Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA (/ˈælmə ˈtædɪmə/; born
Lourens Alma Tadema Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlʌurəns ˈɑlmaː
ˈtaːdəˌmaː]; 8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was a Dutch painter
of special British denizenship. Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and
trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in
England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there. A
classical-subject painter, he became famous for his depictions of the
luxury and decadence of the Roman Empire, with languorous figures set
in fabulous marbled interiors or against a backdrop of dazzling blue
Mediterranean Sea and sky. Though admired during his lifetime for his
draftsmanship and depictions of Classical antiquity, his work fell
into disrepute after his death, and only since the 1960s has it been
re-evaluated for its importance within nineteenth-century English art.
1.1 Early life
1.2 Move to Belgium
1.3 Early works
1.4 Move to England
1.5 Victorian painter
1.7 Later years
5 References and sources
6 External links
Lourens Alma Tadema's birth house and statue in Dronrijp, Netherlands
Lourens Alma Tadema was born on 8 January 1836 in the village of
Dronrijp in the province of
Friesland in the north of the
Netherlands. The surname Tadema is an old Frisian patronymic,
meaning 'son of Tade', while the names Lourens and Alma came from his
godfather. He was the sixth child of Pieter Jiltes Tadema
(1797–1840), the village notary, and the third child of Hinke Dirks
Brouwer (c. 1800–1863). His father had three sons from a previous
marriage. His parents' first child died young, and the second was Atje
(c. 1834–1876), Lourens' sister, for whom he had great affection.
The Tadema family moved in 1838 to the nearby city of Leeuwarden,
where Pieter's position as a notary would be more lucrative. His
father died when Lourens was four, leaving his mother with five
children: Lourens, his sister, and three boys from his father's first
marriage. His mother had artistic leanings, and decided that drawing
lessons should be incorporated into the children's education. He
received his first art training with a local drawing master hired to
teach his older half-brothers.
It was intended that the boy would become a lawyer; but in 1851 at the
age of fifteen he suffered a physical and mental breakdown. Diagnosed
as consumptive and given only a short time to live, he was allowed to
spend his remaining days at his leisure, drawing and painting. Left to
his own devices he regained his health and decided to pursue a career
as an artist.
Move to Belgium
In 1852 he entered the Royal Academy of
Belgium where he
studied early Dutch and Flemish art, under Gustaf Wappers. During
Alma-Tadema's four years as a registered student at the Academy, he
won several respectable awards.
The Education of the Children of Clovis (1861), oil on canvas, 127 ×
176.8 cm, private collection. Queen Clotilde, wife of King
Clovis, is shown training her three young children the art of hurling
the ax to avenge the death of her father.
Before leaving school, towards the end of 1855, he became assistant to
the painter and professor Louis (Lodewijk) Jan de Taeye, whose courses
in history and historical costume he had greatly enjoyed at the
Academy. Although de Taeye was not an outstanding painter, Alma-Tadema
respected him and became his studio assistant, working with him for
three years. De Taeye introduced him to books that influenced his
desire to portray Merovingian subjects early in his career. He was
encouraged to depict historical accuracy in his paintings, a trait for
which the artist became known.
Alma-Tadema left Taeye's studio in November 1858 returning to
Leeuwarden before settling in Antwerp, where he began working with the
painter Baron Jan August Hendrik Leys, whose studio was one of the
most highly regarded in Belgium. Under his guidance Alma-Tadema
painted his first major work: The Education of the children of Clovis
(1861). This painting created a sensation among critics and artists
when it was exhibited that year at the Artistic Congress in Antwerp.
It is said to have laid the foundation of his fame and reputation.
Alma-Tadema related that although Leys thought the completed painting
better than he had expected, he was critical of the treatment of
marble, which he compared to cheese.
Alma-Tadema took this criticism very seriously, and it led him to
improve his technique and to become the world's foremost painter of
marble and variegated granite. Despite any reproaches from his master,
The Education of the Children of Clovis was honorably received by
critics and artists alike and was eventually purchased and
subsequently given to King Leopold of Belgium.
Egyptian Chess Players (1865), oil on wood, 39.8 × 55.8 cm.
