HOME
The Info List - Least Weasel


--- Advertisement ---



The least weasel ( Mustela
Mustela
nivalis), or simply weasel in the UK[2] and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae
Mustelidae
and order Carnivora.[3] It is most commonly referred to as "weasel". It is native to Eurasia, North America
North America
and North Africa, and has been introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Malta, Crete, Bermuda, Madeira Island, the Azores, the Canary Islands, Sao Tome, the Falkland Islands, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile.[4] It is classified as least concern by the IUCN, due to its wide distribution and large population throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Least weasels from various parts of its range vary greatly in size. The body is slender and elongated, the legs and tail are relatively short. The colour varies geographically, as does the pelage type and length of tail. The dorsal surface, flanks, limbs and tail of the animal are usually some shade of brown while the underparts are white. The line delineating the boundary between the two colours is usually straight. At high altitudes and in the northern part of its range, the coat becomes pure white in winter. Eighteen subspecies are recognised. Small rodents form the largest part of the least weasel's diet, but it also kills and eats rabbits, other mammals, and occasionally birds, birds' eggs, fish and frogs. Males mark their territories with olfactory signals and have exclusive home ranges which may intersect with or include several female ranges. Least weasels use pre-existing holes to sleep, store food and raise their young. Breeding takes place in the spring and summer, and there is a single litter of about six kits which are reared exclusively by the female. Due to its small size and fierce nature, the least weasel plays an important part in the mythology and legend of various cultures.

Contents

1 Taxonomy and evolution

1.1 Subspecies

2 Description 3 Behaviour and ecology

3.1 Reproduction and development 3.2 Territorial and social behaviours 3.3 Diet 3.4 Predators and competitors 3.5 Diseases and parasites

4 Distribution and habitat 5 Conservation status 6 In folklore and mythology 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 Further reading 9 External links

Taxonomy and evolution[edit] The least weasel was given its scientific name Mustela
Mustela
nivalis by Carl Linnaeus in his 12th edition of Systema Naturae in 1766. The type locality was Västerbotten
Västerbotten
in Sweden. As an animal with a very wide distribution, the morphology of the least weasel varies geographically. The species was reviewed by Reichstein in 1957 and again by van Zyll de Jong in 1992 and Reig in 1997. Youngman (1982) placed it in the subgenus Mustela
Mustela
while Abramov (1999) considered it should be included in the subgenus Gale. Based on skull characteristics, Reig (1997) proposed that the taxon should be split into four species, M. subpalmata, M. rixosa, M. vulgaris and M. eskimo. Abrimov and Baryshinikov (2000) disagreed, recognising only M. subpalmata as a separate species.[5] Within the genus Mustela, the least weasel is a relatively unspecialised form, as evidenced by its pedomorphic skull, which occurs even in large subspecies.[6] Its direct ancestor was Mustela praenivalis, which lived in Europe
Europe
during the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and Villafranchian. M. praenivalis itself was probably preceded by M. pliocaenica of the Pliocene. The modern species probably arose during the Late Pleistocene.[7] The least weasel is the product of a process begun 5–7 million years ago, when northern forests were replaced by open grassland, thus prompting an explosive evolution of small, burrowing rodents. The weasel's ancestors were larger than the current form, and underwent a reduction in size to exploit the new food source. The least weasel throve during the Ice Age, as its small size and long body allowed it to easily operate beneath snow, as well as hunt in burrows. It probably crossed to North America
North America
through the Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge
200,000 years ago.[8] Subspecies[edit]

Various least weasel subspecies; (from left to right) M. n. pygmaea, M. n. nivalis, M. n. pallida, M. n. vulgaris, M. n. boccamela, M. n. heptneri

The least weasel has a high geographic variation, a fact which has historically led to numerous disagreements among biologists studying its systematics. Least weasel
Least weasel
subspecies are divided into 3 categories:[9]

