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Latin
Latin
America[a] is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken. The term originated in the French government in the mid-19th century as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas
Americas
(Haiti, French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, Saint Barthélemy) along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed. It is, therefore, broader than the terms Ibero-America
Ibero-America
or Hispanic
Hispanic
America. The term excludes French Canada and modern French Louisiana. Latin
Latin
America consists of nineteen sovereign states and several territories and dependencies which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico
Mexico
to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean. It has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2 (7,412,000 sq mi),[1] almost 13% of the Earth's land surface area. As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million[2][b] and in 2014, Latin
Latin
America had a combined nominal GDP
GDP
of 5,573,397 million USD[5] and a GDP
GDP
PPP of 7,531,585 million USD.[5][6] The term " Latin
Latin
America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics" (Iniciativa de la América. Idea de un Congreso Federal de las Repúblicas),[7] by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. In such conference, he called for the creation of a confederation of Latin
Latin
American republics to better search for their common defense and prosperity, without political or economic barriers between them. In the same work, he also detailed the principles under which such a confederation should work.

Contents

1 Etymology and definitions

1.1 Origins 1.2 Contemporary definitions 1.3 Subregions and countries

2 History

2.1 Pre-Columbian history 2.2 European colonization

2.2.1 Slavery and forced labor in colonial Latin
Latin
America

2.3 Independence (1804–25)

2.3.1 Independent Empire of Brazil

2.4 Conservative-liberal conflicts in the 19th century 2.5 British influence in Latin
Latin
America during the 19th century 2.6 French involvement in Latin
Latin
America during the 19th century 2.7 American involvement in Latin
Latin
America during the 19th century

2.7.1 Monroe Doctrine 2.7.2 Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1846–48)

2.8 World wars (1914–45)

2.8.1 World War I
World War I
and the Zimmermann Telegram 2.8.2 Brazil's participation in World War II 2.8.3 Involvement in World War II

2.9 Cold War
Cold War
(1946–90)

2.9.1 Economy 2.9.2 Reforms 2.9.3 Bureaucratic authoritarianism 2.9.4 US relations 2.9.5 Cuban Revolution 2.9.6 Bay of Pigs Invasion 2.9.7 Alliance for Progress 2.9.8 Nicaraguan Revolution

2.10 Washington Consensus 2.11 Turn to the left 2.12 Return of social movements 2.13 Modern era

3 Demographics

3.1 Largest cities 3.2 Ethnic groups 3.3 Language 3.4 Religion 3.5 Migration 3.6 Education 3.7 Crime and violence

4 Economy

4.1 Size 4.2 Development 4.3 Standard of living 4.4 Environment

5 Inequality 6 Trade blocs 7 Tourism 8 Culture

8.1 Art 8.2 Film 8.3 Literature 8.4 Music and dance 8.5 World Heritage Sites

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology and definitions[edit] Origins[edit]

Presencia de América Latina
Presencia de América Latina
(Presence of Latin
Latin
America, 1964–65) is a 300 square meters (3,200 sq ft) mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of Concepción, Chile. It is also known as Latin America's Integration.

The idea that a part of the Americas
Americas
has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas
Americas
was inhabited by people of a " Latin
Latin
race", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with "Latin Europe", ultimately overlapping the Latin
Latin
Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe".[8] Further investigations of the concept of Latin
Latin
America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review[9], the studies of Leslie Bethell,[10] and the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea (2017).[11]

Historian John Leddy Phelan locates the origins of “ Latin
Latin
America” in the French occupation of Mexico. His argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.[12] The idea of a " Latin
Latin
race" was then taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain
Spain
or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France.[13] French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “ Latin
Latin
America” to emphasize the shared Latin
Latin
background of France with the former colonies of Spain
Spain
and Portugal. This led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico
Mexico
in the 1860s.[14]

The term " Latin
Latin
America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao
Francisco Bilbao
in Paris.[15] The conference had the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics."[7] The same year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo also used the term in his poem "The Two Americas."[16] Two events related with the U.S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico
Mexico
lost a third of its territory. The second event happened the same year both works were written, in opposition to the decision by U.S. president Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
to recognize regime recently established in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua
Nicaragua
for nearly a year, 1856-57. [9] In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the U.S.- Mexico
Mexico
war and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua
Nicaragua
are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, " Latin
Latin
America" was not a geographical concept, since he excluded Brazil, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Mexico. Both authors also ask for the union of all Latin
Latin
American countries as the only way to defend their territories against further foreign U.S. interventions. Both rejected also European imperialism, claiming that the return of European countries to non-democratic forms of government was another danger for Latin
Latin
American countries, and used the same word to describe the state of European politics at the time: "despotism." Several years later, during the French invasion of Mexico, Bilbao wrote another work, "Emancipation of the Spirit in America," where he asked all Latin
Latin
American countries to support the Mexican cause against France, and rejected French imperialism in Asia, Africa, Europe
Europe
and the Americas. He asked Latin
Latin
American intellectuals to search for their "intellectual emancipation" by abandoning all French ideas, claiming that France
France
was: "Hypocrite, because she [France] calls herself protector of the Latin
Latin
race just to subject it to her exploitation regime; treacherous, because she speaks of freedom and nationality, when, unable to conquer freedom for herself, she enslaves others instead!"[17] Therefore, as Michel Gobat puts it, the term Latin
Latin
America itself had an "anti-imperial genesis," and their creators were far from supporting any form of imperialism in the region, or in any other place of the globe. However, in France
France
the term Latin
Latin
America was used with the opposite intention. It was supported by the French Empire of Napoleon III during the French invasion of Mexico
Mexico
as a way to include France
France
among countries with influence in the Americas
Americas
and to exclude Anglophone countries. It played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France, transform France
France
into a cultural and political leader of the area, and install Maximilian of Habsburg
Maximilian of Habsburg
as emperor of the Second Mexican Empire.[18] This term was also used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement.[19] Contemporary definitions[edit]

The 4 common subregions in Latin
Latin
America

Latin
Latin
America generally refers to territories in the Americas
Americas
where the Spanish or Portuguese languages prevail: Mexico, most of Central and South America, and in the Caribbean, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Latin
Latin
America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas
Americas
that were once part of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires.[20] By this definition, Latin
Latin
America is coterminous with Ibero-America
Ibero-America
("Iberian America").[21] The term is sometimes used more broadly to refer to all of the Americas
Americas
south of the United States,[22] thus including the Guianas, the Anglophone Caribbean
Caribbean
(and Belize); the Francophone Caribbean; and the Dutch-speaking Caribbean. This definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects (see, for example, dependency theory).[23] As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase " Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean" instead, as in the United Nations geoscheme
United Nations geoscheme
for the Americas.[24][25][26] In a more literal definition, which is close to the semantic origin, Latin
Latin
America designates countries in the Americas
Americas
where a Romance language (a language derived from Latin) predominates: Spanish, Portuguese, French, and the creole languages based upon these.[22] In this definition, Quebec
Quebec
would be classified as part of Latin
Latin
America.

The distinction between Latin
Latin
America and Anglo-America
Anglo-America
is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas
Americas
by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin
Latin
America (e.g., highland Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Guatemala), Native American cultures and, to a lesser extent, Amerindian
Amerindian
languages, are predominant, and in other areas, the influence of African cultures is strong (e.g., the Caribbean basin – including parts of Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela). The term is not without controversy. Historian Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo explores at length the "allure and power" of the idea of Latin America. He remarks at the outset, "The idea of ' Latin
Latin
America' ought to have vanished with the obsolescence of racial theory... But it is not easy to declare something dead when it can hardly be said to have existed," going on to say, "The term is here to stay, and it is important."[27] Following in the tradition of Chilean writer Francisco Bilbao, who excluded Brazil, Argentina
Argentina
and Paraguay
Paraguay
from his early conceptualization of Latin
Latin
America,[28] Chilean historian Jaime Eyzaguirre has criticized the term Latin
Latin
America for "disguising" and "diluting" the Spanish character of a region (i.e. Hispanic
Hispanic
America) with the inclusion of nations that according to him do not share the same pattern of conquest and colonization.[vague][29] Subregions and countries[edit] Latin
Latin
America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics, demographics and culture. If defined as all of the Americas
Americas
south of the United States, the basic geographical subregions are North America, Central America, the Caribbean
Caribbean
and South America;[30] the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Cone, the Guianas and the Andean states. It may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America, Portuguese America
Portuguese America
and French America.

Flag Arms Name Area (km²) Population[2] (2016) Population density (per km²) Capital Name(s) in official language(s) Time(s) zone(s)

Argentina 2,780,400 43,847,430 14.4 Buenos Aires Argentina UTC/GMT -3 hours

Bolivia 1,098,581 10,887,882 9 Sucre
Sucre
and La Paz Bolivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia UTC/GMT -4 hours

Brazil 8,515,767 207,652,865 23.6 Brasília Brasil UTC/GMT -2 hours (Fernando de Noronha) UTC/GMT -3 hours (Brasília) UTC/GMT -4 hours (Amazonas) UTC/GMT -5 hours (Acre)

Chile 756,096 17,909,754 23 Santiago Chile UTC/GMT -3 hours (Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica) UTC/GMT -4 hours (Continental Chile) UTC/GMT -5 hours ( Easter
Easter
Island)

Colombia 1,141,748 48,653,419 41.5 Bogotá Colombia UTC/GMT -5 hours

Costa Rica 51,100 4,857,274 91.3 San José Costa Rica UTC/GMT -6 hours

Cuba 109,884 11,475,982 100.6 Havana Cuba UTC/GMT -4 hours

Dominican Republic 48,442 10,648,791 210.9 Santo Domingo República Dominicana UTC/GMT -4 hours

Ecuador 283,560 16,385,068 54.4 Quito Ecuador UTC/GMT -5 hours

El Salvador 21,040 6,344,722 290.3 San Salvador El Salvador UTC/GMT -6 hours

French Guiana* 83,534 275,713 3 Cayenne Guyane UTC/GMT -3 hours

Guadeloupe* 1,628 449,975 250 Basse-Terre Guadeloupe UTC/GMT -4 hours

Guatemala 108,889 16,582,469 129 Guatemala
Guatemala
City Guatemala UTC/GMT -6 hours

Haiti 27,750 10,847,334 350 Port-au-Prince Haïti; Ayiti UTC/GMT -4 hours

Honduras 112,492 9,112,867 76 Tegucigalpa Honduras UTC/GMT -6 hours

Martinique* 1,128 385,103 340 Fort-de-France Martinique UTC/GMT -4 hours

Mexico 1,964 375 127,540,423 57 Mexico
Mexico
City México UTC/GMT -5 hours (Zona Sureste) UTC/GMT -6 hours (Zona Centro) UTC/GMT -7 hours (Zona Pacífico) UTC/GMT -8 hours (Zona Noroeste)

Nicaragua 130,375 6,149,928 44.3 Managua Nicaragua UTC/GMT -6 hours

Panama 75,517 4,034,119 54.2 Panama
Panama
City Panamá UTC/GMT -5 hours

Paraguay 406,752 6,725,308 14.2 Asunción Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái UTC/GMT -4 hours

Peru 1,285,216 31,773,839 23 Lima Perú; Piruw UTC/GMT -4 hours

Puerto Rico* 9,104 3,667,903 397 San Juan Puerto Rico UTC/GMT -4 hours

Saint Barthélemy* 53.2 9,000[31] 682 Gustavia Saint-Barthélemy UTC/GMT -4 hours

Saint Martin* 25 39,000 361 Marigot Saint-Martin UTC/GMT -4 hours

Uruguay 176,215 3,444,006 18.87 Montevideo Uruguay UTC/GMT -3 hours

Venezuela 916,445 31,568,179 31.59 Caracas Venezuela UTC/GMT – 4:00 hours

Total

20,111,457 626,741,000

*: Not a sovereign state History[edit] Main article: History of Latin
Latin
America See also: History of North America, History of South America, History of Central America, and History of the Caribbean Pre-Columbian history[edit] Main articles: Settlement of the Americas, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Pre-Columbian era

A view of Machu Picchu, a pre-Columbian Inca
Inca
site in Peru.