Merovingian themes were the painter's favourite subject up to the
mid-1860s. It is perhaps in this series that we find the artist moved
by the deepest feeling and the strongest spirit of romance. However
Merovingian subjects did not have a wide international appeal, so he
switched to themes of life in ancient
Egypt that were more popular. On
these scenes of Frankish and Egyptian life Alma-Tadema spent great
energy and much research. In 1862 Alma-Tadema left Leys's studio and
started his own career, establishing himself as a significant
classical-subject European artist.
Anna (in front) and Laurence (Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1873)
1863 was to alter the course of Alma-Tadema's personal and
professional life: on 3 January his invalid mother died, and on 24
September he was married, in
Antwerp City Hall, to Marie-Pauline
Gressin Dumoulin, the daughter of Eugène Gressin Dumoulin, a French
journalist living near Brussels. Nothing is known of their meeting
and little of Pauline herself, as Alma-Tadema never spoke about her
after her death in 1869. Her image appears in a number of oils, though
he painted her portrait only three times, the most notable appearing
in My studio (1867). The couple had three children. Their eldest
and only son lived only a few months dying of smallpox. Their two
daughters, Laurence (1864–1940) and Anna (1867–1943), both had
artistic leanings: the former in literature, the latter in art.
Neither would marry.
Alma-Tadema and his wife spent their honeymoon in Florence, Rome,
Naples and Pompeii. This, his first visit to Italy, developed his
interest in depicting the life of ancient Greece and Rome, especially
the latter since he found new inspiration in the ruins of Pompeii,
which fascinated him and would inspire much of his work in the coming
During the summer of 1864, Tadema met Ernest Gambart, the most
influential print publisher and art dealer of the period. Gambart was
highly impressed with the work of Tadema, who was then painting
Egyptian chess players (1865). The dealer, recognising at once the
unusual gifts of the young painter, gave him an order for twenty-four
pictures and arranged for three of Tadema's paintings to be shown in
London. In 1865, Tadema relocated to
Brussels where he was named a
knight of the Order of Leopold.
On 28 May 1869, after years of ill health, Pauline died at Schaerbeek,
in Belgium, at the age of thirty-two, of smallpox. Her death left
Tadema disconsolate and depressed. He ceased painting for nearly four
months. His sister Artje, who lived with the family, helped with the
two daughters then aged five and two. Artje took over the role of
housekeeper and remained with the family until 1873 when she
During the summer Tadema himself began to suffer from a medical
problem which doctors in
Brussels were frustratingly unable to
diagnose. Gambart eventually advised him to go to England for another
medical opinion. Soon after his arrival in London in December 1869,
Alma-Tadema was invited to the home of the painter Ford Madox Brown.
There he met Laura Theresa Epps, who was seventeen years old, and fell
in love with her at first sight.
Move to England
Tepidarium (1881), oil on panel, 24 xx 33cm. Lady Lever Art
Gallery, Port Sunlight. Lounging in the tepidarium, a curvaceous
beauty takes her rest.
The outbreak of the
Franco-Prussian War in July 1870 compelled
Alma-Tadema to leave the continent and move to London. His infatuation
with Laura Epps played a great part in his relocation to England and
Gambart felt that the move would be advantageous to the artist's
career. In stating his reasons for the move, Tadema simply said "I
lost my first wife, a French lady with whom I married in 1863, in
1869. Having always had a great predilection for London, the only
place where, up till then my work had met with buyers, I decided to
leave the continent and go to settle in England, where I have found a
With his small daughters and sister Atje, Alma-Tadema arrived in
London at the beginning of September 1870. The painter wasted no time
in contacting Laura, and it was arranged that he would give her
painting lessons. During one of these, he proposed marriage. As he was
then thirty-four and Laura was now only eighteen, her father was
initially opposed to the idea. Dr Epps finally agreed on the condition
that they should wait until they knew each other better. They married
in July 1871. Laura, under her married name, also won a high
reputation as an artist, and appears in numerous of Alma-Tadema's
canvases after their marriage (The Women of Amphissa (1887) being a
notable example). This second marriage was enduring and happy, though
childless, and Laura became stepmother to Anna and Laurence. Anna
became a painter and Laurence became a novelist.
He would initially adopt the name Laurence Alma Tadema instead of
Lourens Alma Tadema and later adopt the more English Lawrence for his
forename, and incorporate Alma into his surname so that he appeared at
the beginning of exhibition catalogues, under "A" rather than under
"T". He did not actually hyphenate his last name, but it was done
by others and this has since become the convention.
