HOME
The Info List - Latex


--- Advertisement ---



La TeX
TeX
(/ˈlɑːtɛx/ LAH-tekh or /ˈleɪtɛx/ LAY-tekh;[1] a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.[2] When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
("what you see is what you get") word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer
LibreOffice Writer
and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX
TeX
distribution such as TeX
TeX
Live or Mik TeX
TeX
is used to produce an output file (such as PDF
PDF
or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. Within the typesetting system, its name is stylised as LaTeX. La TeX
TeX
is widely used in academia[3][4] for the communication and publication of scientific documents in many fields, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, engineering, chemistry, physics, economics, linguistics, quantitative psychology, philosophy, and political science. It also has a prominent role in the preparation and publication of books and articles that contain complex multilingual materials, such as Tamil, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Greek.[5] LaTeX uses the TeX
TeX
typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX
TeX
macro language. La TeX
TeX
can be used as a standalone document preparation system or as an intermediate format. In the latter role, for example, it is sometimes used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing of tables and figures, chapter and section headings, the inclusion of graphics, page layout, indexing and bibliographies. Like TeX, La TeX
TeX
started as a writing tool for mathematicians and computer scientists, but from early in its development it has also been taken up by scholars who needed to write documents that include complex math expressions or non-Latin scripts, such as Arabic, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Chinese.[citation needed] La TeX
TeX
is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX
TeX
in an easier way for writers. In short, TeX
TeX
handles the layout side, while La TeX
TeX
handles the content side for document processing. La TeX
TeX
comprises a collection of TeX
TeX
macros and a program to process La TeX
TeX
documents. Because the plain TeX
TeX
formatting commands are elementary, it provides authors with ready-made commands for formatting and layout requirements such as chapter headings, footnotes, cross-references and bibliographies. La TeX
TeX
was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport
Leslie Lamport
at SRI International.[6] The current version is LaTeX2e (stylised as LaTeX2ε). La TeX
TeX
is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL).

Contents

1 Typesetting
Typesetting
system 2 Example 3 Pronouncing and writing "LaTeX" 4 Licensing 5 Related software 6 Versions 7 Compatibility and converters

7.1 LaTeX2HTML 7.2 HeVeA 7.3 Pandoc

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Typesetting
Typesetting
system[edit] La TeX
TeX
follows the design philosophy of separating presentation from content, so that authors can focus on the content of what they are writing without attending simultaneously to its visual appearance. In preparing a La TeX
TeX
document, the author specifies the logical structure using simple, familiar concepts such as chapter, section, table, figure, etc., and lets the La TeX
TeX
system worry about the formatting and layout of these structures. It therefore encourages the separation of layout from content while still allowing manual typesetting adjustments where needed. This concept is similar to the mechanism by which many word processors allow styles to be defined globally for an entire document or the use of Cascading Style Sheets
Cascading Style Sheets
to style HTML. The La TeX
TeX
system is a markup language that also handles typesetting and rendering.[7] La TeX
TeX
can be arbitrarily extended by using the underlying macro language to develop custom formats. Such macros are often collected into packages, which are available to address special formatting issues such as complicated mathematical content or graphics. Indeed, in the example below, the align environment is provided by the amsmath package. In order to create a document in LaTeX, you first write a file, say document.tex, using your preferred text editor. Then you give your document.tex file as input to the TeX
TeX
program (with the La TeX
TeX
macros loaded), and TeX
TeX
writes out a file suitable for viewing onscreen or printing.[8] This write-format-preview cycle is one of the chief ways in which working with La TeX
TeX
differs from what-you-see-is-what-you-get word-processing. It is similar to the code-compile-execute cycle familiar to computer programmers. Today, many LaTeX-aware editing programs make this cycle a simple matter of pressing a single key, while showing the output preview on the screen beside the input window. Some online La TeX
TeX
editors automatically refresh the preview.[9][10][11][12] Other online tools provide incremental editing in-place, mixed in with the preview in a streamlined single window.[13] Example[edit] The example below shows the La TeX
TeX
input and corresponding output:

Input Output

documentclass article usepackage amsmath title La TeX
TeX

begin document maketitle La TeX
TeX
is a document preparation system for the TeX
TeX
typesetting program. It offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout, bibliographies, and much more. La TeX
TeX
was originally written in 1984 by Leslie Lamport and has become the dominant method for using TeX; few people write in plain TeX
TeX
anymore. The current version is LaTeXe.