The pygmaea–rixosa group (small weasels): Tiny weasels with short tails, pedomorphic skulls, and pelts that turn pure white in winter. They inhabit northern European Russia, Siberia, the Russian Far East, Finland, northern Scandinavian Peninsula, Mongolia, northeastern China, Japan
Japan
and North America.[9] The boccamela group (large weasels): Very large weasels with large skulls, relatively long tails and lighter coloured pelts. Locally, they either do not turn white or only partially change colour in winter. They inhabit Transcaucasia, from western Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to Semirechye
Semirechye
and in the flat deserts of Middle Asia. They are also found in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.[9] The nivalis group (average weasels): Medium-sized weasels, with tails of moderate length, representing a transitional form between the former two groups. They inhabit the middle and southern regions of European Russia, Crimea, Ciscaucasus, western Kazakhstan, southern and middle Urals
Urals
and montane parts of Middle Asia, save for Koppet Dag.[9]

Subspecies Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms

Common weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. nivalis (Nominate subspecies)

Linnaeus, 1766 A medium-sized subspecies with a tail of moderate length, constituting about 20–21% of its body length. In its summer fur, the upper body is dark-brownish or chestnut colour, while its winter fur is pure white. It is probably a transitional form between the small pygmaea and large vulgaris[10] Middle regions of European Russia, from the Baltic states
Baltic states
to the middle and southern Urals, northward approximately to the latitude of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Perm, and south to the Kursk and Voronezh Oblasts. Outside the former Soviet Union, its range includes Northern Europe
Europe
(excluding Ireland
Ireland
and Iceland) save for Finland
Finland
and parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula caraftensis (Kishida, 1936) kerulenica (Bannikov, 1952) punctata (Domaniewski, 1926) yesoidsuna (Kishida, 1936)

Allegheny weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. allegheniensis Rhoads, 1901 Similar to Mustela
Mustela
n. rixosa, but is larger, has a broad skull and darker coat, and is more adapted to live in deciduous forests.[11] Southeastern United States (Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Indiana)

Transcaucasian weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. boccamela

Bechstein, 1800 A very large subspecies, with a long tail constituting about 30% of its body length. In its summer fur, the upper body is light brownish or chestnut with yellowish or reddish tints, with some individuals having a brownish dot on the corners of the mouth and sometimes on the chest and belly. The winter fur is not pure white, being usually dirty white with brown patches[12] Transcaucasia, southern Europe, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and probably western Iran italicus (Barrett-Hamilton, 1900)

Plains weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. campestris Jackson, 1913

Southwestern USA (South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas)

Mustela
Mustela
n. caucasica Barrett-Hamilton, 1900

dinniki (Satunin, 1907)

Mustela
Mustela
n. eskimo

Stone, 1900 A small subspecies. Resembles Mustela
Mustela
n. rixosa, but has a duller colour, a larger skull and shorter tail.[13] Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories

Turkmenian weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. heptneri Morozova-Turova, 1953 A very large subspecies with a long tail constituting about 25–30% of its body length. In its summer fur, the upper body is very light sandy brown or pale-yellowish. The fur is short, sparse and coarse, and does not turn white in winter[14] Semideserts and deserts of southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Middle Asia
Middle Asia
from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to Semirechye, southern Tajikistan, Koppet Dag, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and northeastern Iran

Japanese weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. namiyei Kuroda, 1921 Smaller than Mustela
Mustela
n. rixosa and paler than Mustela
Mustela
n. eskimo. Resembles Mustela
Mustela
n. pygmaea but the head and body are longer and the tail considerably longer.[15] Japan

Mediterranean
Mediterranean
weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. numidica

Pucheran, 1855 Largest subspecies Morocco, Algeria, Malta, Azores
Azores
Islands and Corsica albipes (Mina Palumbo, 1868) algiricus (Thomas, 1895) atlas (Barrett-Hamilton, 1904) corsicanus (Cavazza, 1908) fulva (Mina Palumbo, 1908) galanthias (Bate, 1905) ibericus (Barrett-Hamilton, 1900) meridionalis (Costa, 1869) siculus (Barrett-Hamilton, 1900)