The Roses of Heliogabalus
The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888), oil on canvas, 132.1 ×
213.7 cm, private collection. As it was painted during the
winter, Tadema arranged to have roses sent weekly from the French
Riviera for four months to ensure the accuracy of each petal.
Unconscious Rivals, (1893), oil on panel,45 × 63 cm,
Museum and Art Gallery. Alma-Tadema's female figures have a slightly
bored pleasure-seeking attitude, as if they were pampered
courtesans. There is little action in Alma-Tadema's paintings;
here the two women are just probably waiting for a lover. The
composition is balanced by the flowers in bloom.
After his arrival in England, where he was to spend the rest of his
life, Alma-Tadema's career was one of continued success. He became one
of the most famous and highly paid artists of his time, acknowledged
and rewarded. By 1871 he had met and befriended most of the major
Pre-Raphaelite painters and it was in part due to their influence that
the artist brightened his palette, varied his hues, and lightened his
In 1872 Alma-Tadema organised his paintings into an identification
system by including an opus number under his signature and assigning
his earlier pictures numbers as well. Portrait of my sister, Artje,
painted in 1851, is numbered opus I, while two months before his death
he completed Preparations in the Coliseum, opus CCCCVIII. Such a
system would make it difficult for fakes to be passed off as
In 1873 Queen Victoria in Council by letters patent made Alma-Tadema
and his wife what are now the last British Denizens (the legal process
has theoretically not yet been abolished in the United Kingdom), with
some limited special rights otherwise only accorded to and enjoyed by
British subjects (what would now be called British citizens). The
previous year he and his wife made a journey on the Continent that
lasted five and a half months and took them through Brussels, Germany,
and Italy. In Italy they were able to take in the ancient ruins again;
this time he purchased several photographs, mostly of the ruins, which
began his immense collection of folios with archival material
sufficient for the documentation used in the completion of future
paintings. In January 1876, he rented a studio in Rome. The family
returned to London in April, visiting the Parisian Salon on their way
back. In London he regularly met with fellow-artist Emil
Among the most important of his pictures during this period was An
Audience at Agrippa's (1876). When an admirer of the painting offered
to pay a substantial sum for a painting with a similar theme,
Alma-Tadema simply turned the emperor around to show him leaving in
After the Audience.
On 19 June 1879, Alma-Tadema was made a full Academician, his most
personally important award. Three years later a major retrospective of
his entire oeuvre was organised at the Grosvenor Gallery in London,
including 185 of his pictures.
In 1883 he returned to
Rome and, most notably, Pompeii, where further
excavations had taken place since his last visit. He spent a
significant amount of time studying the site, going there daily. These
excursions gave him an ample source of subject matter as he began to
further his knowledge of daily Roman life. At times, however, he
integrated so many objects into his paintings that some said they
resembled museum catalogues.
One of his most famous paintings is
The Roses of Heliogabalus
The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888)
– based on an episode from the life of the debauched Roman Emperor
Elagabalus (Heliogabalus), the painting depicts the Emperor
suffocating his guests at an orgy under a cascade of rose petals. The
blossoms depicted were sent weekly to the artist's London studio from
the Riviera for four months during the winter of 1887–1888.
Among Alma-Tadema's works of this period are: An Earthly Paradise
(1891), Unconscious Rivals (1893) Spring (1894), The Coliseum (1896)
and The Baths of Caracalla (1899). Although Alma-Tadema's fame rests
on his paintings set in Antiquity, he also painted portraits,
landscapes and watercolours, and made some etchings himself (although
many more were made of his paintings by others).
Spring, (1894), oil on canvas,179.2 × 80.3 cm, J. Paul Getty
Museum, Los Angeles. It depicts the festival of
Cerealia in a Roman
street. One of Tadema's most famous and popular works, it took him
four years to complete. The models for many of the participants and
spectators were Tadema's friends and members of his family.
For all the quiet charm and erudition of his paintings, Alma-Tadema
himself preserved a youthful sense of mischief. He was childlike in
his practical jokes and in his sudden bursts of bad temper, which
could as suddenly subside into an engaging smile.
