particular marker associated by some studies with the historical Phoenicians, haplogroup J2, actually represents a complex mosaic of different demographic processes which affected the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in prehistoric and historic times.[73] Beyond this, more recent finds have also interested geneticists and Lebanese anthropologists. These indicate foreign non-Levantine admixture from some unexpected but not surprising sources, even if only in a small proportion of the samples. Like a story written in DNA, it recounts some of the major historical events seen in the land today known as Lebanon. Among the more interesting genetic markers found are those that seem to indicate that a small proportion of Lebanese Christians (2%) and a smaller proportion of Lebanese Muslims are descended, in part, from European Crusader Christians and Arabian Muslims respectively. The author states that the "study tells us that some European crusaders did not just conquer and leave behind castles. They left a subtle genetic connection as well."[74] In much the same manner, some of the Arabian Muslims did not just conquer and leave behind mosques.

Christian men from Mount Lebanon, late 1800s

It was during a broader survey of Middle Eastern populations conducted for the Genographic Project of the National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
that the findings were stumbled upon. "We noticed some interesting lineages in the dataset. Among Lebanese Christians, in particular, we found higher frequency (2%) of a genetic marker — R1b
R1b
— that we typically see only in Western Europe."[74] The lineage was seen at that "higher" frequency only in the Christian populations in Lebanon, even though among the Muslims it was not altogether absent. "The study matched the western European Y-chromosome lineage against thousands of people in France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom."[75] On the other hand, in the Lebanese Muslim population a similar pattern, this time associated with genetic markers from Arabia, was also observed in "higher" preferential frequencies, although they too were not altogether absent in the Christian population. "We found that a lineage that is very common in the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
— Hg J*— is found in slightly higher frequencies preferentially in the Muslim population."[74] The author of the study added that the findings "certainly doesn't undermine the similarities among the various Lebanese communities, but it does agree with oral tradition."[74] Other unrelated studies have sought to establish relationships between the Lebanese people
Lebanese people
and other groups. At least one study by the International Institute of Anthropology in Paris, France, confirmed similarities in the Y-haplotype frequencies in Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jewish men, identifying them as "three Near-Eastern populations sharing a common geographic origin."[76] The study surveyed one Y-specific DNA
DNA
polymorphism (p49/Taq I) in 54 Lebanese and 69 Palestinian males, and compared with the results found in 693 Jews
Jews
from three distinct Jewish ethnic groups; Mizrahi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Ashkenazi Jews. In a 2013 interview Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions: " Lebanon
Lebanon
already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another."[77] Lebanese cluster the closest to Jews
Jews
of any Arab
Arab
population except the Druze according to a 2010 study by Behar et al, possibly corroborating a Phoenician origin.[78] Notable individuals Main article: List of Lebanese people (diaspora) See also

List of Lebanese people Arab
Arab
diaspora Lebanese diaspora Lebanese Americans Lebanese Australians Lebanese Argentines Lebanese Brazilians Lebanese Canadians Lebanese Colombians Lebanese Mexicans Lebanese New Zealanders Lebanese Jamaicans Lebanese Haitians Lebanese Uruguayans Lebanese Venezuelans Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Ecuador Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in France Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in the United Kingdom Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Ivory Coast Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in South Africa Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Senegal Lebanese people
Lebanese people
in Sierra Leone Lebanese nationality law Levant Mediterranean
Mediterranean
race

