LATINO SINE FLEXIONE ("
* 1 History
* 2 Parts of speech
* 2.1 Particles * 2.2 Nouns * 2.3 Pronouns * 2.4 Verbs * 2.5 Adjectives and adverbs * 2.6 Articles
* 3 Alphabet and pronunciation
* 4 Language examples
* 5 Criticism * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links
In 1903 Peano published the article De Latino Sine Flexione to
introduce his language, by quoting a series of suggestions by Leibniz
about a simplified form of Latin. Peano’s article appeared to be a
serious development of the idea, so he gained a reputation among the
movement for the auxiliary language. In 1904 Peano undertook an essay
about the way to obtain the minimal grammar of an eventual minimal
Peano and some colleagues published articles in Latino sine flexione for several years at the Revue de Mathématiques. Because of his desire to prove that this was indeed an international language, Peano boldly published the final edition of his famous Formulario mathematico in Latino sine flexione. However, as Hubert Kennedy notes, most mathematicians were put off by the artificial appearance of the language, and made no attempt to read it.
In October 1907, Peano was at the
Collège de France
On 26 December 1908, Peano was elected member and director of the Akademi internasional de lingu universal still using Idiom Neutral , which was refounded one year later under the name Academia pro Interlingua . Every academician might use their favourite form of Interlingua, the term being initially used in a general sense as a synonym for international language, yet it soon began to be specially used to denote a reformed Latino sine flexione based on the common rules the academicians were reaching by frequent votings. Thus, the name Interlingua soon began to denote the language evolving from the Academia Pro Interlingua, with the corresponding abbreviation IL.
However, every member was free to write in their own personal style, and indeed some members were proposing radical reforms which eventually might end up as independent languages (like Michaux's Romanal or De Wahl's Interlingue ). For this reason, the name Peano’s Interlingua or Interlingua (IL) might be regarded as the most accurate for the particular standard by Peano. (As found in “ Interglossa and its predecessors”. )
The discussions to reach a standard
Interlingua may be seen on the
pages of Discussiones, the official journal of the Academia pro
Interlingua from 1909 to 1913. This and subsequent journals of the
academy have been recently published in a CD-Rom by the mathematics
department of the university of
Since De Latino Sine Flexione had set the principle to take Latin
nouns either in the ablative or nominative form (nomen was preferred
to nomine), in 1909 Peano published a vocabulary in order to assist in
selecting the proper form of every noun, yet an essential value of
Interlingua was that the lexicon might be found
straightforward in any
Interlingua was presented in 1951 by
Alexander Gode as the
last director of the
International Auxiliary Language Association . It
was claimed to be independent from Peano’s Interlingua, because it
had developed a new method to detect the most recent common
prototypes. But that method usually leads to the
PARTS OF SPEECH
Though Peano removed the inflections of
Particles that have no inflection in classical
* supra, infra, intra, extra… (but superiore, inferiore, interiore, exteriore from superior, -oris and so on.) * super, subter, inter, praeter, semper… (but nostro, vestro, dextro… from noster, -tra, -trum and so on.) * tres, quatuor, quinque, sex, septem, octo, novem, decem… (but uno from unus, -a, -um; duo from duo, -ae, -o; nullo from nullus, -a, -um; multo from multus, -a, -um, etc.)
The form of nouns depends on the
LATIN DECLENSION NUMBER (GENITIVE ENDING) 1: -ae 2: -i 3: -is 4: -us 5: -ei
LATINO ENDING -a -o -e -u -e
LATIN DECLENSION/NOMINATIVE FORM LATIN GENITIVE LATINO ENGLISH
1st: rosa rosAE rosa rose
2nd: laurus laurI lauro laurel
3rd: pax pacIS pace peace
4th: casus casUS casu case
5th: series seriEI serie series
Those proper nouns written with the Roman alphabet are kept as close to the original as possible. The following are examples: München, New York, Roma, Giovanni.
