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Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
(Arabic: لیلة القدر‎) (also known as شب قدر‬ Shab-e-Qadr , in Persian), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power,[2] Night of Value, Night of Destiny,[3] or Night of Measures, is in Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran
Quran
were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[4] It is one of the nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. Muslims believe that on this night the blessings and mercy of God are abundant, sins are forgiven, supplications are accepted, and that the annual decree is revealed to the angels who also descend to earth. Shia Islam
Islam
holds that Prophets and the Shia Imams are recipients of the angels on the night of Qadr and the decrees that they reveal.[5]

Contents

1 Revelation to Muhammad 2 Date

2.1 Sunni Islam 2.2 Shia Islam 2.3 Mahdavi Muslims

3 Religious importance

3.1 For Shias

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Revelation to Muhammad[edit] Some commentators believe that Quran
Quran
was revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad
two times being 'the immediate revelation' happening on the Laylat al-Qadr and 'gradual revelation' across 23 years. The Quran
Quran
uses the word Inzal (انزال) which justifies 'the immediate revelation', according to Allamah Tabatabai.[6] However some others believe that the revelation of Quran
Quran
occurred in two phases, with the first phase being the revelation in its entirety on Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
to the angel Gabriel (Jibril in Arabic) in the lowest heaven, and then the subsequent verse-by-verse revelation to Muhammad
Muhammad
by Gabriel.[3] The revelation started in 610 CE at the Hira
Hira
cave on Mount Nur in Mecca. The first Sura
Sura
that was revealed was Sūrat al-ʿAlaq (in Arabic العلق). During the first revelation the first five verses of this Sura, or chapter, were revealed.[citation needed] Date[edit] The specific date of Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
is not mentioned in the Quran.[7][8] Sunni Islam[edit] In Islamic countries and Sunni communities all over the world, Laylat al-Qadr is found to be on the last nights of Ramadan, mostly in on one of the odd nights (21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th) whereby night precedes day. Many traditions insist particularly on the night before the 27th of Ramadan.[9][10][11]

27th of Ramadan Gregorian date [12]

1435 23 July 2014

1436 13 July 2015

1437 2 July 2016

1438 22 June 2017

Shia Islam[edit] See also: Assassination of Ali

Iranians observing Qadr Night in Imam Reza shrine

Iranians observing Qadr Night in Jamkaran Mosque

Shia Muslims similarly believe that Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
is to be found in the last ten odd nights of Ramadan
Ramadan
but mostly on the 19th, 21st or 23rd of Ramadan
Ramadan
with 23rd being the most important night.[13] The 19th, according to the Shia belief coincides with the night Ali was attacked in the Mihrab
Mihrab
while worshipping in the Great Mosque of Kufa, and died on the 21st of Ramadan. Shia Muslims regard these three nights as greatly rewarding. Many Shia Muslims, who make up the largest minority of Islamic followers — including the Ismailis and Dawoodi Bohras[14] observe Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
on the 23rd night of Ramadan, in keeping with traditions received through Ali and his wife Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter and the Fatimid
Fatimid
Imams The tradition is also said to have been articulated by Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
and other Shia Imams.[6][15][10]

23rd of Ramadan Gregorian date

1436 10 July 2015

1437 27 June 2016[16]

1438 18 June 2017[17]

Mahdavi Muslims[edit] Mahdavi Muslims observe Laylat al-Qadar on the 27th night of Ramadan as Dougana Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
(in Persian, the word Dogana means "double"; here the word Dougana symbolizes the two rak'ahs of prayer performed during this night). Following the practice and traditions of their promised Mahdi, Muhammad
Muhammad
Jaunpuri, the Mahdavis dress in colorful traditional attire and converge at Mahdavia
Mahdavia
mosques in their respective localities. Past midnight, between 26 and 27 Ramadan
Ramadan
they collectively offer two rak'ahs of thanksgiving prayers, led by their Murshids.[citation needed] Mahdavis believe that God blessed them with this most valued night of might/power, by the virtue of Muhammad
Muhammad
Jaunpuri while travelling from Thatta
Thatta
(now in Pakistani province of Sindh) towards Farah (now in Afghanistan). During his stay in Makran, Imam Mahdi, in compliance with divine order, offered Dogana Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
past midnight of 27 Ramadan
Ramadan
908 AH along with his family members and companions at the nearby mountain, which was later named after him as Koh-e-Murad.[18][19] Religious importance[edit] The night is not comparable to the others in view of Muslims[13] and according to a tradition, the blessings due to the worships during this night can't be equaled even by worshiping throughout the entire life. The reward of worships done in this one single night is more than the reward of around 83 years(1000 months) of worship.[4] Laylat al-Qadr is referenced in the Quran:[3][13]