In his personal life, Alma-Tadema was an extrovert and had a
remarkably warm personality. He had most of the characteristics of
a child, coupled with the admirable traits of a consummate
professional. A perfectionist, he remained in all respects a diligent,
if somewhat obsessive and pedantic worker. He was an excellent
businessman, and one of the wealthiest artists of the nineteenth
century. Alma-Tadema was as firm in money matters as he was with the
quality of his work.
As a man,
Lawrence Alma-Tadema was a robust, fun loving and rather
portly gentleman. There was not a hint of the delicate artist about
him; he was a cheerful lover of wine, women and parties.
Alma-Tadema's output decreased with time, partly on account of health,
but also because of his obsession with decorating his new home, to
which he moved in 1883. Nevertheless, he continued to exhibit
throughout the 1880s and into the next decade, receiving a plentiful
amount of accolades along the way, including the medal of Honour at
the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889, election to an honorary
member of the Oxford University Dramatic Society in 1890, the Great
Gold Medal at the International Exposition in
Brussels of 1897. In
1899 he was Knighted in England, only the eighth artist from the
Continent to receive the honour. Not only did he assist with the
organisation of the British section at the 1900 Exposition Universelle
in Paris, he also exhibited two works that earned him the Grand Prix
Diploma. He also assisted with the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904
where he was well represented and received.
Portrait of Alma Tadema
During this time, Alma-Tadema was very active with theatre design and
production, designing many costumes. He also spread his artistic
boundaries and began to design furniture, often modelled after
Pompeian or Egyptian motifs, illustrations, textiles, and frame
making. His diverse interests highlight his talents. Each of these
exploits were used in his paintings, as he often incorporated some of
his designed furniture into the composition, and must have used many
of his own designs for the clothing of his female subjects. Through
his last period of creativity Alma-Tadema continued to produce
paintings, which repeat the successful formula of women in marble
terraces overlooking the sea such as in Silver Favourites (1903).
Between 1906 and his death six years later, Alma-Tadema painted less
but still produced ambitious paintings like The Finding of Moses
On 15 August 1909 Alma-Tadema's wife, Laura, died at the age of
fifty-seven. The grief-stricken widower outlived his second wife by
less than three years. His last major composition was Preparation in
the Coliseum (1912). In the summer of 1912, Alma Tadema was
accompanied by his daughter Anna to Kaiserhof Spa, Wiesbaden, Germany
where he was to undergo treatment for ulceration of the stomach.
He died there on 28 June 1912 at the age of seventy-six. He was buried
in a crypt in
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral in London.
Silver Favourites, 1903, oil on wood, 69.1 × 42.2 cm, Manchester
Art Gallery. An example of Alma-Tadema's contrasting gleaming white
marble against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean sea. The
artist obliterated the middle-ground, and the foreground is abruptly
juxtaposed with the distant horizon, creating a dramatic effect.
Alma-Tadema's works are remarkable for the way in which flowers,
textures and hard reflecting substances, like metals, pottery, and
especially marble, are painted – indeed, his realistic depiction of
marble led him to be called the 'marbellous painter'. His work shows
much of the fine execution and brilliant colour of the old Dutch
masters. By the human interest with which he imbues all his scenes
from ancient life he brings them within the scope of modern feeling,
and charms us with gentle sentiment and playfulness.
From early in his career, Alma-Tadema was particularly concerned with
architectural accuracy, often including objects that he would see at
museums – such as the
British Museum in London – in his works. He
also read many books and took many images from them. He amassed an
enormous number of photographs from ancient sites in Italy, which he
used for the most precise accuracy in the details of his compositions.
Alma-Tadema was a perfectionist. He worked assiduously to make the
most of his paintings, often repeatedly reworking parts of paintings
before he found them satisfactory to his own high standards. One
humorous story relates that one of his paintings was rejected and
instead of keeping it, he gave the canvas to a maid who used it as her
table cover. He was sensitive to every detail and architectural line
of his paintings, as well as the settings he was depicting. For many
of the objects in his paintings, he would depict what was in front of
him, using fresh flowers imported from across the continent and even
from Africa, rushing to finish the paintings before the flowers died.