Mayan archeological site Chichen Itza.

The earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt
Puerto Montt
in Southern Chile. Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. By the first millennium CE, South America's vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. The earliest settlements in the Americas
Americas
are of the Las Vegas Culture[32] from about 8000 BCE and 4600 BCE, a sedentary group from the coast of Ecuador, the forefathers of the more known Valdivia culture, of the same era. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha (or "Muisca" or "Muysca") and the Tairona
Tairona
groups. These groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas
Quechuas
and Aymaras
Aymaras
of Bolivia and Perú
Perú
were the three indigenous groups that settled most permanently. The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Maya, and Inca. The golden age of the Maya began about 250, with the last two great civilizations, the Aztecs
Aztecs
and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively. The Aztec
Aztec
empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, until its downfall in part by the Spanish invasion. European colonization[edit] Main articles: European colonization of the Americas, Spanish colonization of the Americas, and Portuguese colonization of the Americas

Romantic painting of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
arriving to the Americas (Primer desembarco de Cristóbal Colón en América), by Dióscoro Puebla (1862)

Cristóbal de Olid
Cristóbal de Olid
leads Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies against indigenous warriors during the European colonization of the Americas.

With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus' voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. Hernándo Cortés
Hernándo Cortés
seized the Aztec
Aztec
elite's power with the help of local groups who had favored the Aztec
Aztec
elite, and Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
eliminated the Incan rule in Western South America. The European powers of Spain
Spain
and Portugal colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world, was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1494, which gave Spain
Spain
all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). By the end of the sixteenth century Spain
Spain
and Portugal had been joined by others, including France, in occupying large areas of North, Central and South America, ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. European culture, customs and government were introduced, with the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region, eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas
Americas
during this period. Epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, but some put the figures as high as 85% and as low as 25%. Due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Slavery and forced labor in colonial Latin
Latin
America[edit] See also: Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
and Atlantic slave trade Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the Americas
Americas
in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with African slaves who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries. The Mita of Colonial Latin
Latin
America was a system of forced labor imposed on the natives. First established by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo (1569–1581), the Mita was upheld by laws that designated how large draft levies were and how much money the workers would receive that was based on how many shifts each individual worker performed. Toledo established Mitas at Potosi and Huancavelica, where the Mitayos—the workers—would be reduced in number to a fraction of how many were originally assigned before the 1700s. While several villages managed to resist the Mita, others offered payment to colonial administrators as a way out. In exchange, free labor became available through volunteers, though the Mita was kept in place as workers like miners, for example, were paid low wages. The Spanish Crown had not made any ruling on the Mita or approved of it when Toledo first established it in spite of the uncertainty of the practice since the Crown could have gained benefits from it. However, the cortes of Spain
Spain
later abolished it in 1812 once complaints of the Mita violating humanitarian rights were made. Yet complaints also came from: governors; landowners; native leaders known as Kurakas; and even priests, each of whom preferred other methods of economic exploitation. Despite its fall, the Mita made it to the 1800s.[33] Independence (1804–25)[edit] Main articles: Latin
Latin
American wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence

Simón Bolívar, Liberator of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru
Peru
and Panama

In 1804, Haiti
Haiti
became the first Latin
Latin
American nation to gain independence, following a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'ouverture on the French colony of Saint-Domingue. The victors abolished slavery. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America.

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
was the first leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. Resentment grew among the majority of the population in Latin
Latin
America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards (Iberian-born Peninsulares) in the major social and political institutions. Napoleon's invasion of Spain
Spain
in 1808 marked a turning point, compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Also, the newly independent Haiti, the second oldest nation in the New World
New World
after the United States, further fueled the independence movement by inspiring the leaders of the movement, such as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
of Mexico, Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
of Venezuela and José de San Martín
José de San Martín
of Argentina, and by providing them with considerable munitions and troops. Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Eventually, these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops by 1810, including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
in Mexico
Mexico
in the year 1810. Later on Francisco de Miranda
Francisco de Miranda
in Venezuela
Venezuela
by 1812. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders, such as Simón Bolívar "The Liberator", José de San Martín
José de San Martín
of Argentina, and other Libertadores
Libertadores
in South America, the independence movement regained strength, and by 1825, all Spanish America, except for Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Cuba, had gained independence from Spain. In the same year in Mexico, a military officer, Agustín de Iturbide, led a coalition of conservatives and liberals who created a constitutional monarchy, with Iturbide as emperor. This First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
was short-lived, and was followed by the creation of a republic in 1823. Independent Empire of Brazil[edit] Main articles: Independence of Brazil
Brazil
and Empire of Brazil

Declaration of the Brazilian independence by the later Emperor Pedro I on September 7, 1822

The Brazilian War of Independence, which had already began along other independent movements around the region, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.[34] With the last Portuguese soldiers surrendering on 8 March 1824,[35] Portugal officially recognized Brazil
Brazil
on 29 August 1825.[36] On 7 April 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissensions with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession,[37] as well as unreconciled with the way that absolutists in Portugal had given to the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to reclaim his daughter's crown, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the regnal title of Dom Pedro II).[38]

Pedro II, Emperor
Emperor
of Brazil
Brazil
between 1831 and 1889

As the new Emperor
Emperor
could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly.[39] In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, as the Cabanagem, the Malê Revolt, the Balaiada, the Sabinada, and the Ragamuffin War, which emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar of a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state.[40] This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the Praieira revolt, was overcome only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II in 1841.[41] During the last phase of the monarchy, an internal political debate was centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
was abandoned in 1850,[42] as a result of the British' Aberdeen Act, but only in May 1888 after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, was the institution formally abolished.[43] On 15 November 1889, worn out by years of economic stagnation, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.[44] Conservative-liberal conflicts in the 19th century[edit]

Development of Spanish American Independence   Government under traditional Spanish law   Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes   American junta or insurrection movement   Independent state declared or established   Height of French control of the Peninsula

After the independence of many Latin
Latin
American countries, there was a conflict between the people and the government, much of which can be reduced to the contrasting ideologies between liberalism and conservatism.[45] Conservatism was the dominant system of government prior to the revolutions and it was founded on having social classes, including governing by kings. Liberalists wanted to see a change in the ruling systems, and to move away from monarchs and social classes in order to promote equality. When liberal Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
became the first president of Mexico in 1824, conservatists relied on their belief that the state had been better off before the new government came into power, so, by comparison, the old government was better in the eyes of the Conservatives. Following this sentiment, the conservatives pushed to take control of the government, and they succeeded. General Santa Anna was elected president in 1833. The following decade, the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1846–48) caused Mexico
Mexico
to lose a significant amount of territory to the United States. This loss led to a rebellion by the enraged liberal forces against the conservative government. In 1837, conservative Rafael Carrera
Rafael Carrera
conquered Guatemala
Guatemala
and separated from the Central American Union. The instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence of the other Central American countries. In Brazil, rural aristocrats were in conflict with the urban conservatives. Portuguese control over Brazilian ports continued after Brazil's independence. Following the conservative idea that the old government was better, urbanites tended to support conservatism because more opportunities were available to them as a result of the Portuguese presence. Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
became president of Gran Colombia
Colombia
in 1819 after the region gained independence from Spain. He led a military-controlled state. Citizens did not like the government's position under Bolívar: The people in the military were unhappy with their roles, and the civilians were of the opinion that the military had too much power. After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, New Grenada
Grenada
continued to have conflicts between conservatives and liberals. These conflicts were each concentrated in particular regions, with conservatives particularly in the southern mountains and the Valley of Cauca. In the mid-1840s some leaders in Caracas
Caracas
organized a liberal opposition. Antonio Leocadio Guzman was an active participant and journalist in this movement and gained much popularity among the people of Caracas.[46] In Argentina, the conflict manifested itself as a prolonged civil war between unitarianas (i.e. centralists) and federalists, which were in some aspects respectively analogous to liberals and conservatives in other countries. Between 1832 and 1852, the country existed as a confederation, without a head of state, although the federalist governor of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
province, Juan Manuel de Rosas, was given the powers of debt payment and international relations and exerted a growing hegemony over the country. A national constitution was only enacted in 1853, reformed in 1860, and the country reorganized as a federal republic led by a liberal-conservative elite.[47] After Uruguay
Uruguay
achieved its independence, in 1828, a similar polarization crystallized between blancos and colorados, where the agrarian conservative interests were pitted against the liberal commercial interests based in Montevideo, and which eventually resulted in the Guerra Grande civil war (1839–1851).[48] British influence in Latin
Latin
America during the 19th century[edit]

British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Beresford surrenders to Santiago
Santiago
de Liniers (1806).

Losing the North American colonies at the end of the 18th century left Great Britain
Great Britain
in need of new markets to supply resources in the early 19th century.[49] In order to solve this problem, Great Britain
Great Britain
turned to the Spanish colonies in South America
South America
for resources and markets. In 1806 a small British force surprise attacked the capitol of the viceroyalty in Río de la Plata.[50] As a result, the local garrison protecting the capitol was destroyed in an attempt to defend against the British conquest. The British were able to capture large amounts of precious metals, before a French naval force intervened on behalf of the Spanish King and took down the invading force. However, this caused much turmoil in the area as militia took control of the area from the viceroy. The next year the British attacked once again with a much larger force attempting to reach and conquer Montevideo.[51] They failed to reach Montevideo
Montevideo
but succeeded in establishing an alliance with the locals. As a result, the British were able to take control of the Indian markets. This newly gained British dominance hindered the development of Latin American industries and strengthened the dependence on the world trade network.[52] Britain now replaced Spain
Spain
as the region's largest trading partner.[53]  Great Britain
Great Britain
invested significant capital in Latin
Latin
America in order to develop the area as a market for processed goods.[54] From the early 1820s to 1850, the post-independence economies of Latin
Latin
American countries were lagging and stagnant.[49] Eventually, enhanced trade among Britain and Latin America led to state development such as infrastructure improvements. These improvements included roads and railroads which grew the trades between countries and outside nations such as Great Britain.[55] By 1870, exports dramatically increased, attracting capital from abroad (including Europe
Europe
and USA).[56] French involvement in Latin
Latin
America during the 19th century[edit]

Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation at Miramar Castle in Trieste, Italy

Between 1821 and 1910, Mexico
Mexico
battled through various civil wars between the established Conservative government and the Liberal reformists (" Mexico
Mexico
Timeline- Page 2)". On May 8, 1827 Baron Damas, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Sebastián Camacho, a Mexican diplomat, signed an agreement called "The Declarations" which contained provisions regarding commerce and navigation between France and Mexico. At this time the French government did not recognize Mexico
Mexico
as an independent entity.[57] It was not until 1861 that the liberalist rebels, led by Benito Juárez, took control of Mexico
Mexico
City, consolidating liberal rule. However, the constant state of warfare left Mexico
Mexico
with a tremendous amount of debt owed to Spain, England, and France, all of whom funded the Mexican war effort (Neeno). As newly appointed president, Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
suspended payment of debts for next two years, to focus on a rebuilding and stabilization initiative in Mexico
Mexico
under the new government. On December 8, 1861, Spain, England and France
France
landed in Veracruz in order to seize unpaid debts from Mexico. However, Napoleon III, with intentions of establishing a French client state to further push his economic interests, pressured the other two powers to withdraw in 1862 (Greenspan; "French Intervention in Mexico…").