We have indeed revealed this (Message) in the night of Qadr: And what will explain to thee what the night of Qadr is? The night of Qadr is better than a thousand months. Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by God's permission, on every errand: Peace! This until the rise of dawn! —  Sura
Sura
97 (Al-Qadr), āyāt 1-5[20]

The verses above regard the night as better than one thousand months.[13] The whole month of Ramadan
Ramadan
is a period of spiritual training wherein believers devote much of their time to fasting, praying, reciting the Quran, remembering God, and giving charity.[citation needed] However, because of the revealed importance of this night, Muslims strive [give more effort] harder in the last ten days of Ramadan
Ramadan
since the Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
could be one of the odd-numbered days in these last ten (the first, third, fifth, seventh or ninth). Normally, some Muslims from each community perform iʿtikāf in the mosque: they remain in the mosque for the last ten days of the month for prayers and recitation.[3] Women also observe i'tikaf. They remain in prayer and meditation mostly, although they are allowed to do the minimum domestic work to run the family. When Muhammed observed i'tikaf in a tent, he saw a few tents around his. His wives joined him by pitching tents.[citation needed] For Shias[edit] Shia theology also holds that Muhammad
Muhammad
during his lifetime and the Shia Imams who succeed him are the recipients of the Angels and the Spirit that annually descend on the night of Qadr, and are thereby informed about the Divine providence
Divine providence
for the coming year. Shia hadith sources narrate that:

Once Imam Ali
Imam Ali
(a) [the first Shia Imam] was reciting Surat al-Qadr and his sons, Imam Hasan
Imam Hasan
(a) and Imam Husayn
Imam Husayn
(a) were near him. Imam Husayn (a) asked his father: “Father, how come we feel a different sensation when you recite this surah?” Imam Ali(a) replied, “O son of the Prophet and my son! I know things from this chapter that you are not aware of now. When this surah was sent down to the Prophet he asked me to go to him. When I went to him he recited this surah, then he put his hand on my right shoulder and said: O my brother and my successor! O the leader of my nation after me! O tireless fighter with my enemies! This surah is yours after me, and is for your two sons after you. Gabriel who is my brother among the angels informs me of the events of one year of my nation at the night of Qadr. And after me he will give this information to you. This surah will always have a shining light in your heart and in the heart of your successors until the rising of the dawn of the day of reappearance of Qa'im [the one who rises, a title for the Islamic Messiah, Mahdi].”[5]

See also[edit]

Predestination in Islam
Islam
(Qadar) Glossary of Islam Islamic calendar Muslim
Muslim
holidays

References[edit]