References

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Lebanese diaspora
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Liberia
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Arabic
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Syria
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Google Books
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Arabic
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to Lebanon
Lebanon
Archived 2008-12-04 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Culture care diversity and ... Retrieved 2011-07-04.  ^ "Senior Seminar: Transnational Migration and Diasporic Communities". Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-17.  ^ "The invisible occupation of Lebanon". The Christian Science Monitor. 18 May 2005.  ^ "Background Note: Lebanon". US Department of State. 1 December 2011.  ^ https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_09_1YR_B04003&prodType=table.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "The biggest enchilada". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 February 2015. The Mexican-Lebanese community now numbers around 400,000 but punches way above its weight in commerce...  ^ Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 February 2014.  ^ Canada
Canada
and Lebanon, a special tie, CBC News ^ Arab
Arab
Chileans. ^ " Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
- The Levantine Community".  ^ Lebanese man shot dead in Nigeria, BBC News ^ Lebanese nightmare in Congo Archived 2008-11-16 at the Wayback Machine., Al-Ahram Weekly. ^ One in three Lebanese want to leave, Reuters ^ Lebanon's refugees in Israel
Israel
Archived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine., Elias Bejjani - 10/28/2008. ^ "News - Politics - Sfeir tells new Maronite group emigrants 'deserve' Lebanese nationality". The Daily Star. 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2011-07-04.  ^ Project, Joshua. "Arab, Lebanese in Jamaica".  ^ a b "Contemporary distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-15.  ^ a b " CIA
CIA
World Factbook, Lebanon". Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ a b Najem, T. (1998). "The collapse and reconstruction of Lebanon" (PDF). University of Durham Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ a b "International Religious Freedom Report 2010 - Lebanon". US State Department. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ a b "Contemporary Religious distribution of Lebanon's main religions". theodora.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ "Lebanon". (July 2014 est.) ^ Alfred B. Prados (June 8, 2006). "Lebanon" (PDF). The Library of Congress. Retrieved June 11, 2012.  ^ Country Studies. " Lebanon
Lebanon
Population". Retrieved November 25, 2006. ^ "Elections in Lebanon" (PDF). International Foundation for Electoral Systems. 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2017.  ^ International Journal of Kurdish Studies, Jan, 2002 by Lokman I. Meho "The Kurds in Lebanon: a social and historical overview" ^ AsiaNews.it. "LEBANON Religious affiliation to disappear from Lebanese documents".  ^ Religious Affiliation Can Be Removed From Lebanese ID Cards Archived 2013-04-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Harb, Marc; et al. (July 2017). "Continuity and Admixture in the Last Five Millennia of Levantine History from Ancient Canaanite and Present-Day Lebanese Genome Sequences". American Journal of Human Genetics. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Abed, Mira (27 July 2017). "The DNA
DNA
of ancient Canaanites
Canaanites
lives on in modern-day Lebanese, genetic analysis shows". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Ancient DNA
DNA
solves mystery of the Canaanites, reveals the biblical people’s fate ^ Perry, Tom (2007-09-10). "In Lebanon
Lebanon
DNA
DNA
may yet heal rifts". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-04.  ^ Di Giacomo 2004, Semino 2004, Cruciani 2004 ^ a b c d "Crusades, Islam
Islam
Expansion Traced in Lebanon
Lebanon
DNA".  ^ "Crusades, Islam
Islam
Expansion Traced in Lebanon
Lebanon
DNA". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-07-04.  ^ Lucotte, Gérard; Mercier, Géraldine (1 January 2003). "Y-chromosome DNA
DNA
haplotypes in Jews: comparisons with Lebanese and Palestinians". Genet. Test. 7 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1089/109065703321560976. PMID 12820706 – via PubMed.  ^ Maroon, Habib (31 March 2013). "A geneticist with a unifying message". Nature. Retrieved 3 October 2013.  ^ Genome-wide structure of Jews
Jews
(Behar et al. 2010)

Footnotes

^ Many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab
Arab
but rather as descendants of the ancient Canaanites
Canaanites
and prefer to be called Phoenicians

External links

Senior Seminar: Transnational Migration and Diasporic Communities at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived January 15, 2009), Hamline University, 2002

v t e

Semitic topics

Peoples

Adnanites Algerians Amhara people Amorites Arab
Arab
diaspora Arabs Arabs
Arabs
in India Arabs
Arabs
in Turkey Arameans Argobba people Arma people Assyrian people Bahrani people Bedouin Chaldeans Chaush Egyptians Emiratis Gurage people Habesha people Hadhrami people Harari people Hyksos Iranian Arabs Iraqis Ishmaelites Israelis

Israeli Arabs Israeli Jews

Israelites Jewish diaspora Jews Jordanians Lebanese people

Maronites

Libyans Mandaeans Marsh Arabs Mauritanians Mhallami Moors Moroccans Nabataeans Omanis Palestinians Qahtanite Qataris Sabians Samaritans Saracen Soqotri Sudanese people Syrian people Tigrayans Tigre people Tigrinyas Tunisians Yemenis