Painting depicting the Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
in 1862

France
France
under Napoleon III
Napoleon III
remained and established Maximilian of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, as Emperor
Emperor
of Mexico.[58] The march by the French to Mexico
Mexico
City enticed heavy resistance by the Mexican government, it resulted in open warfare. The Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
in 1862 in particular presented an important turning point in which Ignacio Zaragoza led the Mexican army to victory as they pushed back the French offensive ("Timeline of the Mexican Revolution"). The victory came to symbolize Mexico's power and national resolve against foreign occupancy and as a result delayed France's later attack on Mexico
Mexico
City for an entire year (Cinco de Mayo (Mexican History)). With heavy resistance by Mexican rebels and the fear of United States intervention against France, forced Napoleon III
Napoleon III
to withdraw from Mexico, leaving Maximilian to surrender, where he would be later executed by Mexican troops under the rule of Porfirio Díaz.[59] Napoleon III's desire to expand France's economic empire influenced the decision to seize territorial domain over the Central American region. The port city of Veracruz, Mexico
Mexico
and France's desire to construct a new canal were of particular interest. Bridging both New World and East Asian trade routes to the Atlantic were key to Napoleon III's economic goals to the mining of precious rocks and the expansion of France's textile industry. Napoleon's fear of the United States' economic influence over the Pacific trade region, and in turn all New World economic activity, pushed France
France
to intervene in Mexico
Mexico
under the pretense of collecting on Mexico's debt. Eventually France
France
began plans to build the Panama
Panama
Canal in 1881 until 1904 when the United States took over and proceeded with its construction and implementation ("Read Our Story"). American involvement in Latin
Latin
America during the 19th century[edit] Monroe Doctrine[edit] The Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
was included in President James Monroe's 1823 annual message to Congress. The doctrine warns European nations that the United States
United States
will no longer tolerate any new colonization of Latin
Latin
American countries. It was originally drafted to meet the present major concerns, but eventually became the precept of U.S. foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere. The doctrine was put into effect in 1865 when the U.S. government supported Mexican president, Benito Juárez, diplomatically and militarily. Some Latin
Latin
American countries viewed the U.S. interventions, allowed by the Monroe Doctrine when the U.S. deems necessary, with suspicion.[60] Another important aspect of United States
United States
involvement in Latin
Latin
America is the case of the filibuster William Walker. In 1855, he traveled to Nicaragua
Nicaragua
hoping to overthrow the government and take the land for the United States. With only the aid of 56 followers, he was able to take over the city of Granada, declaring himself commander of the army and installing Patricio Rivas as a puppet president. However, Rivas's presidency ended when he fled Nicaragua; Walker rigged the following election to ensure that he became the next president. His presidency did not last long, however, as he was met with much opposition from political groups in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and neighbouring countries. On May 1, 1857, Walker was forced by a coalition of Central American armies to surrender himself to a United States
United States
Navy officer who repatriated him and his followers. When Walker subsequently returned to Central America in 1860, he was apprehended by the Honduran authorities and executed. Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1846–48)[edit]

American occupation of Mexico
Mexico
City

The Mexican–American War, another instance of U.S. involvement in Latin
Latin
America, was a war between the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
that started in April 1846 and lasted until February 1848. The main cause of the war was the United States' annexation of Texas in 1845 and a dispute afterwards about whether the border between Mexico
Mexico
and the United States
United States
ended where Mexico
Mexico
claimed, at the Nueces River, or ended where the United States
United States
claimed, at the Rio Grande. Peace was negotiated between the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which stated that Mexico
Mexico
was to cede land which would later become part of California and New Mexico
Mexico
as well as give up all claims to Texas, for which the United States
United States
would pay $15,000,000. However, tensions between the two countries were still high and over the next six years things only got worse with raids along the border and attacks by Native Americans against Mexican citizens. To defuse the situation, the United States
United States
agreed to purchase 29,670 squares miles of land from Mexico
Mexico
for $10,000,000 so a southern railroad could be built to connect the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. This would become known as the Gadsden Purchase. A critical component of U.S. intervention in Latin
Latin
American affairs took form in the Spanish–American War, which drastically affected the futures of Cuba
Cuba
and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
in the Americas, as well as Guam
Guam
and the Philippines, by dismantling some of the last remaining Spanish colonial possessions throughout the world. World wars (1914–45)[edit]

v t e

United States
United States
involvement in the Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution

Tampico Affair Ypiranga incident Veracruz

Border War

1st Agua Prieta 1st Ciudad Juarez Bandit War Norias Ranch Ojo de Agua 2nd Nogales Santa Isabel Columbus Mexican Expedition Guerrero Agua Caliente Parral Tomochic Ojos Azules Glenn Springs Rubio Ranch Castillon Las Varas Pass San Ygnacio Carrizal Zimmermann Affair Brite Ranch 1st Pilares Neville Ranch 2nd Pilares Porvenir 3rd Nogales 3rd Ciudad Juárez Ruby

See also: Pan-Americanism World War I
World War I
and the Zimmermann Telegram[edit]

The Zimmermann Telegram
Zimmermann Telegram
as it was sent from Washington to Ambassador Heinrich von Eckardt (German ambassador to Mexico)

The Zimmermann Telegram
Zimmermann Telegram
was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire for Mexico
Mexico
to join an alliance with Germany in the event of the United States
United States
entering World War I
World War I
against Germany. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. The revelation of the contents outraged the American public and swayed public opinion. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
moved to arm American merchant ships in order to defend themselves against German submarines, which had started to attack them. The news helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April of that year.[61] The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917. The message was sent to the German ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. Zimmermann sent the telegram in anticipation of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on 1 February, an act which Germany presumed would lead to war. The telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the U.S. appeared certain to enter the war, he was to approach the Mexican Government with a proposal for a military alliance, with funding from Germany. As part of the alliance, Germany would assist Mexico
Mexico
in reconquering Texas and the Southwest. Eckardt was instructed to urge Mexico
Mexico
to help broker an alliance between Germany and Japan. Mexico, in the middle of the Mexican Revolution, far weaker militarily, economically and politically than the U.S., ignored the proposal; after the U.S. entered the war, it officially rejected it. Brazil's participation in World War II[edit] After World War I, in which Brazil
Brazil
was an ally of the United States, Great Britain, and France, the country realized it needed a more capable army but didn't have the technology to create it. In 1919, the French Military Mission was established by the French Commission in Brazil. Their main goal was to contain the inner rebellions in Brazil. They tried to assist the army by bringing them up to the European military standard but constant civil missions did not prepare them for World War II. Brazil's President, Getúlio Vargas, wanted to industrialize Brazil, allowing it to be more competitive with other countries. He reached out to Germany, Italy, France, and the United States
United States
to act as trade allies. Many Italian and German people immigrated to Brazil
Brazil
many years before World War II
World War II
began thus creating a Nazi influence. The immigrants held high positions in government and the armed forces. It was recently found that 9,000 war criminals escaped to South America, including Croats, Ukrainians, Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. Most, perhaps as many as 5,000, went to Argentina; between 1,500 and 2,000 are thought to have made it to Brazil; around 500 to 1,000 to Chile; and the rest to Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay.[62] It was not a secret that Vargas had an admiration for Hitler's Nazi Germany and its Führer. He even let German Luftwaffe build secret air forces around Brazil. This alliance with Germany became Brazil's second best trade alliance behind the United States.

Brazilian soldiers greet Italian civilians in the city of Massarosa, September 1944. Brazil
Brazil
was the only independent Latin
Latin
American country to send ground troops to fight in WWII.

Brazil
Brazil
continued to try to remain neutral to the United States
United States
and Germany because it was trying to make sure it could continue to be a place of interest for both opposing countries. Brazil
Brazil
attended continental meetings in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
(1936); Lima, Peru (1938); and Havana, Cuba
Cuba
(1940) that obligated them to agree to defend any part of the Americas
Americas
if they were to be attacked. Eventually, Brazil
Brazil
decided to stop trading with Germany once Germany started attacking offshore trading ships resulting in Germany declaring a blockade against the Americas
Americas
in the Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, Germany also ensured that they would be attacking the Americas
Americas
soon. Once the German submarines attacked unarmed Brazilian trading ships, President Vargas met with the United States
United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss how they could retaliate. On January 22, 1942, Brazil
Brazil
officially ended all relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy, becoming a part of the Allies. The Brazilian Expeditionary Force
Brazilian Expeditionary Force
was sent to Naples, Italy to fight for democracy. Brazil
Brazil
was the only Latin
Latin
American country to send troops to Europe. Initially, Brazil
Brazil
wanted to only provide resources and shelter for the war to have a chance of gaining a high postwar status but ended up sending 25,000 men to fight.[63] After World War II, the United States
United States
and Latin
Latin
America continued to have a close relationship. For example, USAID created family planning programs in Latin
Latin
America combining the NGOs already in place, providing the women in largely Catholic areas access to contraception.[64] Involvement in World War II[edit] There was a Nazi influence in certain parts of the region, but Jewish migration from Europe
Europe
during the war continued. Only a few people recognized or knew about the Holocaust.[65] Furthermore, numerous military bases were built during the war by the United States, but some also by the Germans. Even now, unexploded bombs from the second world war that need to be made safe still remain.[66] Cold War
Cold War
(1946–90) [edit] See also: Operation Condor, Organization of American States, Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, and Alliance for Progress Economy[edit]

Burning forest in Brazil. The removal of forest to make way for cattle ranching was the leading cause of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest
from the mid-1960s. Soybeans have become one of the most important contributors to deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.[67]