Montane Turkestan weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. pallida Barrett-Hamilton, 1900 A medium-sized subspecies with a tail constituting about 24% of its body length. The colour of the summer fur is light-brownish, while the winter fur is white[16] Montane parts of Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kirgizia, as well as Chinese parts of the same mountain systems and perhaps in the extreme eastern parts of Hindukush

Siberian least weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. pygmaea J. A. Allen, 1903 A very small subspecies, with a short tail which constitutes about 13% of its body length. In its summer coat, the dorsal colour is dark-brown or reddish, while the winter fur is entirely white[17] All of Siberia, except southern nd southeastern Transbaikalia; northern and middle Urals, northern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and the Russian Far East including Sakhalin
Sakhalin
and Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
and Korean Peninsulas, all of Mongolia
Mongolia
save for the eastern part and probably northeastern China kamtschatica (Dybowksi, 1922)

Bangs' weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. rixosa

Bangs, 1896 The smallest subspecies. In its summer coat, the fur is dark reddish brown, while the winter fur is pure white[18] Nunavut, Labrador, Quebec, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia

Sichuan
Sichuan
weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. russelliana Thomas, 1911

Sichuan, southern China

Middle-European weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. vulgaris

Erxleben, 1777 A somewhat larger subspecies than nivalis, with a longer tail which constitutes about 27% of its body length. In its summer fur, the upper body varies from being light-brownish to dark-chestnut, while the winter fur is white in its northern range and piebald in its southern range[19] Southern European Russia
European Russia
from the latitude of southern Voronezh and Kursk districts, Crimea, Ciscaucasia, northern slope of the main Caucasus, eastward to the Volga. Outside the former Soviet Union, its range includes Europe
Europe
southward to the Alps
Alps
and Pyrenees dumbrowskii (Matschie, 1901) hungarica (Vásárhelyi, 1942) minutus (Pomel, 1853) monticola (Cavazza, 1908) nikolskii (Semenov, 1899) occidentalis (Kratochvil, 1977) trettaui (Kleinschmidt, 1937) vasarhelyi (Kretzoi, 1942)

Description[edit]

Weasel
Weasel
at the British Wildlife Centre

Skulls of a long-tailed weasel (top), a stoat (bottom left) and least weasel (bottom right), as illustrated in Merriam's Synopsis of the Weasels of North America

The least weasel has a thin, greatly elongated and extremely flexible body with a small, yet elongated, blunt-muzzled head which is no thicker than the neck. The eyes are small in relation to their head size and are bulging and dark colored. The legs and tail are relatively short, the latter constituting less than half the body length. The feet have sharp, dark-coloured claws, and the soles are heavily haired.[20][21] The skull, especially that of the small rixosa group, has an infantile appearance when compared with that of other members of the genus Mustela
Mustela
(in particular, the stoat and kolonok). This is expressed in the relatively large size of the cranium and shortened facial region.[22] The skull is, overall, similar to that of the stoat, but smaller, though the skulls of large male weasels tend to overlap in size with those of small female stoats.[23] There are usually four pairs of nipples but these are only visible in females. The baculum is short, 16 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.8 in), with a thick, straight shaft. Fat
Fat
is deposited along the spine, kidneys, gut mesentries and around the limbs. The least weasel has muscular anal glands under the tail, which measure 7 by 5 mm (0.3 by 0.2 in), and contain sulphurous volatiles, including thietanes and dithiacyclopentanes. The smell and chemical composition of these chemicals are distinct from those of the stoat.[23] The least weasel moves by jumping, the distance between the tracks of the fore and hind limbs being 18 to 35 cm (7 to 14 in).[24]

Skeleton, as illustrated in Lydekker's The New Natural History

Dimensions vary geographically, to an extent rarely found among other mammals. Least weasels of the vulgaris group, for example, may outweigh the smaller races by almost four times. In some large subspecies, the male may be 1.5 times longer than the female. Variations in tail length are also variable, constituting from 13–30% of the length of the body. Average body length in males is 130 to 260 mm (5 to 10 in), while females average 114 to 204 mm (4.5 to 8.0 in). The tail measures 12 to 87 mm (0.5 to 3.4 in) in males and 17 to 60 mm (0.7 to 2.4 in) in females. Males weigh 36 to 250 g (1.3 to 8.8 oz), while females weigh 29 to 117 g (1.0 to 4.1 oz).[25]

The winter coat is conspicuous when there is no snow on the ground.