^ Britannica Guide to the Islamic World. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2009. ISBN 9781593398491. Retrieved 2 June 2017.  ^ Daneshgar, Majid; Saleh, Walid. Islamic Studies Today: Essays in Honor of Andrew Rippin. BRILL. ISBN 9789004337121.  ^ a b c d A. Beverley, James (2011). Melton, J. Gordon, ed. Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598842067. Retrieved 2 June 2017.  ^ a b Halim, Fachrizal A. Legal Authority in Premodern Islam: Yahya B Sharaf Al-Nawawi in the Shafi'i School of Law. Routledge. ISBN 9781317749189. Retrieved 31 May 2017.  ^ a b "Imam Mahdi
Mahdi
(a) in Chapter al-Qadr". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 2017-06-23.  ^ a b Staff. "Qadr night from the view point of Allamah Tabtabaei". Allamah Tabtabaei University. Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ Islam
Islam
and state in Sumatra: a study of seventeenth-century Aceh. p.128. ^ Marjo Buitelaar. Fasting and feasting in Morocco: women's participation in ramzan. p.64 ^ Night of 27 Ramadan ^ a b Mohammad Younes, Arefi. "The importance of Qadr night and the secret behind it's being hidden". The message of Woman (in farsi). Retrieved 12 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Parsa, Farvardin. " Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
from the viewpoint of Sunni Muslims". Andisheh Club. Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ http://www.calendarlabs.com/holidays/islam/laylat-al-kadr.php ^ a b c d Ysuf, Imtiyaz. "Laylat al-Qadr". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World.  ^ "The Ismaili: Laylat al-Qadr". Retrieved 2015-07-08.  ^ SUPPLICATIONS FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADHAN. Tayyiba Publishers & Distributors. Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ "Calendar center of Geophysics institute of Tehran University, 1395 Calendar" (PDF) (in Persian). Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ "Calendar center of Geophysics institute of Tehran University, 1396 Calendar" (PDF) (in Persian). Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ Koh e Murad ^ Dogana laytul qadr reference. ^ Quran 97:1–5

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laylat al-Qadr.

Laylatul Qadr, the Night of Power on Beliefnet.com Laylat Al-Qadr, The Night of Power - Last 10 Days Lailatul Qadr Laylat al Qadr Shab e Qadr 2011 (Laylat al-Qadr) Al Qadr (The Night of Power And Fate) Al Qadr Learn Surah Al Qadr with Audio at MountHira.com Lailat al Qadr (BBC Religion) with dates The Powerful Night of ramzan Laylatul Qadr: Introduction and guidance on special prayers for the night. (Includes Salaatul Tasbeeh) "Deliverance from Error on Knowledge of Times of Day and the Direction of Prayer" is an Arabic manuscript from 1683 which talks about the Night of Destiny

v t e

Islamic holidays
Islamic holidays
and observances

The two Eids

Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha

Other holidays and observances

Day of Arafah Day of Ashura Islamic New Year Arba'een1 Mawlid Lailat al Miraj Mid-Sha'ban Ramadan Laylat al-Qadr Eid al-Ghadir1 Mubahala1 Promised Messiah Day2 Promised Reformer Day2 Caliphate Day2

1 Shia Muslim
Muslim
only 2 Ahmadi Muslim
Muslim
only

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(1) Yennayer
Yennayer
(12)

February

Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
(14) Tafsut (28)

March

International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8) Victory Day (19) World Water Day
World Water Day
(22) Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30) Spring vacation (2 last weeks)

April

April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day
(1) Knowledge Day (16) Berber Spring (20) Earth Day
Earth Day
(22) Election Day (Thursday)

May

International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1) World Press Freedom Day (3) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(last Sunday)

June–July–August

Summer vacation (varies)

June

Children's Day
Children's Day
(1) Father's Day
Father's Day
(21)

July

Independence Day (5)

September

International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace
(21)

October

International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence
(2) Halloween
Halloween
(31)

November

Revolution Day (1)

December

Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(24) Christmas
Christmas
(25) New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
(31) Winter vacation (2 last weeks)

Varies (year round)

Hijri New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(Muharram 1) Ashura
Ashura
(Muharram 10) Mawlid
Mawlid
(Rabi' al-Awwal 12) Ramadan
Ramadan
( Ramadan
Ramadan
1) Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
( Ramadan
Ramadan
27) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Shawwal 1) Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah
(Dhu al-Hijjah 9) Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(Dhu al-Hijjah 10) Holi
Holi
(varies)

Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays.

v t e

Ramadan

Background

Ramadan
Ramadan
(calendar month) Fasting during Ramadan Zakat al-Fitr

Fidyah and Kaffara

Meals

Suhur
Suhur
(before sunrise) Iftar
Iftar
(after sunset)

Prayers and observances

Tarawih Iʿtikāf Laylat al-Qadr Jumu'atul-Wida Eid al-Fitr

Ramadan
Ramadan
culture

Date (fruit) Chaand Raat Fanous Fast-a-Thon Gargee'an Mh

.