The Great Depression caused Latin
Latin
America to grow at a slow rate, separating it from leading industrial democracies. The two world wars and U.S. Depression also made Latin
Latin
American countries favor internal economic development, leading Latin
Latin
America to adopt the policy of import substitution industrialization.[68] Countries also renewed emphasis on exports. Brazil
Brazil
began selling automobiles to other countries, and some Latin
Latin
American countries set up plants to assemble imported parts, letting other countries take advantage of Latin America's low labor costs. Colombia
Colombia
began to export flowers, emeralds and coffee grains and gold, becoming the world's second-leading flower exporter. Economic integration was called for, to attain economies that could compete with the economies of the United States
United States
or Europe. Starting in the 1960s with the Latin
Latin
American Free Trade Association and Central American Common Market, Latin
Latin
American countries worked toward economic integration. In efforts to help regain global economic strength, the U.S. began to heavily assist countries involved in World War II
World War II
at the expense of Latin
Latin
America. Markets that were previously unopposed as a result of the war in Latin
Latin
America grew stagnant as the rest of the world no longer needed their goods. Reforms[edit] Large countries like Argentina
Argentina
called for reforms to lessen the disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor, which has been a long problem in Latin
Latin
America that stunted economic growth.[69] Advances in public health caused an explosion of population growth, making it difficult to provide social services. Education expanded, and social security systems introduced, but benefits usually went to the middle class, not the poor. As a result, the disparity of wealth increased. Increasing inflation and other factors caused countries to be unwilling to fund social development programs to help the poor. Bureaucratic authoritarianism[edit] Bureaucratic authoritarianism was practiced in Brazil
Brazil
after 1964, in Argentina, and in Chile
Chile
under Augusto Pinochet, in a response to harsh economic conditions. It rested on the conviction that no democracy could take the harsh measures to curb inflation, reassure investors, and quicken economic growth quickly and effectively. Though inflation fell sharply, industrial production dropped with the decline of official protection.[69] US relations[edit] See also: Latin
Latin
America– United States
United States
relations After World War II
World War II
and the beginning of a Cold War
Cold War
between the United States and the Soviet Union, US diplomats became interested in Asia, Africa, and Latin
Latin
America, and frequently[vague] waged proxy wars against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in these countries. The US sought to stop the spread of communism. Latin
Latin
American countries generally sided with the US in the Cold War
Cold War
period, even though they were neglected since the US's concern with communism were focused in Europe
Europe
and Asia, not Latin America. Between 1946 and 1959 Latin
Latin
America received only 2% of the United States
United States
foreign aid despite having poor conditions similar to the main recipients of The Marshall Plan.[70] Some Latin
Latin
American governments also complained of the US support in the overthrow of some nationalist governments, and intervention through the CIA. In 1947, the US Congress passed the National Security Act, which created the National Security Council in response to the United States's growing obsession with anti-communism.[71] In 1954, when Jacobo Arbenz
Jacobo Arbenz
of Guatemala
Guatemala
accepted the support of communists and attacked holdings of the United Fruit Company, the US decided to assist Guatemalan counter-revolutionaries in overthrowing Arbenz.[72] These interventionist tactics featured the use of the CIA rather than the military, which was used in Latin
Latin
America for the majority of the Cold War
Cold War
in events including the overthrow of Salvador Allende. Latin
Latin
America was more concerned with issues of economic development, while the United States
United States
focused on fighting communism, even though the presence of communism was small in Latin
Latin
America.[71] Cuban Revolution[edit] By 1959, Cuba
Cuba
was afflicted with a corrupt dictatorship under Batista, and Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
ousted Batista that year and set up the first communist state in the hemisphere. The United States
United States
imposed a trade embargo on Cuba, and combined with Castro's expropriation of private enterprises, this was detrimental to the Cuban economy.[68] Around Latin
Latin
America, rural guerrilla conflict and urban terrorism increased, inspired by the Cuban example. The United States
United States
put down these rebellions by supporting Latin
Latin
American countries in their counter-guerrilla operations through the Alliance for Progress launched by President John F. Kennedy. This thrust appeared to be successful. A Marxist, Salvador Allende, became president of Chile
Chile
in 1970, but was overthrown three years later in a military coup backed by the United States. Despite civil war, high crime and political instability, most Latin
Latin
American countries eventually adopted bourgeois liberal democracies while Cuba
Cuba
maintained its socialist system. Bay of Pigs Invasion[edit] Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion

Che Guevara
Che Guevara
(left) and Castro, photographed by Alberto Korda
Alberto Korda
in 1961

Encouraged by the success of Guatemala
Guatemala
in the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état,[73] in 1960, the U.S. decided to support an attack on Cuba
Cuba
by anti-Castro rebels. The Bay of Pigs invasion was an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba
Cuba
in 1961, financed by the U.S. through the CIA, to overthrow Fidel Castro. The incident proved to be very embarrassing for the new Kennedy administration.[74] Alliance for Progress[edit] President John F. Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress
Alliance for Progress
in 1961, to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin
Latin
America. The Alliance would provide $20 billion for reform in Latin
Latin
America, and counterinsurgency measures. Instead, the reform failed because of the simplistic theory that guided it and the lack of experienced American experts who could understand Latin
Latin
American customs.[75] Nicaraguan Revolution[edit] Following the American occupation of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
in 1912, as part of the Banana Wars, the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua
Nicaragua
until their ouster in 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U.S. support for the government and its military[15] as well as a heavy reliance on U.S. based multi-national corporations. The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua
Nicaragua
from 1979 until 1990 and the Contra War which was waged between the FSLN and the Contras from 1981–1990. The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War
Cold War
with the events in the country rising to international attention. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in 1978–79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the 1980s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans
Nicaraguans
and was the subject of fierce international debate.[76] During the 1980s both the FSLN (a Leftist collection of political parties) and the Contras (a rightist collection of counter-revolutionary groups) received large amounts of aid from the Cold War
Cold War
super-powers (respectively, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States). Washington Consensus[edit] Main article: Washington Consensus See also: Free Trade Area of the Americas

Roll-on/roll-off
Roll-on/roll-off
ships, such as this one pictured here at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to pass through the Panama
Panama
Canal. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama
Panama
and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.

The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF), World Bank, and the US Department of the Treasury during the 1980s and 1990s. In recent years, several Latin
Latin
American countries led by socialist or other left wing governments – including Argentina
Argentina
and Venezuela – have campaigned for (and to some degree adopted) policies contrary to the Washington Consensus set of policies. (Other Latin
Latin
countries with governments of the left, including Brazil, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies.) Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik, who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies. The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty. This politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by 1994 NAFTA, and elsewhere in the Americas
Americas
through a series of like agreements. The comprehensive Free Trade Area of the Americas project, however, was rejected by most South American countries at the 2005 4th Summit of the Americas. Turn to the left[edit] See also: Pink tide

UNASUR
UNASUR
summit in the Palacio de la Moneda, Santiago
Santiago
de Chile

In most countries, since the 2000s left-wing political parties have risen to power.[citation needed] The presidencies of Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
in Venezuela, Ricardo Lagos
Ricardo Lagos
and Michelle Bachelet
Michelle Bachelet
in Chile, Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff
Dilma Rousseff
in Brazil, Néstor Kirchner
Néstor Kirchner
and his wife Cristina Fernández in Argentina, Tabaré Vázquez
Tabaré Vázquez
and José Mujica
José Mujica
in Uruguay, Evo Morales
Evo Morales
in Bolivia, Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega
in Nicaragua, Rafael Correa
Rafael Correa
in Ecuador, Fernando Lugo
Fernando Lugo
in Paraguay, Manuel Zelaya
Manuel Zelaya
in Honduras
Honduras
(removed from power by a coup d'état), Mauricio Funes
Mauricio Funes
and Salvador Sánchez Cerén in El Salvador
El Salvador
are all part of this wave of left-wing politicians who often declare themselves socialists, Latin Americanists, or anti-imperialists (often implying opposition to US policies towards the region). A development of this has been the creation of the eight-member ALBA alliance, or "The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America" (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) by some of the countries already mentioned. By June 2014, Honduras
Honduras
(Juan Orlando Hernández), Guatemala (Otto Pérez Molina), and Panama
Panama
(Ricardo Martinelli) had right-wing governments. Return of social movements[edit]

A view on globalization, titled Somos cultura que camina en un mundo globalizado ("We are a culture walking in a globalized world"). The mural is located in Humahuaca
Humahuaca
in the north of Argentina

In 1982, Mexico
Mexico
announced that it could not meet its foreign debt payment obligations, inaugurating a debt crisis that would "discredit" Latin
Latin
American economies throughout the decade.[77] This debt crisis would lead to neoliberal reforms that would instigate many social movements in the region. A "reversal of development" reigned over Latin
Latin
America, seen through negative economic growth, declines in industrial production, and thus, falling living standards for the middle and lower classes.[78] Governments made financial security their primary policy goal over social security, enacting new neoliberal economic policies that implemented privatization of previously national industries and informalization of labor.[77] In an effort to bring more investors to these industries, these governments also embraced globalization through more open interactions with the international economy. Significantly, as democracy spread across much of Latin
Latin
America, the realm of government became more inclusive (a trend that proved conducive to social movements), the economic ventures remained exclusive to a few elite groups within society. Neoliberal restructuring consistently redistributed income upward while denying political responsibility to provide social welfare rights, and though development projects took place throughout the region, both inequality and poverty increased.[77] Feeling excluded from these new projects, the lower classes took ownership of their own democracy through a revitalization of social movements in Latin
Latin
America. Both urban and rural populations had serious grievances as a result of the above economic and global trends and have voiced them in mass demonstrations. Some of the largest and most violent of these have been protests against cuts in urban services, such as the Caracazo
Caracazo
in Venezuela
Venezuela
and the Argentinazo
Argentinazo
in Argentina.[79]

Children singing the Internationale, 20th anniversary of MST

Rural movements have made diverse demands related to unequal land distribution, displacement at the hands of development projects and dams, environmental and indigenous concerns, neoliberal agricultural restructuring, and insufficient means of livelihood. These movements have benefited considerably from transnational support from conservationists and INGOs. The Movement of Rural Landless Workers (MST) is perhaps the largest contemporary Latin
Latin
American social movement.[79] As indigenous populations are primarily rural, indigenous movements account for a large portion of rural social movements, including the Zapatista rebellion in Mexico, the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador
Ecuador
(CONAIE), indigenous organizations in the Amazon region of Ecuador
Ecuador
and Bolivia, pan-Mayan communities in Guatemala, and mobilization by the indigenous groups of Yanomami
Yanomami
peoples in the Amazon, Kuna peoples in Panama, and Altiplano
Altiplano
Aymara and Quechua peoples in Bolivia.[79] Other significant types of social movements include labor struggles and strikes, such as recovered factories in Argentina, as well as gender-based movements such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
in Argentina
Argentina
and protests against maquila production, which is largely a women's issue because of how it draws on women for cheap labor.[79] Modern era[edit] The 2000s commodities boom
2000s commodities boom
caused positive effects for many Latin American economies. Another trend is the rapidly increasing importance of the relations with China.[80] With the end of the commodity boom in the 2010s, economic stagnation or recession resulted in some countries. As a result, the left-wing governments of the Pink Tide
Pink Tide
lost support. The worst hit was Venezuela, which is facing severe social and economic upheaval. The corruption scandal of Odebrecht, a Brazilian conglomerate, has raised allegations of corruption across the region's governments (see Operation Car Wash). The bribery ring has become the largest corruption scandal in Latin
Latin
American history.[81] As of July 2017, the highest ranking politicians charged were former Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Lula da Silva
(sentenced)[82] and former Peruvian Presidents Ollanta Humala
Ollanta Humala
(arrested) and Alejandro Toledo
Alejandro Toledo
(fugitive, fled to the US).[83] Demographics[edit]

Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico

São Paulo, Brazil

Historical populations

Year Pop. ±%

1750 16,000,000 —    

1800 24,000,000 +50.0%

1850 38,000,000 +58.3%

1900 74,000,000 +94.7%

1950 167,000,000 +125.7%

1999 511,000,000 +206.0%

2013 603,191,486 +18.0%

Source: "UN report 2004 data" (PDF)

Main article: Latin
Latin
Americans See also: Demographics of South America Largest cities[edit] The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in Latin America.[3]

City Country Metropolitan population (2017) Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(PPP, $million) (USD, 2014) GDP
GDP
per capita (USD, 2014)

1. Mexico
Mexico
City Mexico 23,655,355 $403,561 $19,239

2. São Paulo Brazil 23,467,354 $430,510 $20,650

3. Buenos Aires Argentina 15,564,354 $315,885 $23,606

4. Rio de Janeiro Brazil 14,440,345 $176,630 $14,176

5. Bogotá Colombia 9,900,800 $159,150 $17,497

6. Lima Peru 9,752,000 $176,447 $16,530

7. Santiago Chile 7,164,400 $171,436 $23,290

8. Belo Horizonte Brazil 6,145,800 $95,686 $17,635

9. Guadalajara Mexico 4,687,700 $80,656 $17,206

10. Monterrey Mexico 4,344,200 $122,896 $28,290

Ethnic groups[edit] Main article: Ethnic groups in Latin
Latin
America

The Mexican mestizo population is the most diverse in Latin
Latin
America, with people being either largely European or Amerindian
Amerindian
rather than having a uniform admixture.[84]

The inhabitants of Latin
Latin
America are of a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: some have a predominance of European- Amerindian
Amerindian
or more commonly referred to as Mestizo
Mestizo
or Castizo
Castizo
depending on the admixture, population; in others, Amerindians
Amerindians
are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations are primarily Mulatto. Asian and Afro- Amerindian
Amerindian
(historically sometimes called Zambo) minorities are also identified regularly. People with European ancestry are the largest single group, and along with people of part-European ancestry, they combine to make up approximately 80% of the population,[85] or even more.[86] Language[edit]

Linguistic map of Latin
Latin
America. Spanish in green, Portuguese in orange, and French in blue.

Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin
Latin
America. Spanish is spoken as first language by about 60% of the population, Portuguese is spoken by about 34% of the population and about 6% of the population speak other languages such as Quechua, Mayan languages, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, English, French, Dutch and Italian. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil
Brazil
(Brazilian Portuguese), the biggest and most populous country in the region. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland ( Spanish language
Spanish language
in the Americas), as well as in Cuba, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(where it is co-official with English), and the Dominican Republic. French is spoken in Haiti
Haiti
and in the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique
Martinique
and Guiana, and the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon; it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. Dutch is the official language in Suriname, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles. (As Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin
Latin
America.)

Quechua, Guaraní, Aymara, Náhuatl, Lenguas Mayas, Mapudungun

Native American languages
Native American languages
are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Mexico, and to a lesser degree, in Panama, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile
Chile
amongst other countries. In Latin
Latin
American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent (e.g. Uruguay). Mexico
Mexico
is possibly the only country that contains a wider variety of indigenous languages than any Latin
Latin
American country, but the most spoken language is Nahuatl. In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guaraní, along with Spanish, is an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean
Caribbean
coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia
Colombia
recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these languages. Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Other European languages spoken in Latin
Latin
America include: English, by some groups in Puerto Rico, as well as in nearby countries that may or may not be considered Latin
Latin
American, like Belize
Belize
and Guyana; German, in southern Brazil, southern Chile, portions of Argentina, Venezuela and Paraguay; Italian, in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, and Uruguay; Ukrainian, Polish and Russian in southern Brazil, and Welsh, in southern Argentina.[87][88][89][90][91][92] Yiddish and Hebrew are possible to be heard around Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and São Paulo especially.[93] Non-European or Asian languages include Japanese in Brazil
Brazil
and Peru, Korean in Brazil, Arabic in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Chile
Chile
and Chinese throughout South America. In several nations, especially in the Caribbean
Caribbean
region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with Amerindian, English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages
Creole languages
of mainland Latin
Latin
America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues. The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean
Caribbean
coast in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Belize
Belize
mostly by the Garifuna people
Garifuna people
a mixed race Zambo
Zambo
people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. Primarily an Arawakan language, it has influences from Caribbean
Caribbean
and European languages. Archaeologists have deciphered over 15 pre-Columbian distinct writing systems from mesoamerican societies. the ancient Maya had the most sophisticated textually written language, but since texts were largely confined to the religious and administrative elite, traditions were passed down orally. oral traditions also prevailed in other major indigenous groups including, but not limited to the Aztecs
Aztecs
and other Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers, Quechua and Aymara of the Andean
Andean
regions, the Quiché of Central America, the Tupi-Guaraní
Tupi-Guaraní
in today's Brazil, the Guaraní in Paraguay
Paraguay
and the Mapuche
Mapuche
in Chile.[94] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Latin
Latin
America

Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels located in Cartago, Costa Rica

The vast majority of Latin Americans
Latin Americans
are Christians (90%),[95] mostly Roman Catholics belonging to the Latin
Latin
Church.[96] About 70% of the Latin
Latin
American population consider themselves Catholic.[97] According to the detailed Pew multi-country survey in 2014, 69% of the Latin
Latin
American population is Catholic and 19% is Protestant. Protestants are 26% in Brazil
Brazil
and over 40% in much of Central America. More than half of these are converts from Roman Catholicism.[98][99] Migration[edit] Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades, the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration. About 10 million Mexicans live in the United States.[100] 31.7 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2010, or roughly 10% of the population.[101] According to the 2005 Colombian census or DANE, about 3,331,107 Colombians currently live abroad.[102] The number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2 million people.[103] An estimated 1.5 to two million Salvadorans reside in the United States.[104] At least 1.5 million Ecuadorians have gone abroad, mainly to the United States
United States
and Spain.[105] Approximately 1.5 million Dominicans live abroad, mostly in the United States.[106] More than 1.3 million Cubans live abroad, most of them in the United States.[107] It is estimated that over 800,000 Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, the United States, Canada, Australia and Sweden.[108] An estimated 700,000 Bolivians were living in Argentina
Argentina
as of 2006 and another 33,000 in the United States.[109] Central Americans living abroad in 2005 were 3,314,300,[110] of which 1,128,701 were Salvadorans,[111] 685,713 were Guatemalans,[112] 683,520 were Nicaraguans,[113] 414,955 were Hondurans,[114] 215,240 were Panamanians[115] and 127,061 were Costa Ricans.[116] For the period 2000–2005, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela were the only countries with global positive migration rates, in terms of their yearly averages.[117] As a result of the 2010 Haiti
Haiti
Earthquake and its social and economic impact, there was a significant migration of Haitians to other Latin American countries. During the presidency of Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
and his successor Nicolás Maduro, over 1.5 million people fled Venezuela
Venezuela
in what was called the "Bolivarian diaspora" as socioeconomic conditions and the quality of life worsened.[118][119][120] Education[edit] See also: Education in Latin
Latin
America

World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 CIA World Factbook). Grey = no data.

Despite significant progress, education access and school completion remains unequal in Latin
Latin
America. The region has made great progress in educational coverage; almost all children attend primary school and access to secondary education has increased considerably. Quality issues such as poor teaching methods, lack of appropriate equipment and overcrowding exist throughout the region. These issues lead to adolescents dropping out of the educational system early.[121] Most educational systems in the region have implemented various types of administrative and institutional reforms that have enabled reach for places and communities that had no access to education services in the early 1990s. Compared to prior generations, Latin
Latin
American youth have seen an increase in their levels of education. On average, they have completed two years schooling more than their parents.[121] However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the formal education system. Estimates indicate that 30% of preschool age children (ages 4–5) do not attend school, and for the most vulnerable populations, the poor and rural, this calculation exceeds 40 percent. Among primary school age children (ages 6 to 12), coverage is almost universal; however there is still a need to incorporate 5 million children in the primary education system. These children live mostly in remote areas, are indigenous or Afro-descendants and live in extreme poverty.[122] Among people between the ages of 13 and 17 years, only 80% are full-time students in the education system; among them only 66% advance to secondary school. These percentages are lower among vulnerable population groups: only 75% of the poorest youth between the ages of 13 and 17 years attend school. Tertiary education has the lowest coverage, with only 70% of people between the ages of 18 and 25 years outside of the education system. Currently, more than half of low income children or living in rural areas fail to complete nine years of education.[122] Crime and violence[edit] Main article: Crime and violence in Latin
Latin
America Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
have been cited by numerous sources to be the most dangerous regions in the world.[123][124] Studies have shown that Latin
Latin
America contains the majority of the world's most dangerous cities. Many analysts attribute the reason to why the region has such an alarming crime rate and criminal culture is largely due to social and income inequality within the region, they say that growing social inequality is fueling crime in the region.[125] Many agree that the prison crisis will not be resolved until the gap between the rich and the poor is addressed.

2012 map of countries by homicide rate. As of 2015, the Latin
Latin
American countries with the highest rates were El Salvador
El Salvador
(108.64 per 100,000 people), Honduras
Honduras
(63.75) and Venezuela
Venezuela
(57.15). The countries with the lowest rates were Chile
Chile
(3.59), Cuba
Cuba
(4.72) and Argentina
Argentina
(6.53).

Crime and violence prevention and public security are now important issues for governments and citizens in Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean region. Homicide rates in Latin
Latin
America are the highest in the world. From the early 1980s through the mid-1990s, homicide rates increased by 50 percent. The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old. Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants as of 2015 were: El Salvador
El Salvador
109, Honduras
Honduras
64, Venezuela
Venezuela
57, Jamaica
Jamaica
43, Belize
Belize
34.4, St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Kitts and Nevis
34, Guatemala
Guatemala
34, Trinidad & Tobago 31, the Bahamas 30, Brazil
Brazil
26.7, Colombia
Colombia
26.5, the Dominican Republic
Republic
22, St Lucia
St Lucia
22, Guyana
Guyana
19, Mexico
Mexico
16, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
16, Ecuador
Ecuador
13, Grenada
Grenada
13, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
12, Bolivia
Bolivia
12, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
12, Panama
Panama
11, Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
11, and Haiti
Haiti
10.[126] Most of the top countries with the highest homicide rates are in Africa
Africa
and Latin America. Countries in Central America
Central America
like El Salvador
El Salvador
and Honduras top the list of homicides in the world.[127] Brazil
Brazil
has more overall homicides than any country in the world, at 50,108, accounting for one in 10 globally. Crime-related violence in Latin
Latin
America represents the most threat to public health, striking more victims than HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
or other infectious diseases.[128] Countries with lowest homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants as of 2015 were: Chile
Chile
3, Peru
Peru
7, Argentina
Argentina
7, Uruguay
Uruguay
8 and Paraguay 9.[126][129] Economy[edit] Main article: Latin
Latin
American economy Size[edit] According to Goldman Sachs' BRICS
BRICS
review of emerging economies, by 2050 the largest economies in the world will be as follows: China, United States, India, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Brazil
Brazil
and Mexico.[130]

 Brazil, São Paulo

 Mexico, Mexico
Mexico
City

 Argentina, Buenos Aires

 Chile, Santiago

 Colombia, Bogotá

Population and economy size for Latin
Latin
American countries

Country Population[2] (2016, millions) 2015 GDP
GDP
(nominal)[131] in billions US$ 2015 GDP
GDP
(PPP) in billions US$

 Argentina 43.8 601.7 972.3

 Bolivia 10.9 33.5 73.9

 Brazil 207.7 1,799.6 3,207.9

 Chile 17.9 240.0 424.3

 Colombia 48.7 300.98 724.16

 Costa Rica 4.9 51.6 74.1

 Cuba 11.5 N/A N/A

 Dominican Republic 10.6 66.6 147.6

 Ecuador 16.4 98.9 181.8

 El Salvador 6.3 25.7 52.9

 Guatemala 16.6 63.2 125.6

 Haiti 10.8 8.8 19.0

 Honduras 9.1 19.9 41.0

 Mexico 127.5 1,161.0 2,220.1

 Nicaragua 6.1 12.3 31.2

 Panama 4 47.5 82.2

 Paraguay 6.7 29.1 60.8

 Peru 31.8 179.9 385.4

 Uruguay 3.4 55.0 74.2

 Venezuela 31.6 131.9 491.6

Total 577.8 N/A N/A

[131] Development[edit] Over the past two centuries, Latin
Latin
America’s GDP
GDP
per capita has fluctuated around world average. However, there is a substantial gap between Latin
Latin
America and the western economies. Between 1820 and 2008, this gap widened from 0.8 to 2.7 times.[132] Since 1980, Latin America also lost growth versus the world average. Many nations such as Asia
Asia
joined others on a rapid economic growth path, but Latin America has grown at slower pace and its share of world output declined from 9.5% in 1980 to 7.8% in 2008.[133] Standard of living[edit] Latin
Latin
America is the region with the highest levels of income inequality in the world.[134] The following table lists all the countries in Latin
Latin
America indicating a valuation of the country's Human Development Index, GDP
GDP
at purchasing power parity per capita, measurement of inequality through the Gini index, measurement of poverty through the Human Poverty Index, measurement of extreme poverty based on people living under 1.25 dollars a day, life expectancy, murder rates and a measurement of safety through the Global Peace Index. Green cells indicate the best performance in each category while red indicates the lowest.