The winter fur is dense, but short and closely fitting. In northern subspecies, the fur is soft and silky, but coarse in southern forms. The summer fur is very short, sparser and rougher. The upper parts in the summer fur are dark, but vary geographically from dark-tawny or dark-chocolate to light pale tawny or sandy. The lower parts, including the lower jaw and inner sides of the legs, are white. There is often a brown spot at the corner of the mouth. The dividing line between the dark upper and light lower parts is usually straight but sometimes forms an irregular line. The tail is brown, and sometimes the tip is a little darker but it is never black. In the northern part of its range and at high altitudes, the least weasel changes colour in the winter, the coat becoming pure white and exhibiting a few black hairs in rare circumstances.[22][26] Behaviour and ecology[edit] Reproduction and development[edit] The least weasel mates in April–July and there is a 34- to 37-day gestation period. In the Northern Hemisphere, the average litter size consists of 6 kits and these reach sexual maturity in 3 to 4 months. Males may mate during their first year of life, though this is usually unsuccessful. They are fecund in February–October, though the early stages of spermatogenesis do occur throughout the winter months. Anestrus in females lasts from September until February.[27] The female raises its kits without help from the male. They are 1.5 to 4.5 g (0.05 to 0.16 oz) in weight at birth. Newborn kits are born pink, naked, blind and deaf, but gain a white coat of downy fur at the age of 4 days. At 10 days, the margin between the dark upper parts and light under parts becomes visible. The milk teeth erupt at 2 to 3 weeks of age, at which point the young start to eat solid food, though lactation can last 12 weeks. The eyes and ears open at 3 to 4 weeks of age, and by 8 weeks, killing behaviour is developed. The family breaks up after 9 to 12 weeks.[27] There is a single litter each year and least weasels can live for 7 or 8 years.[26] Territorial and social behaviours[edit]

Two least weasels fighting

The least weasel has a typical mustelid territorial pattern, consisting of exclusive male ranges encompassing multiple female ranges. The population density of each territory depends greatly on food supply and reproductive success, thus the social structure and population density of any given territory is unstable and flexible.[28] Like the stoat, the male least weasel extends its range during spring or during food shortages. Its scent marking behaviour is similar to that of the stoat; it uses faeces, urine and anal and dermal gland secretions, the latter two of which are deposited by anal dragging and body rubbing. The least weasel does not dig its own den, but nests in the abandoned burrow of another species such as a mole or rat.[29] The burrow entrance measures about 2.5 cm (0.98 in) across and leads to the nest chamber located up to 15 cm (5.9 in) below ground. The nest chamber (which is used for sleeping, rearing kits and storing food) measures 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter, and is lined with straw and the skins of the weasel's prey.[30] The least weasel has four basic vocalisations; a guttural hiss emitted when alarmed, which is interspersed with short screaming barks and shrieks when provoked. When defensive, it emits a shrill wail or squeal. During encounters between males and females or between a mother and kits, the least weasel emits a high-pitched trilling. The least weasel's way of expressing aggression is similar to that of the stoat. Dominant weasels exhibit lunges and shrieks during aggressive encounters, while subdominant weasels will emit submissive squeals.[29] Diet[edit]

Taxidermy exhibit showing a least weasel attacking a European hare, in the Natural History Museum of Genoa