% This is a comment, not shown in final output. % The following shows typesetting power of LaTeX: begin align E_0 &= mc^2 \ E &= frac mc^2 sqrt 1-frac v^2 c^2 end align end document

Note how the equation for

E

displaystyle E

(highlighted in the example code) was typeset by the markup:

E &= frac mc^2 sqrt 1-frac v^2 c^2

The square root is denoted by "sqrt argument " and fractions by "frac numerator denominator ". Pronouncing and writing "LaTeX"[edit] The final consonant of TeX
TeX
(on which La TeX
TeX
is based) is intended by its developer to be pronounced similar to 'loch' or 'Bach'. However, English speakers often pronounce it /ˈtɛk/, like the first syllable of technical. The characters T, E, X in the name come from the Greek capital letters tau, epsilon, and chi, as the name of TeX
TeX
derives from the Greek: τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth
promotes a pronunciation of /tɛx/ (tekh)[14] (that is, with a voiceless velar fricative as in Modern Greek, similar to the ch in loch). Lamport writes " TeX
TeX
is usually pronounced tech, making lah-teck, lah-teck, and lay-teck the logical choices; but language is not always logical, so lay-tecks is also possible."[15] The name is traditionally printed in running text with a special typographical logo: LaTeX. In media where the logo cannot be precisely reproduced in running text, the word is typically given the unique capitalization LaTeX. The TeX, LaTeX[16] and XeTeX[17] logos can be rendered via pure CSS
CSS
and X HTML
HTML
for use in graphical web browsers following the specifications of the internal La TeX
TeX
macro.[18] Licensing[edit] La TeX
TeX
is typically distributed along with plain TeX. It is distributed under a free software license, the La TeX
TeX
Project Public License (LPPL). The LPPL is not compatible with the GNU General Public License, as it requires that modified files must be clearly differentiable from their originals (usually by changing the filename); this was done to ensure that files that depend on other files will produce the expected behavior and avoid dependency hell. The LPPL is DFSG compliant as of version 1.3. As free software, LaTeX is available on most operating systems including UNIX
UNIX
(Solaris, HP-UX, AIX), BSD
BSD
(FreeBSD, macOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD), Linux
Linux
(Red Hat, Debian, Arch, Gentoo), Windows, DOS, RISC OS, AmigaOS
AmigaOS
and Plan9. Related software[edit] As a macro package, La TeX
TeX
provides a set of macros for TeX
TeX
to interpret. There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt. When TeX
TeX
"compiles" a document, it follows (from the user's point of view) the following processing sequence: Macros → TeX
TeX
→ Driver → Output. Different implementations of each of these steps are typically available in TeX
TeX
distributions. Traditional TeX
TeX
will output a DVI file, which is usually converted to a PostScript
PostScript
file. More recently, Hàn Thế Thành and others have written a new implementation of TeX called pdfTeX, which also outputs to PDF
PDF
and takes advantage of features available in that format. The Xe TeX
TeX
engine developed by Jonathan Kew merges modern font technologies and Unicode with TeX. The default font for La TeX
TeX
is Knuth's Computer Modern, which gives default documents created with La TeX
TeX
the same distinctive look as those created with plain TeX. Xe TeX
TeX
allows the use of OpenType and TrueType (that is, outlined) fonts for output files. There are also many editors for LaTeX. Versions[edit]

Filename extension .tex

Internet media type application/x-latex

Latest release

LaTeX2e (1994)