Social and economic indicators for Latin
Latin
American countries

Country HDI 2015 estimates GDP
GDP
(PPP) 2015 per capita in US$[135] Real GDP 2015 growth % Income inequality[136] (2015) Gini Extreme poverty[137] (2011) <1.25 US$  % Youth literacy[138] 2015% 2016 life expectancy[139] Murder[140] (2014) rate per 100,000 Peace[141] (2016) GPI

 Argentina 0.827 20,170 2.6 43.6 0.9 99.2 78 6 1.957

 Bolivia 0.662 6,421 4.1 46.6 14.0 99.4 69 12 2012 2.038

 Brazil 0.755 15,690 −3.0 52.7 0.3 97.5 74 25 2.176

 Chile 0.847 25,564 2.3 50.8 0.8 98.9 79 4 1.635[142]

 Colombia 0.720 13,794 2.5 52.2[143] 8.2 98.2 76 28 2.764

 Costa Rica 0.766 15,318 3.0 48.6 0.7 98.3 79 10 1.699

 Cuba 0.769 N/A N/A N/A N/A 100.0 79

2.057

 Dominican Republic 0.702 15,777 5.5 45.7 4.3 97.0 78 17 2.143

 Ecuador 0.732 11,168 −0.6 46.6 5.1 98.7 77 8 2.020

 El Salvador 0.666 8,293 2.3 41.8 15.1 96.0 75 64 2.237

 Guatemala 0.627 7,721 3.8 52.4 16.9 87.4 72 31 2.270

 Haiti 0.483 1,794 2.5 59.2 54.9 72.3 64 102012 2.066

 Honduras 0.606 4,861 3.5 57.4 23.3 95.9 71 75 2.237

 Mexico 0.756 18,335 2.3 48.1 8.4 98.5 77 16 2.557

 Nicaragua 0.631 4,972 4.0 45.7 15.8 87.0 73 122012 1.975

 Panama 0.780 20,512 6.0 51.9 9.5 97.6 79 182012 1.837

 Paraguay 0.679 8,671 3.0 48.0 5.1 98.6 77 9 2.037

 Peru 0.734 12,077 2.4 45.3 5.9 97.4 74 7 2.057

 Uruguay 0.793 21,719 2.5 41.3 0.0 98.8 77 8 1.726

 Venezuela 0.762 15,892 −10.0 44.8 3.5 98.5 75 62 2.651

Environment[edit]

Sumidero Canyon, located in Chiapas, Mexico.

Glaucous macaw
Glaucous macaw
(behind hyacinth macaw) and other macaws. Macaws are long-tailed, often colourful New World
New World
parrots.[144]

Environmental indicators for Latin
Latin
American countries

Country Environmental performance[145] (2012) EPI CO2 emissions[146] (2009) (tons of CO2 per capita)

 Argentina 56.48 4.14

 Bolivia 54.57 1.31

 Brazil 60.90 1.74

 Chile 55.34 3.84

 Colombia 62.33 1.33

 Costa Rica 69.03 1.37

 Cuba 56.48 2.40

 Dominican Republic 52.44 1.79

 Ecuador 60.55 2.09

 El Salvador 52.08 1.10

 Guatemala 51.88 1.03

 Haiti 41.15 0.24

 Honduras 52.54 0.96

 Mexico 49.11 3.72

 Nicaragua 59.23 0.73

 Panama 57.94 2.10

 Paraguay 52.40 0.64

 Peru 50.29 1.32

 Uruguay 57.06 2.31

 Venezuela 55.62 5.45

Inequality[edit] Main article: Wealth inequality
Wealth inequality
in Latin
Latin
America Wealth inequality
Wealth inequality
in Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
remains a serious issue despite strong economic growth and improved social indicators observed over the past decade. A report release in 2013 by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs entitled Inequality Matters. Report of the World Social Situation, observed that: ‘Declines in the wage share have been attributed to the impact of labour-saving technological change and to a general weakening of labour market regulations and institutions.[147] Such declines are likely to affect individuals in the middle and bottom of the income distribution disproportionately, since they rely mostly on labour income.’ In addition, the report noted that ‘highly-unequal land distribution has created social and political tensions and is a source of economic inefficiency, as small landholders frequently lack access to credit and other resources to increase productivity, while big owners may not have had enough incentive to do so.[147][148] Trade blocs[edit]

Native New World
New World
crops exchanged globally: maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cacao, tobacco

Rafael Correa, Evo Morales, Néstor Kirchner, Cristina Fernández, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Nicanor Duarte, and Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
at the signing of the founding charter of the Bank of the South

The major trade blocs (or agreements) in the region are the Pacific Alliance and Mercosur. Minor blocs or trade agreements are the G3 Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
Central America
Central America
Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), the Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) and the Andean Community of Nations (CAN). However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally admitted into the Mercosur
Mercosur
(pending ratification from the Paraguayan legislature). The president-elect of Ecuador
Ecuador
has manifested his intentions of following the same path. This bloc nominally opposes any Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States, although Uruguay
Uruguay
has manifested its intention otherwise. Chile, Peru, Colombia and Mexico
Mexico
are the only four Latin
Latin
American nations that have an FTA with the United States
United States
and Canada, both members of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Tourism[edit]

Aerial view of Cancún. Mexico
Mexico
is the most visited country in Latin America.

Income from tourism is key to the economy of several Latin
Latin
American countries.[149] Mexico
Mexico
is the only Latin
Latin
American country to be ranked in the top 10 worldwide in the number of tourist visits. It received by far the largest number of international tourists, with 35.1 million visitors in 2016, followed by Brazil, with 6.6 million; the Dominican Republic, with 6 million; Chile, with 5.6 million; Argentina, with 5.5 million; Cuba
Cuba
with 4 million; Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
with 3.7 million; Peru
Peru
with 3.7 million; and Colombia, with 3.3 million. The World Tourism Organization reports the following destinations as the top six tourism earners for the year 2016: Mexico, with US$19,571 million; the Dominican Republic, with US$6,723 million; Brazil, with US$6,024 million; Colombia, with US$4,773 million; Argentina, with US$4,687 million; and Panama, with US$4,258 million.[150] Places such as Cancún, Riviera Maya, Galápagos Islands, Punta
Punta
Cana, Chichen Itza, Cartagena de Indias, Cabo San Lucas, Mexico
Mexico
City, Machu Picchu, Margarita Island, Acapulco, San Ignacio Miní,Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires, Salar de Uyuni, Rio de Janeiro, Punta
Punta
del Este, Labadee, San Juan, São Paulo, La Habana, Panama
Panama
City, Iguazú Falls, Puerto Vallarta, Poás Volcano National Park, Viña del Mar, Guanajuato City, Bogotá, Santa Marta, San Andrés, San Miguel de Allende, Lima, Guadalajara, Cuzco, Ponce and Perito Moreno Glacier
Perito Moreno Glacier
are popular among international visitors in the region.[citation needed]

Performance indicators for international tourism in Latin
Latin
America

Country International tourist arrivals[150] (2016) (1000s) International tourism receipts[150] (2016) (Millions of US$) Tourism receipts (2011) (US$ per arrival) Tourism receipts (2011) (US$ per capita) Tourism receipts[151] (2003) (as % of exports) Tourism receipts[152] (2003) (as % of GDP) Direct and indirect employment[153] in tourism (2005) (%) Tourism competitiveness[154] (2011) (TTCI)

 Argentina 5,559 4,687 945 133 7.4 1.8 9.1 4.20

 Bolivia 882* 687 31 9.4 2.2 7.6 3.35

 Brazil 6,578 6,024 1,207 34 3.2 0.5 7.0 4.36

 Chile 5,641 2,737 596 107 5.3 1.9 6.8 4.27

 Colombia 3,317 4,773 873 45 6.6 1.4 5.9 3.94

 Costa Rica 2,925 3,879 982 459 17.5 8.1 13.3 4.43

 Cuba 3,968 2,907 872 194 N/A N/A N/A N/A

 Dominican Republic 5,959 6,723 1,011 440 36.2 18.8 19.8 3.99

 Ecuador 1,418 1,444 734 58 6.3 1.5 7.4 3.79

 El Salvador 1,434 829 351 67 12.9 3.4 6.8 3.68

 Guatemala 1,585 1,550 1,102 94 16.0 2.6 6.0 3.82

 Haiti 516* 504 655 17 19.4 3.2 4.7 N/A

 Honduras 908 686 753 92 13.5 5.0 8.5 3.79

 Mexico 35,113 19,571 507 105 5.7 1.6 14.2 4.43

 Nicaragua 1,504 642 356 65 15.5 3.7 5.6 3.56

 Panama 2,007 4,258 1,308 550 10.6 6.3 12.9 4.30

 Paraguay 1,206 481 460 37 4.2 1.3 6.4 3.26

 Peru 3,744 3,501 908 81 9.0 1.6 7.6 4.04

 Uruguay 3,037 1,835 765 643 14.2 3.6 10.7 4.24

 Venezuela 789* 575* 1,449 25 1.3 0.4 8.1 3.46

(*) Data for 2015 rather than 2016, as the newest data is currently unavailable.

Culture[edit] Main article: Latin
Latin
American culture

Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Easter
Easter
procession in Comayagua, Honduras

Nicaraguan women wearing the Mestizaje
Mestizaje
costume, which is a traditional costume worn to dance the Mestizaje
Mestizaje
dance. The costume demonstrates the Spanish influence upon Nicaraguan clothing.[155]

Latin
Latin
American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide. It is the product of many diverse influences:

Indigenous cultures of the people who inhabited the continent prior to European Colonization. Ancient and very advanced civilizations developed their own political, social and religious systems. The Mayas, the Aztecs
Aztecs
and the Incas are examples of these. Indigenous legacies in music, dance, foods, arts and crafts, clothing, folk culture and traditions are very strong in Latin
Latin
America. Linguistic effects on Spanish and Portuguese are also marked, such as in terms like pampa, taco, tamale, cacique. Western civilization, in particular the culture of Europe, was brought mainly by the colonial powers – the Spanish, Portuguese and French – between the 16th and 19th centuries. The most enduring European colonial influence is language and Roman Catholicism. More recently, additional cultural influences came from the United States and Europe
Europe
during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, due to the growing influence of the former on the world stage and immigration from the latter. The influence of the United States
United States
is particularly strong in northern Latin
Latin
America, especially Puerto Rico, which is an American territory. Prior to 1959, Cuba, who fought for its independence along American soldiers in the Spanish–American War, was also known to have a close socioeconomic relation with the United States. In addition, the United States
United States
also helped Panama
Panama
become an independent state from Colombia
Colombia
and built the twenty-mile-long Panama Canal Zone in Panama
Panama
which held from 1903 (the Panama
Panama
Canal opened to transoceanic freight traffic in 1914) to 1999, when the Torrijos-Carter Treaties
Torrijos-Carter Treaties
restored Panamanian control of the Canal Zone. South America
South America
experienced waves of immigration of Europeans, especially Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Germans, Austrians, Poles, Ukrainians, French, Dutch, Russians, Croatians, Lithuanians and Ashkenazi Jews. With the end of colonialism, French culture was also able to exert a direct influence in Latin
Latin
America, especially in the realms of high culture, science and medicine.[156] This can be seen in any expression of the region's artistic traditions, including painting, literature and music, and in the realms of science and politics.