Politics

Algerian nationalism Arab
Arab
nationalism Arab
Arab
socialism Assyrian nationalism Canaanism Egyptian nationalism Iraqi nationalism Jewish political movements

Bundism Zionism

Jewish religious movements Lebanese nationalism

Phoenicianism

Libyan nationalism Palestinian nationalism Pan-Arabism Pan-Islamism Syrian nationalism Tunisian nationalism

Origins

Generations of Noah Genetic studies on Jews Haplogroup IJ Haplogroup IJK Haplogroup J-M172 Haplogroup J-M267 Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) Shem Y-chromosomal Aaron Y- DNA
DNA
haplogroups in populations of the Near East

History

Abbasid Caliphate Akkadian Empire Amorites Arabization Aram Rehob Aram-Damascus Aram-Naharaim Assyria Babylonia Bit Adini Canaan Carthage Chaldea Davidic line Edom Fatimid Caliphate Ghassanids Hasmonean dynasty Herodian kingdom Herodian Tetrarchy Himyarite Kingdom Judaization Kindah Kingdom of Aksum Kingdom of Awsan Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(Samaria) Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(united monarchy) Kingdom of Judah Lakhmids Lihyan Midian Minaeans Moab Nabataeans Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Paddan Aram Palmyrene Empire Phoenicia Qataban Qedarite Rashidun Caliphate Sabaeans Solomonic dynasty Thamud Umayyad Caliphate Zagwe dynasty ʿĀd

Countries

Algeria Arab
Arab
world Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Iraq Israel Jordan Lebanon Libya Mauritania Palestinian territories1 Qatar Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic1 (Western Sahara) Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen

Flags and coats of arms

Algeria Arab
Arab
flags Aramean-Syriac flag Assyria Bahrain Cedrus libani The Coromos Crescent Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(emblem) Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(flag) Hamsa Iraq Israel
Israel
(emblem) Israel
Israel
(flag) Janbiya Jordan Khanjar Kuwait Lebanon Libya Lion of Judah Mauritania Menorah (Temple) Morocco Oman Palestine Pan- Arab
Arab
colors Qatar Saudi Arabia Scimitar Shamash Star of David Sudan Syria Takbir Tanit Tunesia United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen Zulfiqar

Studies

Arabist Assyriology Hebraist Semitic Museum Semitic studies Syriac studies

Religions

Abrahamic religions Ancient Canaanite religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion Ancient Semitic religion Babylonian religion Christianity Druze
Druze
religion Islam Judaism Mandaeism pre-Islamic Arabia Samaritan religion Semitic neopaganism

Organizations

Arab
Arab
European League Arab
Arab
League Assyrian Universal Alliance World Council of Arameans
Arameans
(Syriacs) World Zionist Congress

1 Is a state with limited international recognition

v t e

Lebanese people
Lebanese people
and diaspora

Countries

Africa

Egypt Ghana Ivory Coast Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa

Americas

Argentina Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Ecuador Guatemala Haiti Jamaica Mexico Paraguay Suriname United States

Detroit

Uruguay Venezuela

Middle East

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Arab
Emirates

Europe

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Oceania

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Personalities

Africa

Egypt Ghana Liberia Nigeria Sierra Leone South Africa

Americas

Argentina Brazil Canada Caribbean

Curaçao Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Puerto Rico

Chile Colombia Cuba Ecuador Guatemala Mexico United States Uruguay Venezuela

Asia

Syria Saudi Arabia United Arab
Arab
Emirates

Europe

Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Denmark France Germany Italy Monaco Netherlands Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia

v t e

Demographics of Lebanon

Lebanese people
Lebanese people
by religion

Christian

Catholic

Armenian Catholic Chaldean Catholic Maronite Melkite Syriac Catholic

Eastern Orthodox

Greek Orthodox

Oriental Orthodox

Protestant

Muslim

Shia Sunni Druze1

Other non-Lebanese groups

Armenians French Greeks Italians Jews Turks

Foreign nationals

Assyrians Australians Bulgarians Canadians Indians Iranians Iraqis Kurds Pakistanis Palestinians Poles Russians Sri Lankans Syrians

1 Under the terms of the Constitution of Lebanon
Lebanon
the Druze
Druze
community is designated as a part of the Lebanese

.