NUMBER SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST PERSON me nos
2ND PERSON te vos
3RD PERSON illo (male), illa (female), id (neutral) illos
REFLEXIVE se se
Verbs are formed from the
There are specific endings to create the infinitive and participles :
* basic form: ama (loves) * infinitive: amaRE (to love) * passive participle: amaTO (loved) * active participle: amaNTE (loving)
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Adjectives are formed as follows:
* If the nominative neuter ends with -e, the Latino form is unchanged. * If the nominative neuter ends with -um, the Latino form is changed to -o: novum > novo (new). * In all other cases adjectives are formed with the ablative case from the genitive, as is the case with nouns.
Adjectives can be used as adverbs if the context is clear, or cum mente or in modo can be used:
* Diligente (diligent): Cum mente diligente, cum diligente mente, in modo diligente, in diligente modo = diligently.
As with Latin, neither the definite nor the indefinite article exists in Latino sine flexione. When necessary they may be translated with pronouns or words such as illo (it, that) or uno (one):
* da ad me libro = give me (the) book * da ad me hoc libro = give me this book * da ad me illo libro = give me that book * da ad me uno libro = give me a book * da ad me illo meo libro = give me that book of mine * da ad me uno meo libro = give me a book of mine
ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
a b k d e f ɡ h i j k l m n o p k r s t u w w ks y z
According to Peano's guide to the language in 1931, "most
Interlinguists are in favour of the old
* a—as in fAther – * e—as in thEy – * i—as in fEEt – * o—as in tOne – * u—as in rUle – * y—as French U – * j—as in Yes – * ae—as in EYE – * oe—as in bOY –
Consonants are pronounced as in English with the following exceptions:
* b—like English b, but like p if followed by s or t – * g—like g in Go, Get – * h—silent in th, ph, ch, rh, otherwise like English h – * qu—as qu in QUarrel – * r—as in coRRect (trilled) – * v—like English w. – * x—as ks. – * ch, ph, th—as c, p, t in Can, Pan, Tan – * c—like k always, as in sCan, sCat – (not aspirated) * p—as in sPan * t—as in sTand
The following simplifications to pronunciation are also allowed:
* y and j—as i in tIn – * ae and oe—as above * b—always like English b – * h—silent * ph—as p or f – * v—like English v – * th—as t * ch—as c
The stress is based on the classical
* Words with two syllables have the stress on the penult . * Words with three or more syllables have the stress on the penult only if it has a long vowel, otherwise on the antepenult (p. xii).
A secondary accent may be placed when necessary as the speaker deems appropriate.
Latino es lingua internationale in occidente de Europa ab tempore de imperio romano, per toto medio aevo, et in scientia usque ultimo seculo. Seculo vigesimo es primo que non habe lingua commune. Hodie quasi omne auctore scribe in proprio lingua nationale, id es in plure lingua neo-latino, in plure germanico, in plure slavo, in nipponico et alio. Tale multitudine de linguas in labores de interesse commune ad toto humanitate constitute magno obstaculo ad progressu.
THE LORD\'S PRAYER
This is a sample text, intended to give the reader a basic understanding of how the language sounds, and how closely it is related to Latin.
LATINO SINE FLEXIONE VERSION: INTERLINGUA DE IALA VERSION LATIN VERSION: ENGLISH (ELLC - 1988 )
Patre nostro, qui es in celos, que tuo nomine fi sanctificato; que tuo regno adveni; que tuo voluntate es facto sicut in celo et in terra. Da hodie ad nos nostro pane quotidiano, et remitte ad nos nostro debitos, sicut et nos remitte ad nostro debitores. Et non induce nos in tentatione, sed libera nos ab malo. Amen.
Patre nostre, qui es in le celos, que tu nomine sia sanctificate; que tu regno veni; que tu voluntate sia facite como in le celo, etiam super le terra. Da nos hodie nostre pan quotidian, e pardona a nos nostre debitas como etiam nos los pardona a nostre debitores. E non induce nos in tentation, sed libera nos del mal. Amen.
Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum. Adveniat regnum tuum. Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, sed libera nos a malo. Amen.
Our Father (who are) in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as in heaven. Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our sins as we forgive those who sin against us. Save us from the time of trial and deliver us from evil. Amen.
LATIN PROVERBS CONVERTED TO LATINO SINE FLEXIONE
LATIN LATINO SINE FLEXIONE ENGLISH
Vox populi, vox Dei. Voce de populo, voce de Deo. The voice of the people is the voice of God.