Due to the impact of Enlightenment ideals after the French revolution, a certain number of Iberian-American countries decriminalized homosexuality after France
France
and French territories in the Americas
Americas
in 1791. Some of the countries that abolished sodomy laws or banned any reference to state interference in consensual adult sexuality in the 19th century were Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(1822), Brazil
Brazil
(1824), Peru (1836), Mexico
Mexico
(1871), Paraguay
Paraguay
(1880), Argentina
Argentina
(1887), Honduras (1899), Guatemala
Guatemala
and El Salvador. Today gay marriage is legal in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and French overseas departments, as well as in some states of Mexico. Civil unions can be held in Ecuador, Chile
Chile
and one administrative region of Venezuela.

African cultures, whose presence derives from a long history of New World slavery. Peoples of African descent have influenced the ethno-scapes of Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean. This is manifested for instance in music, dance and religion, especially in countries like Brazil, Uruguay, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Haiti, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, and Cuba.

Asian cultures, whose part of the presence derives from the long history of the Coolie
Coolie
trade mostly arriving during the 19th and 20th centuries, and most commonly Chinese workers in Peru
Peru
and Venezuela. But also from Japanese and Korean immigration especially headed to Brazil. This has largely effected the cuisine, traditions including literature, art and lifestyles and politics. The effects of Asian influences have especially and mostly effected the nations of The Dominican Republic, Brazil, Cuba, Panama
Panama
and Peru.

Art[edit] Main article: Latin
Latin
American art See also: List of Latin
Latin
American artists

Diego Rivera's mural depicting Mexico's history at the National Palace in Mexico
Mexico
City

Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed the trends of the Italian Masters. In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early twentieth century, as Latin Americans
Latin Americans
began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and started to follow their own path.

Mural by Santiago
Santiago
Martinez Delgado in the Colombian Congress

From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin
Latin
America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement.[157] The Movement quickly spread from Russia to Europe
Europe
and then into Latin
Latin
America. Joaquín Torres García and Manuel Rendón have been credited with bringing the Constructivist Movement into Latin
Latin
America from Europe.[citation needed] An important artistic movement generated in Latin
Latin
America is muralism represented by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo
Rufino Tamayo
in Mexico, Santiago
Santiago
Martinez Delgado and Pedro Nel Gómez
Pedro Nel Gómez
in Colombia
Colombia
and Antonio Berni
Antonio Berni
in Argentina. Some of the most impressive Muralista works can be found in Mexico, Colombia, New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. Painter Frida Kahlo, one of the most famous Mexican artists, painted about her own life and the Mexican culture in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. Kahlo's work commands the highest selling price of all Latin
Latin
American paintings.[158] The Venezuelan Armando Reverón, whose work begins to be recognized internationally, is one of the most important artists of the 20th century in South America; he is a precursor of Arte Povera and Happening. From the 60s the kinetic art emerges in Venezuela, its main representatives are Jesús Soto, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Alejandro Otero
Alejandro Otero
and Gego. Colombian sculptor and painter Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero
is also widely known[159][160][161][by whom?] by his works which, on first examination, are noted for their exaggerated proportions and the corpulence of the human and animal figures. Film[edit] Main article: Latin
Latin
American cinema

The Guadalajara
Guadalajara
International Film Festival is considered the most prestigious film festival in Latin
Latin
America.

In 2015, Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
became the second Mexican director in a row to win both the Academy Award and the Directors Guild of America Award for Best Director. He won his second Oscar in 2016 for The Revenant.

Latin
Latin
American film is both rich and diverse. Historically, the main centers of production have been Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba. Latin
Latin
American film flourished after sound was introduced in cinema, which added a linguistic barrier to the export of Hollywood film south of the border.[162] Mexican cinema started out in the silent era from 1896 to 1929 and flourished in the Golden Era of the 1940s. It boasted a huge industry comparable to Hollywood at the time with stars such as María Félix, Dolores del Río, and Pedro Infante. In the 1970s, Mexico
Mexico
was the location for many cult horror and action movies. More recently, films such as Amores Perros (2000) and Y tu mamá también (2001) enjoyed box office and critical acclaim and propelled Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
and Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
to the front rank of Hollywood directors. Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
directed in 2010 Biutiful and Birdman (2014), Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
directed Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in 2004 and Gravity (2013). Close friend of both, Guillermo del Toro, a top rank Hollywood director in Hollywood and Spain, directed Pan's Labyrinth
Pan's Labyrinth
(2006) and produced El Orfanato (2007). Carlos Carrera
Carlos Carrera
(The Crime of Father Amaro), and screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga
Guillermo Arriaga
are also some of the most known present-day Mexican film makers. Rudo y Cursi
Rudo y Cursi
released in December (2008) in Mexico
Mexico
was directed by Carlos Cuarón.

President Cristina Fernández
Cristina Fernández
with the film director Juan José Campanella and the cast of The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes
(2009) with the Oscar for Best Foreign Language
Language
Film

Argentine cinema has also been prominenent since the first half of the 20th century and today averages over 60 full-length titles yearly. The industry suffered during the 1976–1983 military dictatorship; but re-emerged to produce the Academy Award winner The Official Story
The Official Story
in 1985. A wave of imported U.S. films again damaged the industry in the early 1990s, though it soon recovered, thriving even during the Argentine economic crisis around 2001. Many Argentine movies produced during recent years have been internationally acclaimed, including Nueve reinas
Nueve reinas
(2000), Son of the Bride
Son of the Bride
(2001), El abrazo partido (2004), El otro
El otro
(2007), the 2010 Foreign Language
Language
Academy Award winner El secreto de sus ojos
El secreto de sus ojos
and Wild Tales (2014). In Brazil, the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical landscape, and a political message. The modern Brazilian film industry has become more profitable inside the country, and some of its productions have received prizes and recognition in Europe
Europe
and the United States, with movies such as Central do Brasil (1999), Cidade de Deus (2002) and Tropa de Elite (2007). Puerto Rican cinema has produced some notable films, such as Una Aventura Llamada Menudo, Los Diaz de Doris and Casi Casi. An influx of Hollywood films affected the local film industry in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
during the 1980s and 1990s, but several Puerto Rican films have been produced since and it has been recovering. Cuban cinema has enjoyed much official support since the Cuban revolution and important film-makers include Tomás Gutiérrez Alea. Literature[edit] Main article: Latin
Latin
American literature See also: List of Latin
Latin
American writers

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
in 1772 by Andrés de Islas

Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs
Aztecs
and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru
Peru
and the Quiché (K'iche') of Guatemala. From the very moment of Europe's discovery of the continents, early explorers and conquistadores produced written accounts and crónicas of their experience – such as Columbus's letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento (1816). The 19th century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic Doris Sommer's words), novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and which often focussed on the indigenous question or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism" (for which see, say, Domingo Sarmiento's Facundo
Facundo
(1845), Juan León Mera's Cumandá (1879), or Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões (1902)). The 19th century also witnessed the realist work of Machado de Assis, who made use of surreal devices of metaphor and playful narrative construction, much admired by critic Harold Bloom. At the turn of the 20th century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío's Azul (1888). This was the first Latin
Latin
American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin
Latin
American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue. José Martí, for instance, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico
Mexico
and the United States
United States
and wrote for journals in Argentina
Argentina
and elsewhere.

Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral, first Latin
Latin
American to win a Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1945

Argentine Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
in L'Hôtel, Paris
Paris
in 1969

However, what really put Latin
Latin
American literature on the global map was no doubt the literary boom of the 1960s and 1970s, distinguished by daring and experimental novels (such as Julio Cortázar's Rayuela (1963)) that were frequently published in Spain
Spain
and quickly translated into English. The Boom's defining novel was Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad (1967), which led to the association of Latin American literature with magic realism, though other important writers of the period such as the Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa
Mario Vargas Llosa
and Carlos Fuentes do not fit so easily within this framework. Arguably, the Boom's culmination was Augusto Roa Bastos's monumental Yo, el supremo (1974). In the wake of the Boom, influential precursors such as Juan Rulfo, Alejo Carpentier, and above all Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
were also rediscovered. Contemporary literature in the region is vibrant and varied, ranging from the best-selling Paulo Coelho
Paulo Coelho
and Isabel Allende
Isabel Allende
to the more avant-garde and critically acclaimed work of writers such as Diamela Eltit, Giannina Braschi, Ricardo Piglia, or Roberto Bolaño. There has also been considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in collaboration with subaltern subjects such as Rigoberta Menchú. Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented by the more journalistic Carlos Monsiváis
Carlos Monsiváis
and Pedro Lemebel. The region boasts six Nobel Prize winners: in addition to the two Chilean poets Gabriela Mistral
Gabriela Mistral
(1945) and Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
(1971), there is also the Guatemalan novelist Miguel Angel Asturias
Miguel Angel Asturias
(1967), the Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel García Márquez
(1982), the Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1990), and the Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa (2010). Music and dance[edit] See also: Music of Latin
Latin
America, Latin
Latin
pop, and Latin
Latin
dance

Salsa dancing in Cali, Colombia

Latin
Latin
America has produced many successful worldwide artists in terms of recorded global music sales. Among the most successful have been Gloria Estefan
Gloria Estefan
(Cuba), Mercedes Sosa
Mercedes Sosa
(Argentina), Pabllo Vittar (Brazil), Carlos Santana
Carlos Santana
(Mexico) of whom have sold over 90 million records, Luis Miguel
Luis Miguel
(Mexico), Shakira
Shakira
(Colombia) and Vicente Fernández (Mexico) with over 50 million records sold worldwide. Enrique Iglesias, although not a Latin
Latin
American, has also contributed for the success of Latin
Latin
music. Other notable successful mainstream acts through the years, include Soda Stereo, Celia Cruz, Thalía, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Ricardo Arjona, Selena, Lynda Thomas
Lynda Thomas
and Menudo. Caribbean
Caribbean
Hispanic
Hispanic
music, such as merengue, bachata, salsa, and more recently reggaeton, from such countries as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and Panama, has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies. Haiti's compas is a genre of music that is influenced by its Caribbean
Caribbean
Hispanic
Hispanic
counterparts, along with elements of jazz and modern sounds.[163][164]

Traditional Mexican dance Jarabe Tapatío

Another well-known Latin
Latin
American musical genre includes the Argentine and Uruguayan tango (with Carlos Gardel
Carlos Gardel
as the greatest exponent), as well as the distinct nuevo tango, a fusion of tango, acoustic and electronic music popularized by bandoneón virtuoso Ástor Piazzolla. Samba, North American jazz, European classical music
European classical music
and choro combined to form bossa nova in Brazil, popularized by guitarist João Gilberto with singer Astrud Gilberto
Astrud Gilberto
and pianist Antonio Carlos Jobim. Other influential Latin
Latin
American sounds include the Antillean soca and calypso, the Honduras
Honduras
(Garifuna) punta, the Colombian cumbia and vallenato, the Chilean cueca, the Ecuadorian boleros, and rockoleras, the Mexican ranchera and the mariachi which is the epitome of Mexican soul, the Nicaraguan palo de Mayo, the Peruvian marinera and tondero, the Uruguayan candombe, the French Antillean zouk (derived from Haitian compas) and the various styles of music from pre-Columbian traditions that are widespread in the Andean
Andean
region.