It was this commitment to veracity that earned him recognition but
also caused many of his adversaries to take up arms against his almost
Alma-Tadema's work has been linked with that of European Symbolist
painters. As an artist of international reputation, he can be
cited as an influence on European figures such as
Gustav Klimt and
Fernand Khnopff. Both painters incorporate classical motifs into
their works and use Alma-Tadema's unconventional compositional devices
such as abrupt cut-off at the edge of the canvas. They, like
Alma-Tadema, also employ coded imagery to convey meaning to their
The Finding of Moses, 1904, oil on canvas, 137.7 × 213.4 cm,
private collection. It includes a number of archaeologically precise
objects and inscriptions, the results of Tadema's diligent research.
After Tadema spent two years working on the painting, his wife pointed
out wryly that the infant Moses was now a toddler, and need no longer
Sappho and Alcaeus, completed in 1881, depicts
Sappho and her
companions listening as the poet
Alcaeus of Mytilene
Alcaeus of Mytilene plays a kithara,
on the island of Lesbos. (Walters Art Museum)
An Eloquent Silence, 1890
Alma-Tadema was among the most financially successful painters of the
Victorian era, though never matching Edwin Henry Landseer. For over
sixty years he gave his audience exactly what they wanted:
distinctive, elaborate paintings of beautiful people in classical
settings. His incredibly detailed reconstructions of ancient Rome,
with languid men and women posed against white marble in dazzling
sunlight provided his audience with a glimpse of a world of the kind
they might one day construct for themselves at least in attitude if
not in detail. As with other painters, the reproduction rights for
prints were often worth more than the canvas, and a painting with its
rights still attached may have been sold to Gambart for £10,000 in
1874; without rights it was sold again in 1903, when Alma-Tadema's
prices were actually higher, for £2,625. Typical prices were between
£2,000 and £3,000 in the 1880s, but at least three works sold for
between £5,250 and £6,060 in the 1900s. Prices held well until the
general collapse of Victorian prices in the early 1920s, when they
fell to the hundreds, where they remained until the 1960s; by 1969
£4,600 had been reached again (the huge effect of inflation must of
course be remembered for all these figures).
The last years of Alma-Tadema's life saw the rise of
Cubism and Futurism, of which he heartily
disapproved. As his pupil John Collier wrote, 'it is impossible to
reconcile the art of Alma-Tadema with that of Matisse,
His artistic legacy almost vanished. As attitudes of the public in
general and the artists in particular became more sceptical of the
possibilities of human achievement, his paintings were increasingly
denounced. He was declared "the worst painter of the 19th century" by
John Ruskin, and one critic even remarked that his paintings were
"about worthy enough to adorn bourbon boxes." After this brief period
of being actively derided, he was consigned to relative obscurity for
many years. Only since the 1960s has Alma-Tadema's work been
re-evaluated for its importance within the nineteenth century, and
more specifically, within the evolution of English art.
Portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski, 1891, Oil on canvas, 45.7 ×
58.4 cm, National Museum, Warsaw. In his portraits he employed
psychological realism to reveal the sitter's personality.
He is now regarded[by whom?] as one of the principal classical-subject
painters of the nineteenth century whose works demonstrate the care
and exactitude of an era mesmerised by trying to visualise the past,
some of which was being recovered through archaeological research.
Alma-Tadema's meticulous archaeological research, including research
into Roman architecture (which was so thorough that every building
featured in his canvases could have been built using Roman tools and
methods) led to his paintings being used as source material by
Hollywood directors in their vision of the ancient world for films
such as D. W. Griffith's Intolerance (1916), Ben Hur (1926), Cleopatra
(1934), and most notably of all, Cecil B. DeMille's epic remake of The
Ten Commandments (1956). Indeed, Jesse Lasky Jr., the co-writer on
The Ten Commandments, described how the director would customarily
spread out prints of Alma-Tadema paintings to indicate to his set
designers the look he wanted to achieve. The designers of the
Oscar-winning Roman epic Gladiator used the paintings of Alma-Tadema
as a central source of inspiration. Alma-Tadema's paintings were
also the inspiration for the design of the interior of Cair Paravel
castle in the 2005 film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch
and the Wardrobe.