The least weasel feeds predominantly on mouse-like rodents, including mice, hamsters, gerbils and others. It usually does not attack adult hamsters and rats. Frogs, fish, small birds and bird eggs are rarely eaten. It can deal with adult pikas and gerbils, but usually cannot overcome brown rats and sousliks. Exceptional cases are known of least weasels killing prey far larger than themselves, such as capercaillie, hazel hen and hares.[31] In England, a favoured prey item is the field vole (Microtus agrestis). These have fluctuations in population size, and in years of abundance may form up to 54% of the weasel's diet. In years of scarcity, birds form a greater proportion of the diet and female least weasels may fail to breed.[32] Despite its small size, the least weasel is a fierce hunter, capable of killing a rabbit five to ten times its own weight.[33] Although they are commonly taken, the rabbits are usually young specimens, and become an important food source during the spring, when small rodents are scarce and rabbit kits are plentiful. Male least weasels take a higher proportion of rabbits than females, as well as an overall greater variety of prey. This is linked to the fact that being larger, and having vaster territorial ranges than females, males have more opportunities to hunt a greater diversity of prey.[34] The least weasel forages undercover, to avoid being seen by foxes and birds of prey. It is adapted for pursuing its prey down tunnels, though it may also bolt prey from a burrow and kill it in the open.[34] The least weasel kills small prey, such as voles, with a bite to the occipital region of the skull[31] or the neck, dislocating the cervical vertebrae. Large prey typically dies of blood loss or circulatory shock.[34] When food is abundant, only a small portion of the prey is eaten, usually the brain. The average daily food intake is 35 g (1 oz), which is equivalent to 30–35% of the animal's body weight.[31] Predators and competitors[edit]

Least weasels driven from a mountain hare carcass by a stoat, as illustrated in Barrett-Hamilton's A History of British Mammals

The least weasel is small enough to be preyed upon by a range of other predators.[35] Least weasel
Least weasel
remains have been found in the excrement of red foxes, sables, steppe and forest polecat, stoats, eagle owls and buzzards.[36] The owls most efficient at capturing least weasels are barn, barred, and great horned owls. Other birds of prey threatening to the least weasel include broad-winged and rough-legged buzzards. Some snake species may prey on the least weasel, including the black rat snake and copperhead.[30] Aside from its smaller size, the least weasel is more vulnerable to predation than the stoat because it lacks a black predator deflection mark on the tail.[35] In areas where the least weasel is sympatric with the stoat, the two species compete with each other for rodent prey. The weasel manages to avoid too much competition by living in more upland areas, feeding on smaller prey and being capable of entering smaller holes. It actively avoids encounters with stoats, though female weasels are less likely to stop foraging in the presence of stoats, perhaps because their smaller size allows them to quickly escape into holes.[37] Diseases and parasites[edit] Ectoparasites known to infest weasels include the louse Trichodectes mustelae and the mites Demodex
Demodex
and Psoregates mustela. The species may catch fleas from the nests and burrows of its prey. Flea
Flea
species known to infest weasels include Ctenophthalmus bisoctodentatus and Palaeopsylla m. minor, which they get from moles, P. s. soricis, which they get from shrews, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, which they get from rodents and Dasypsyllus gallinulae which they get from birds.[35] Helminths known to infest weasels include the trematode Alaria, the nematodes Capillaria, Filaroides and Trichinella
Trichinella
and the cestode Taenia.[35] Least weasels are commonly infected with the nematode Skrjabingylus nasicola, adults of which are found in the nasal sinuses and can damage the skull. There is no evidence that this has serious detrimental effects on even heavily infested animals.[38] Distribution and habitat[edit]