Brazilian actress Carmen Miranda
Carmen Miranda
helped popularize samba internationally.

The classical composer Heitor Villa-Lobos
Heitor Villa-Lobos
(1887–1959) worked on the recording of native musical traditions within his homeland of Brazil. The traditions of his homeland heavily influenced his classical works.[165] Also notable is the recent work of the Cuban Leo Brouwer and guitar work of the Venezuelan Antonio Lauro and the Paraguayan Agustín Barrios. Latin
Latin
America has also produced world-class classical performers such as the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau, Brazilian pianist Nelson Freire and the Argentine pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim. Brazilian opera soprano Bidu Sayão, one of Brazil's most famous musicians, was a leading artist of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City from 1937 to 1952.

A couple dances tango.

Arguably, the main contribution to music entered through folklore, where the true soul of the Latin
Latin
American and Caribbean
Caribbean
countries is expressed. Musicians such as Yma Súmac, Chabuca Granda, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Violeta Parra, Víctor Jara, Jorge Cafrune, Facundo
Facundo
Cabral, Mercedes Sosa, Jorge Negrete, Luiz Gonzaga, Caetano Veloso, Susana Baca, Chavela Vargas, Simon Diaz, Julio Jaramillo, Toto la Momposina, Gilberto Gil, Maria Bethânia, Nana Caymmi, Nara Leão, Gal Costa, Ney Matogrosso as well as musical ensembles such as Inti Illimani
Inti Illimani
and Los Kjarkas are magnificent examples of the heights that this soul can reach. Latin
Latin
pop, including many forms of rock, is popular in Latin
Latin
America today (see Spanish language
Spanish language
rock and roll).[166] A few examples are Café Tacuba, Soda Stereo, Maná, Rita Lee, Mutantes, Secos e Molhados Legião Urbana, Titãs, Paralamas do Sucesso, Cazuza, Barão Vermelho, Skank, Miranda!, Cansei de Ser Sexy or CSS, and Bajo Fondo. More recently, reggaeton, which blends Jamaican reggae and dancehall with Latin
Latin
America genres such as bomba and plena, as well as hip hop, is becoming more popular, in spite of the controversy surrounding its lyrics, dance steps (Perreo) and music videos. It has become very popular among populations with a "migrant culture" influence – both Latino
Latino
populations in the United States, such as southern Florida and New York City, and parts of Latin
Latin
America where migration to the United States
United States
is common, such as Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico.[167] World Heritage Sites[edit] The following is a list of the ten countries with the most World Heritage Sites in Latin
Latin
America.[168]

Country Natural sites Cultural sites Mixed sites Total sites

1. Mexico 6 27 1 34

2. Brazil 7 14 0 21

3. Peru 2 8 2 12

4. Argentina 5 6 0 11

5. Cuba 2 7 0 9

6. Colombia 2 6 0 8

7. Bolivia 1 6 0 7

8. Chile 0 6 0 6

9. Panama 3 2 0 5

10. Ecuador 2 3 0 5

See also[edit]

Latin
Latin
America portal North America
North America
portal

Latin Americans
Latin Americans
(Amerindians, Criollo, Afro- Latin
Latin
American, Asian Latin
Latin
American, Mestizos, Mulatto, White Latin
Latin
American, Zambo) Diaspora ( Latin
Latin
American Australian, Latin
Latin
American British, Latin American Canadian, Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
Americans, Hispanic, Latino) List of Latin
Latin
Americans Latin
Latin
American studies Agroecology in Latin
Latin
America Latin
Latin
America and the League of Nations Romance-speaking world Latin
Latin
Africa
Africa
( United States
United States
of Latin
Latin
Africa) Water supply and sanitation in Latin
Latin
America

Latin
Latin
American integration

Americas
Americas
(terminology) – Use of the word American

Latin
Latin
America– United States
United States
relations

Caribbean

Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States

Central American Integration System

Notes[edit]

^ a b In the main Latin
Latin
American languages:

Spanish: América Latina Portuguese: América Latina French: Amérique Latine

^ a b Includes the population estimates for South American and Central American countries excluding Belize, Guyana, the United States, and Spanish and French speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
countries and territories, as listed under "Sub-regions and countries" ^ Not including Anglophone, Francophone or Dutch-speaking countries, such as Belize, Guyana, Suriname
Suriname
and Jamaica; see Contemporary Definitions section

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Ardao, Arturo. Génesis de la idea y nombre de América Latina. Caracas: Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos Rómulo Gallegos, 1980. Ayala Mora, Enrique. "El origen del nombre América Latina y la tradición católica del siglo XIX." Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura 40, no. 1 (2013), 213–41. Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971. (in Portuguese) Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (in Portuguese) Bomfim, Manoel. A América latina: Males de origem. Rio de Janeiro: H. Garnier 1905. Braudel, Fernand. "Y a-t-il une Amérique latine?" Annales ESC 3 (1948), 467–71. Castro-Gómez, Santiago. Crítica de la razón latinoamericana. Barcelona: Puvil Libros 1996. Coatsworth, John H., and Alan M. Taylor, eds. Latin
Latin
America and the World Economy Since 1800. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press 1998. Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996. (in Portuguese) Edwards, Sebastián. Left Behind: Latin
Latin
America and the False Promise of Populism. University of Chicago Press, 2010. Sebastian Edwards; Gerardo Esquivel; Graciela Márquez (15 February 2009). The Decline of Latin
Latin
American Economies: Growth, Institutions, and Crises. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-18503-3.  Galeano, Eduardo. Open Veins of Latin
Latin
America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent. 1973 Gobat, Michel, "The Invention of Latin
Latin
America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race," American Historical Review Vol. 118, no. 3 (December 2013), pp. 1345–1375. Halperin Donghi, Tulio. (1970). Historia contemporánea de América Latina (2. ed.). Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Leonard, Thomas et al. (2010). Encyclopedia of Latin
Latin
America. Facts on File. ISBN 9780816073597 Mariátegui, José Carlos. Temas de nuestra América. Vol. 12 of Obras completas de Mariátegui. Lima: Biblioteca Amauta 1960. Martínez Estrada, Ezequiel. Diferencias y semejanzas entre los países de América Latina. Mexico" Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 1962. Maurer Queipo, Isabel (ed.): "Directory of World Cinema: Latin America", intellectbooks, Bristol 2013, ISBN 9781841506180 McGinnes, Aims. "Searching for ' Latin
Latin
America': Race and Sovereignty in the Americas
Americas
in the 1850s." In Race and Nation in Modern Latin America, edited by Nancy P. Appelbaum, Anne S. Macpherson, and Karin alejandra Rosemblatt. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
University of North Carolina
Press 2003, pp, 87–107. Mignolo, Walter, The Idea of Latin
Latin
America. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell 2005. Moraña, Mabel, Enrique Dussel, and Carlos A. Jáuregui, eds. Coloniality at Large: Latin
Latin
America and the Postcolonial Debate. Durham: Duke University Press 2008. Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981. (in Portuguese) Phelan, John Leddy. (1968). Pan-latinisms, French Intervention in Mexico
Mexico
(1861–1867) and the Genesis of the Idea of Latin
Latin
America. Mexico
Mexico
City: Universidad Nacional Autonónoma de México 1968. Vesentini, José William. Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988. (in Portuguese) Tenenbaum, Barbara A. ed. Encyclopedia of Latin
Latin
American History and Culture. 5 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons 1996 Tenorio-Trillo, Mauricio. Latin
Latin
America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 2017. Vasconcelos, José. Indología: Una interpretación de la cultura ibero-americana. Barcelona: Agencia Mundial de Librería 1927. Werncek vianna, Luiz. A revolução passive: Iberismo e americanismo no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Revan 1997. Zea, Leopoldo. Filosofía de la historia americana. Mexico
Mexico
City: Fondo de Cultura Económico 1978. Zea, Leopoldo, ed. Fuentes de la cultura latinoamericana. 2 vols. Mexico
Mexico
City: Fondo de Cultura Económica 1993.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Latin
Latin
America (category)

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Latin
Latin
America.

IDB Education Initiative Latin
Latin
American Network Information Center Latin
Latin
America Data Base Washington Office on Latin
Latin
America Council on Hemispheric Affairs Codigos De Barra Infolatam. Information and analysis of Latin
Latin
America Map of Land Cover: Latin
Latin
America and Caribbean
Caribbean
(FAO) Lessons From Latin
Latin
America by Benjamin Dangl, The Nation, March 4, 2009 Keeping Latin
Latin
America on the World News Agenda – Interview with Michael Reid of The Economist Cold War
Cold War
in Latin
Latin
America, CSU Pomona University Latin
Latin
America Cold War
Cold War
Resources, Yale University Latin
Latin
America Cold War, Harvard University http://larc.ucalgary.ca/ Latin
Latin
American Research Centre, University of Calgary The war on Democracy, by John Pilger

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Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter
Easter
Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean
Caribbean
South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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Pan-Americanism

History

Spanish American wars of independence Latin
Latin
American wars of independence Latin
Latin
American integration North American integration Patria Grande Simón Bolívar José de San Martín Lucas Alamán Inter-American Commission of Women

Organizations

Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization
Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization
(ACTO) Andean Community of Nations
Andean Community of Nations
(CAN) Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States (ACS) Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas
Americas
(ALBA) Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) Central American Integration System
Central American Integration System
(SICA) Community of Latin
Latin
American and Caribbean
Caribbean
States (CELAC) Contadora group Contadora support group Latin
Latin
American Economic System (SELA) Latin
Latin
American Integration Association (ALADI) Lima
Lima
Group (LG) Mercosur Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States (OECS) Organization of Ibero-American States
Organization of Ibero-American States
(OEI) Pacific Alliance Petrocaribe Rio Group Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur) United Nations Economic Commission for Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean (ECLAC, CEPAL)

Projects

Andean
Andean
passport CARICOM passport CARICOM Single Market and Economy CARIPASS Central America-4 Border Control Agreement Central America-4 passport Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
Currency Union Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA) Interoceanic Highway SUCRE

Institutions

Andean
Andean
Parliament Bank of the South Caribbean
Caribbean
Court of Justice Caribbean
Caribbean
Development Bank Central American Parliament Development Bank of Latin
Latin
America Inter-American Development Bank Latin
Latin
American Parliament Mercosur
Mercosur
Parliament South American Parliament

Free trade areas

Caribbean
Caribbean
Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) CARIFORUM Dominican Republic– Central America
Central America
Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) Economic Partnership Agreements Free Trade Area of the Americas G3 Free Trade Agreement North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 252087629 GND: 4074032-8 HDS: 2

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