In 1962, New York art dealer
Robert Isaacson mounted the first show of
Alma-Tadema's work in fifty years; by the late 1960s, the
revival of interest in Victorian painting gained impetus, and a number
of well-attended exhibitions were held. Allen Funt, the creator
and host of the American version of the television show Candid Camera,
was a collector of Alma-Tadema paintings at a time when the artist's
reputation in the 20th century was at its nadir; in a relatively
few years he bought 35 works, about ten percent of Alma-Tadema's
output. After Funt was robbed by his accountant (who subsequently
committed suicide), he was forced to sell his collection at Sotheby's
in London in November 1973. From this sale, the interest in
Alma-Tadema was re-awakened.
In 1960, the Newman Gallery firstly tried to sell, then give away
(without success) one of his most celebrated works, The Finding of
Moses (1904). The initial purchaser had paid £5,250 for it on its
completion, and subsequent sales were for £861 in 1935, £265 in
1942, and it was "bought in" at £252 in 1960 (having failed to meet
its reserve), but when the same picture was auctioned at Christies
in New York in May 1995, it sold for £1.75 million. On 4 November
2010 it was sold for $35,922,500 to an undisclosed bidder at Sotheby's
New York, a new record for the artist and a Victorian painting. On
5 May 2011 his The Meeting of Antony and Cleopatra: 41 BC was sold at
the same auction house for $29.2 million.
A blue plaque unveiled in 1975 commemorates Alma-Tadema at 44 Grove
End Road, St John's Wood, his home from 1886 until his death in
Fredegund by the Deathbed of Bishop Praetextatus, 1864, Pushkin Museum
References and sources
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UP, 1971), p. 4.
^ a b Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 8.
^ a b c Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 10
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 129.
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 15
^ a b Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 12.
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 16
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 13.
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 20
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, , p. 15.
^ a b Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 41
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 60
^ "Alma-Tadema". Who's Who. Vol. 59. books.google.com. 1907.
^ Ash, Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p.3.
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 52
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 62
^ Quoted on Tate website: Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate
Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British
Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981,
^ "Emil Fuchs 1866–1929".
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 130
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 35.
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 34.
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 179
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 186
^ "Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema: Preparation in the Coliseum (1912)
Vivat! Crescat! Floreat!". Vcrfl.wordpress.com. Retrieved
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^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 131
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 54
^ a b c Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 192
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 29
Sappho and Alcaeus". Walters Art Museum.
^ Reitlinger, 243–244, also Vol III, 31–32 for 1960s
^ a b Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 43.
^ Barrow, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, p. 197
Andrew Adamson (2006). The Chronicles of Narnia:The Lion, the Witch
and the Wardrobe [Crew Commentary] (DVD).
^ An Exhibition to Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Death of
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1836–1912. New York: Robert Isaacson
Grace Glueck (19 November 1998). "Robert Isaacson, 71: Dealer in
French, English Art". The Day. New London. New York Times News
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^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 62.
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 58.
^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 59.
^ Reitlinger, 243–244
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^ "ALMA-TADEMA, SIR LAWRENCE, O.M. (1836–1912)". English Heritage.
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^ Paquette, Lucy (9 September 2013). "James Tissot's house at St.
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Swinglehurst, Edmund: Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Thunder Bay Press, Canada,
2001, ISBN 1-57145-269-9 (NOTE: the illustration of The Roses of
Heliogabalus in this book is printed the wrong way round!)
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Alma-Tadema, Sir Laurence.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
Alma-Tadema at The Athenaeum (more than 380 works)
62 Painting(s) by or after
Lawrence Alma-Tadema at the Art UK
Lawrence Alma-Tadema at the Art Renewal Center
Global Gallery Bio & Works
218 works by Sir
Lawrence Alma-Tadema at alma-tadema.org
Painting Locations at ArtCyclopedia
Works by Sir
Lawrence Alma-Tadema in the collection of the Walters Art
Alma-Tadema at MuseumSyndicate
Alma-Tadema in "History of Art"
Alma-Tadema Listening to Homer (1885). A video discussion about the
painting from Smarthistory at Khan Academy
Cooper, Thompson (1884). "Alma-Tadema, Lawrence". Men of the
Time (eleventh ed.). London: George Routledge & Sons.
Works by or about
Lawrence Alma-Tadema at Internet Archive
Lawrence Alma-Tadema at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
ISNI: 0000 0000 8148 3905
BNF: cb122555383 (data)