Le Moniteur Universel was a French newspaper founded in
November 24, 1789 under the title
Gazette Nationale ou Le Moniteur
Universel by Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, and which ceased publication
on December 31, 1868. It was the main French newspaper during the
French Revolution and was for a long time the official journal of the
French government and at times a propaganda publication, especially
under the Napoleonic regime. Le Moniteur had a large circulation in
France and Europe, and also in America during the French
2 See also
The interest aroused by the debates of the first National Assembly
suggested to Hugues-Bernard Maret the idea of publishing them in the
Bulletin de l'Assemblée.
Charles-Joseph Panckoucke (1736-1798), owner
of the Mercure de
France and publisher of the famous
1785, persuaded him to merge this into a larger paper, the Gazette
Nationale ou Le Moniteur Universel.
On December 2, 1799 Le Moniteur was declared an official newspaper.
Napoleon controlled it via Hugues-Bernard Maret and Jean Jacques
Régis de Cambacérès, who were responsible for its content. Due to
Napoleon's strict controls of the press, the Moniteur's reports of
legislative debates were replaced by bulletins of the
Grand Army and
polemical articles directed against England.
Gazette Nationale were dropped from the newspaper's name on
January 1, 1811, when it became Le Moniteur Universel. The newspaper
also became less exclusively political, articles on literature,
science, and art occupying a considerable portion of its columns.
Napoleon's return from exile on Elba on March 20, 1815 confirmed Le
Moniteur in its position as official journal; Le Moniteur announced in
the same edition both the departure of King Louis XVIII and the
arrival of the Emperor in the Tuileries.
Immediately after the
July Revolution of 1830, one of the first steps
of the provisional government was to seize control of Le Moniteur and
the government of Louis Philippe put it under the control of the
Le Moniteur ceased publication on December 31, 1868, being superseded
as the official journal of the French Empire (and later the French
Republic) by what is known now as the Journal Officiel de la
History of French newspapers
^ David I. Kulstein, "The Ideas of Charles-Joseph Panckoucke,
Publisher of the Moniteur Universel, on the French Revolution.,"
French Historical Studies (1966) 4#3 pp 304-19 JSTOR 285905
Kulstein, David I. "The Ideas of Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, Publisher
of the Moniteur Universel, on the French Revolution.," French
Historical Studies (1966) 4#3 pp 304–19 doi:10.2307/285905
Popkin, Jeremy D. (1990). Revolutionary News: The Press in France,
1789-1799. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-0997-1.