Alaskan weasel Mustela
Mustela
n. eskimo

The least weasel has a circumboreal, Holarctic
Holarctic
distribution, encompassing much of Europe
Europe
and North Africa, Asia
Asia
and parts of northern North America, where it occurs mainly in places where the stoat is not found, and has recently been extirpated from New York. It has been introduced in New Zealand, Malta, Crete, the Azore Islands and also Sao Tome
Sao Tome
off west Africa. It is found throughout Europe
Europe
and on many islands, including the Azores, Britain (but not Ireland), and all major Mediterranean
Mediterranean
islands.[39] It also occurs on Honshu
Honshu
and Hokkaido
Hokkaido
islands in Japan
Japan
and on Kunashir, Iturup, and Sakhalin Islands in Russia.[1] The least weasel occupies a similar type of habitat as the stoat but it less often frequents wet places. It can be found in fields, open woodland, bushy or rocky areas, parks and gardens, and at altitudes of up to about 3,000 metres (9,800 ft).[26] Conservation status[edit] The least weasel has a very wide circumboreal range and a large total population and is therefore listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of "least concern". Its chosen habitat is in areas of coarse vegetation and in some regions its numbers may be decreasing because of changes in agricultural practices, but altogether its population trend is thought to be steady. It is relatively common in Eurasia
Eurasia
but less abundant in North America
North America
and is thought to be rare in the southeastern United States. It is subject to considerable variations in numbers in areas where its main rodent prey is liable to large population fluctuations. In years of rodent population booms, the least weasel numbers may rise by up to ten-fold, only to slump again as prey becomes scarce again in the following years.[1] In folklore and mythology[edit]

17th century print of a weasel confronting a basilisk

The Ancient Macedonians
Ancient Macedonians
believed that to see a least weasel was a good omen. In some districts of Macedon, women who suffered from headaches after having washed their heads in water drawn overnight would assume that a weasel had previously used the water as a mirror, but they would refrain from mentioning the animal's name for fear that it would destroy their clothes. Similarly, a popular superstition in southern Greece
Greece
had it that the least weasel had previously been a bride, who was transformed into a bitter animal which would destroy the wedding dresses of other brides out of jealousy.[40] According to Pliny the Elder, the least weasel is the only animal capable of killing the basilisk;

To this dreadful monster the effluvium of the weasel is fatal, a thing that has been tried with success, for kings have often desired to see its body when killed; so true is it that it has pleased Nature that there should be nothing without its antidote. The animal is thrown into the hole of the basilisk, which is easily known from the soil around it being infected. The weasel destroys the basilisk by its odour, but dies itself in this struggle of nature against its own self.[41]

The Chippewa
Chippewa
believed that the least weasel could kill the dreaded wendigo giant by rushing up its anus.[42] In Inuit
Inuit
mythology, the least weasel is credited with both great wisdom and courage, and whenever a mythical Inuit
Inuit
hero wished to accomplish a valorous task, he would generally change himself into a least weasel.[43] According to Matthew Hopkins, a witch hunter general during the English Civil War, least weasels were the familiars of witches.[44] References[edit]