Type of format Document file format

LaTeX2e is the current version of LaTeX, since it replaced La TeX
TeX
2.09 in 1994. As of 2014[update], LaTeX3, started in the early 1990s, is under a long-term development project.[19] Planned features include improved syntax, hyperlink support, a new user interface, access to arbitrary fonts, and new documentation.[20] There are numerous commercial implementations of the entire TeX system. System vendors may add extra features like additional typefaces and telephone support. LyX
LyX
is a free, WYSIWYM
WYSIWYM
visual document processor that uses La TeX
TeX
for a back-end. TeXmacs
TeXmacs
is a free, WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
editor with similar functionalities as La TeX
TeX
but a different typesetting engine. Other WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
editors that produce La TeX
TeX
include Scientific Word
Scientific Word
on MS Windows. A number of community-supported TeX
TeX
distributions are available, including TeX
TeX
Live (multiplatform), te TeX
TeX
(deprecated in favor of TeX Live, UNIX), fp TeX
TeX
(deprecated), MiK TeX
TeX
(Windows), proTeXt (Windows), Mac TeX
TeX
( TeX
TeX
Live with the addition of Mac specific programs), gwTeX (Mac OS X), Oz TeX
TeX
(Mac OS Classic), Amiga TeX
TeX
(no longer available), Pas TeX
TeX
(AmigaOS, available on the Aminet repository), and Auto-Latex Equations (Google Docs add-on that supports MathJax La TeX
TeX
commands). Compatibility and converters[edit] La TeX
TeX
documents (*.tex) can be opened with any text editor. They consist of plain text and do not contain hidden formatting codes or binary instructions. Additionally, TeX
TeX
documents can be shared by rendering the La TeX
TeX
file to Rich Text Format (.rtf) or XML. This can be done using the free software programs LaTeX2RTF
LaTeX2RTF
or TeX4ht. LaTeX can also be rendered to PDF
PDF
files using the La TeX
TeX
extension pdfLaTeX. La TeX
TeX
files containing Unicode text can be processed into PDFs by the La TeX
TeX
extension XeLaTeX. LaTeX2HTML[edit] LaTeX2 HTML
HTML
is a converter written in Perl
Perl
that converts LaTeX documents to HTML. This way, e.g., scientific papers—primarily typeset for printing—can be placed on the Web for online viewing. It is licensed under GNU GPL
GNU GPL
v2.[21] The latest updates are available from CTAN.[22] HeVeA[edit] HeVeA [23] is a converter written in Ocaml
Ocaml
that converts LaTeX documents to HTML5. It is licensed under the Q Public License. Pandoc[edit] Pandoc is a 'universal document converter' able to transform LaTeX into many different file formats, including HTML5, epub, rtf and docx. It is licensed under GNU GPL
GNU GPL
v2.[24] See also[edit]

Free software
Free software
portal

Auto-Latex Equations – A Google Docs add-on that provides mathematical La TeX
TeX
typesetting (MathJax supported). AMS-La TeX
TeX
– American Mathematical Society extension for LaTeX xdvi – software for viewing DVI files while using Unix Bib TeX
TeX
– reference management software typically used with LaTeX Comparison of TeX
TeX
editors List of document markup languages REV TeX
TeX
– Publication Styles of the American Physical Society Formula editor

References[edit]

^ "An introduction to LaTeX". La TeX
TeX
project. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Leslie., Lamport, (1986-01-01). LATEX : a document preparation system. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. ISBN 020115790X. OCLC 12550262.  ^ "What are TeX, La TeX
TeX
and friends?".  ^ Alexia Gaudeul (March 27, 2006). "Do Open Source Developers Respond to Competition?: The (La) TeX
TeX
Case Study". SSRN 908946 .  ^ Markin, Pablo (1 November 2017). "LaTeX, Open Source Software, Facilitates the Adoption of Open Access by Authors, Repositories and Journals". OpenScience. Retrieved 5 November 2017.  ^ Leslie Lamport
Leslie Lamport
(April 23, 2007). "The Writings of Leslie Lamport: LaTeX: A Document Preparation System". Leslie Lamport's Home Page. Retrieved 2007-04-27.  ^ The design of La TeX
TeX
owes something to earlier markup systems such as Scribe. ^ PDF
PDF
output is common, but TeX
TeX
can output other formats such as DVI ("Device independent" format). See below for more detail about outputs. ^ "Sharelatex".  ^ "Overleaf".  ^ "Seeveeze".  ^ "La TeX
TeX
Base".  ^ "Authorea".  ^ Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison–Wesley, Boston, 1986, p. 1. ^ Lamport (1994), p 5 ^ O'Connor, Edward. " TeX
TeX
and La TeX
TeX
logo POSHlets". Retrieved 2008-04-21.  ^ Taraborelli, Dario. "CSS-driven TeX
TeX
logos". Retrieved 2008-04-21.  ^ Walden, David (2005-07-15). "Travels in TeX
TeX
Land: A Macro, Three Software Packages, and the Trouble with TeX". The Prac TeX
TeX
Journal (3). Retrieved 2008-04-21.  ^ See e.g. bubl.ac.uk Archived 2009-08-13 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Frank Mittelbach, Chris Rowley (January 12, 1999). "The LaTeX3 Project" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-07-30.  ^ According to LICENSE file in the source repository. ^ https://www.ctan.org/pkg/latex2html ^ Website http://hevea.inria.fr/ ^ http://pandoc.org/