Hodie mihi, cras tibi. Hodie ad me, cras ad te. It is my lot today, yours to-morrow.
Gratia gratiam generat, lis litem lis. Gratia genera gratia, lite genera lite. Goodwill begets goodwill, bickering begets bickering.
In medio stat virtus. Virtute sta in medio. Virtue stands in the middle.
Qui non laborat, non manducet. Qui non labora, non debe manduca. He that laboureth not, let him not eat.
Medice, cura te ipsum. Medico, cura te ipso. Physician, cure thyself.
De gustibus non est disputandum. Nos ne debe disputa de gustu. There is no disputing about tastes.
Ars imitatio naturae est. Arte imita natura. Art imitates nature.
Do ut des . Me da ut te da. I give so that you give.
Designatio unius est exclusio alterius. Qui designa uno, exclude alio. Who chooses one excludes another.
PUBLIUS CORNELIUS TACITUS , DE ORIGINE ET SITU GERMANORUM (GERMANIA) (FRAGMENTUM INITIALE)
LATINA CLASSICA (ex Vicifonte) LATINO SINE FLEXIONE / INTERLINGUA (IL) DE A.P.I.
Germania omnis a Gallis Raetisque et Pannoniis Rheno et Danuvio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu aut montibus separatur: cetera Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum inmensa spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit. Rhenus, Raeticarum Alpium inaccesso ac praecipiti vertice ortus, modico flexu in occidentem versus septentrionali Oceano miscetur. Danuvius molli et clementer edito montis Abnobae iugo effusus pluris populos adit, donec in Ponticum mare sex meatibus erumpat: septimum os paludibus hauritur. Fluvios Rheno et Danuvio separa toto Germania ab Gallos, Raetos et Pannonios; montes, aut metu mutuo, separa illo ab Sarmatas et Dacos: Oceano ambi ceteros, complectente sinus lato de mari et spatios immenso de insulas, ad certo gentes et reges recente cognito, aperto ab bello. Rheno, orto in vertice inaccesso et praecipite de Alpes Raetico, flecte se parvo versus occidente et misce se in Oceano septentrionale. Danuvio, effuso in jugo molle et clemente edito de monte Abnoba, visita plure populo, usque illo erumpe in mari Pontico per sex cursu: ore septimo perde se in paludes.
Peano formally defended the maxim that the best grammar is no
grammar, bearing in mind the example of Chinese . According to
Lancelot Hogben , Peano’s
Interlingua still shares a major flaw with
many other auxiliary languages , having "either too much grammar of
the wrong sort, or not enough of the right". (p. 10) Hogben argues
that at least nouns and verbs should be easily distinguished by
characteristic endings, so that one can easily get an initial
understanding of the sentence. Thus, in Peano’s
verbs might be given some specific, standardized verbal form, such as
the infinitive , which is sufficient at the
Lingua latino habet discurso directo, ut: “Amicitia inter malos
esse non potest”, et discurso indirecto: “(Verum est ) amicitiam
inter malos esse non posse”. Si nos utimur semper de discurso
indirecto, in verbo evanescit desinentia de persona, de modo, et saepe
de tempore. Sumimus ergo nomen inflexibile (…), sub forma magis
simplice, qui es imperativo.
According to Hogben, another handicap is the lack of a pure article , which might clearly indicate the nouns. Nevertheless, Peano occasionally suggested that illo (that) and uno (one) might be used as articles.
Once more according to Hogben, the syntax of Peano’s Interlingua remained conservative:
(...) has an aristocratic indifference to the necessity for simple rules of sentence-construction. The fact is that no pioneer of language-planning –least of all Peano– has undertaken the task of investigating what rules of word-order contribute most to intrinsic clarity of meaning and ease of recognition. — Lancelot Hogben (1943, p. 11).
Reviewing the list of more widely known
Adiectivo qui deriva ab sustantivo vale genitivo: "aureo", "de auro". An adjective derived from a substantive is equivalent to a genitive: "golden", "of gold". — Peano (1903, § 6).
* Constructed languages portal
* ^ In modern linguistics, counter to popular – and Peano's – usage, grammar does not refer to morphological structures alone, but also to syntax and phonology , for example, which both Latino sine flexione and Chinese still have. In this sense, "lang