^ a b c Tikhonov, A.; Cavallini, P.; Maran, T.; Kranz, A.; Herrero, J.; Giannatos, G.; Stubbe, M.; Conroy, J.; Kryštufek, B.; Abramov, A.; et al. (2008). " Mustela
Mustela
nivalis". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ Shorter Oxford English dictionary. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0-19-920687-2.  ^ Sarah McPherson (29 January 2015). "What's the world's smallest carnivore?". Discover Wildlife. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ LONG JL 2003. Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence (Cabi Publishing) by John L. Long (ISBN 9780851997483) ^ Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. (2005). Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 12. JHU Press. pp. 616–617. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 972 ^ Kurtén 1968, pp. 102–103 ^ Macdonald 1992, p. 205 ^ a b c d Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 975–978 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 982 ^ Rhoades, Samuel M. (1900). "A New Weasel
Weasel
from Western Pennsylvania". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 52: 751–754. JSTOR 4062685.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 980 ^ Swenk, Myron H. (1926). "Notes on Mustela
Mustela
campestris Jackson, and on the American Forms of Least Weasels". Journal of Mammalogy. 7 (4): 313–330. doi:10.2307/1373581. JSTOR 1373581.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 981 ^ Kuroda, Nagamichi (1921). "On Three New Mammals from Japan". Journal of Mammalogy. 2 (4): 208–211. doi:10.2307/1373554. JSTOR 1373554.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 984 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 978 ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 14–15 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 983 ^ Fergus, Chuck. "Weasels" (PDF). Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Game Commission. Retrieved 8 November 2017.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 967–969 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 969 ^ a b Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 468 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 991 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 970–972 ^ a b c Konig, Claus (1973). Mammals. Collins & Co. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-00-212080-7.  ^ a b Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 474 ^ Erlinge, S. (1974). "Distribution, Territoriality and Numbers of the Weasel
Weasel
Mustela
Mustela
nivalis in Relation to Prey Abundance". Oikus. 25 (3): 308–314. JSTOR 3543948.  ^ a b Harris & Yalden 2008, pp. 471–472 ^ a b Merritt & Matinko 1987, p. 277 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 987–988 ^ Tapper, Stephen (1979). "The Effect of Fluctuating Vole
Vole
Numbers (Microtus agrestis) on a Population of Weasels ( Mustela
Mustela
nivalis) on Farmland". Animal
Animal
Ecology. 48 (2): 603–617. JSTOR 4182.  ^ Macdonald 1992, p. 208 ^ a b c Harris & Yalden 2008, pp. 472–473 ^ a b c d Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 475 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 992 ^ Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 469 ^ King, Carolyn M. (1977). "The effects of the nematode parasite Skrjabingylus nasicola on British weasels ( Mustela
Mustela
nivalis)". Journal of Zoology. 182 (2): 225–249. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1977.tb04157.x.  ^ Rodrigues, M.; et al. (2016). "Origin and introduction history of the Least Weasels ( Mustela
Mustela
nivalis) on Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Atlantic islands inferred from genetic data". Biological Invasions. 19: 399–421. doi:10.1007/s10530-016-1287-y.  ^ Abbott, G. A. (1903), Macedonian Folklore, pp. 108–109, Cambridge University Press ^ Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(1855). John Bostock; Henry Thomas Riley, eds. "The Natural History". Retrieved 10 June 2009.  ^ Barnouw, Victor (1979) Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Chippewa
Chippewa
Myths & Tales: And Their Relation to Chippewa
Chippewa
Life, pp. 53, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-07314-9 ^ Dufresne, Frank (2005), Alaska's Animals and Fishes, pp. 109, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-8416-3 ^ Summers, Montague (2005) Geography of Witchcraft, pp. 29, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0-7661-4536-0

Bibliography[edit]

Harris, Stephen; Yalden, Derek (2008). Mammals of the British Isles (4th Revised ed.). Mammal
Mammal
Society. ISBN 0-906282-65-9.  Kurtén, Björn (1968). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of Europe". Weidenfeld and Nicolson.  Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (2002). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol. II, part 1b, Carnivores ( Mustelidae
Mustelidae
and Procyonidae). Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation. ISBN 90-04-08876-8.  Macdonald, David (1992). "The Velvet Claw: A Natural History of the Carnivores". New York: Parkwest. ISBN 0-563-20844-9.  Merriam, Clinton Hart (1896). Synopsis of the weasels of North America. Washington : Govt. Print. Off.  Merritt, Joseph F.; Matinko, Ruth Anne (1987). Guide to the mammals of Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5393-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Coues, Elliott (1877). "Fur-bearing Animals: A Monograph of North American Mustelidae". Government Printing Office.  Johnston, Harry Hamilton (1903). British mammals; an attempt to describe and illustrate the mammalian fauna of the British islands from the commencement of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period down to the present day. London, Hutchinson.  Kurtén, Björn (1980). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of North America". Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03733-3. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mustela
Mustela
nivalis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Mustela
Mustela
nivalis at Wikispecies Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: Mustela
Mustela
nivalis

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion (P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean
Mediterranean
monk seal (M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q25311 ADW: Mustela_nivalis ARKive: mustela-nivalis EoL: 328586 EPPO: MUSTNI Fauna Europaea: 305324 Fossilworks: 48861 GBIF: 5218987 iNaturalist: 41815 ITIS: 180554 IUCN: 70207409 MSW: 14

.