Further reading[edit]

Flynn, Peter (2017) [2002]. Formatting Information: A Beginner's Guide to La TeX
TeX
(7th online ed.). Cork: Silmaril. p. 193.  Griffiths, David F.; Highman, David S. (1997). Learning LaTeX. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ISBN 0-89871-383-8.  Kopka, Helmut; Daly, Patrick W. (2003). Guide to La TeX
TeX
(4th ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-321-17385-6.  Lamport, Leslie (1994). LaTeX: A document preparation system: User's guide and reference. illustrations by Duane Bibby (2nd ed.). Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-52983-1.  Mittelbach, Frank; Goosens, Michel (2004). The La TeX
TeX
Companion (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-36299-6. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutLaTeXat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

Official website La TeX
TeX
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) La TeX
TeX
Vs. Word Comparsion How to Write an Article in Word and Convert It to La TeX
TeX
Format

v t e

TeX

Macro packages

AMSTeX ArabTeX CircuiTikZ ConTeXt FarsiTeX Texinfo LaTeX MusiXTeX Plain TeX PSTricks TIPA XyMTeX

Alternative TeX
TeX
engines

eTeX LuaTeX pdfTeX XeTeX New Typesetting
Typesetting
System Omega

Distributions

TeX
TeX
Live teTeX fpTeX MiKTeX proTeXt MacTeX gwTeX OzTeX Latexian AmigaTeX PasTeX TeXPortal W32TeX

Community

CTAN TUGboat The Prac TeX
TeX
Journal Deutschsprachige Anwendervereinigung TeX

Related

DVI Computer Modern Metafont MetaPost WEB CWEB TeX
TeX
Directory Structure TeX
TeX
font metric

v t e

LaTeX

Classes

AMS-LaTeX Beamer Powerdot Biber AMSRefs PSfrag REVTeX

La TeX
TeX
integration

Sweave knitr

Conversion tools

LaTeX2HTML LaTeX2RTF LaTeXML

Related

La TeX
TeX
Project Public License

v t e

E-books

Formats

ePub FictionBook CBR/CBZ Kindle File
File
Format Mobipocket PDF Plain text

Reading

Devices

Amazon Kindle Barnes & Noble Nook Bookeen Elonex ebook enTourage eDGe Hanlin eReader iriver Story Kobo eReader Onyx Boox Plastic Logic
Plastic Logic
Reader PocketBook eReader Rocket eBook SoftBook Smartphones Tablets Tolino

Software

Adobe Acrobat Adobe Digital Editions Aldiko Blio Bluefire Reader Calibre FBReader Google Play
Google Play
Books iBooks Kindle app Kitabu Kobo Lektz Lucifox Okular OverDrive Media Console Snapplify STDU Viewer Sumatra PDF

Editing

ABBYY FineReader AbiWord Adobe InDesign Adobe RoboHelp Atlantis Word Processor Booktype Calibre Calligra Author eXeLearning Help & Manual HelpNDoc iBooks Author iStudio Publisher LaTeX LibreOffice MadCap Flare Oxygen XML
XML
Editor PagePlus Pages QuarkXPress Scrivener Sigil Writer2epub

Vendors

Commercial

Amazon Kindle
Amazon Kindle
Store Baen Free Library Barnes & Noble Booktrack Feedbooks Google Play iBooks Store Kobo Bookstore Sony Reader Store Smashwords

Noncommercial

HathiTrust Internet Archive Project Gutenberg

Australia Canada

Wikisource

Related topics

Academic journal publishing reform Braille e-book Comparison of e-book readers Comparison of iOS e-book reader software Comparison of Android e-book reader software E-book
E-book
lending Electronic publishing iBooks Author Conference International Digital Publishing Forum Kindle single OPDS Reflowable document Semantic publishing

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 181932361 LCCN: n92088

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61