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The LATE MIDDLE AGES or LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD were the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500). The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance
Renaissance
).

Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death
Black Death
, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare . France
France
and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants\' Revolt , as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years\' War . To add to the many problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was shattered by the Western Schism . Collectively these events are sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

Despite these crises, the 14th century
14th century
was also a time of great progress in the arts and sciences. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
began. The absorption of Latin
Latin
texts had started before the Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 12th century through contact with Arabs during the Crusades
Crusades
, but the availability of important Greek texts accelerated with the capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Ottoman Turks , when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy
Italy
.

Combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing , which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. These two things would later lead to the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
. Toward the end of the period, the Age of Discovery began. The rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, eroded the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and cut off trading possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the expedition of Columbus to the Americas
Americas
in 1492, and Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
’s circumnavigation of India
India
and Africa
Africa
in 1498. Their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations.

The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and beginning of modern history and early modern Europe
Europe
. However, the division is somewhat artificial, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society. As a result there was developmental continuity between the ancient age (via classical antiquity ) and the modern age . Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
at all, but rather see the high period of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
transitioning to the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the modern era.

CONTENTS

* 1 Historiography and periodization

* 2 History

* 2.1 Northern Europe
Europe
* 2.2 Northwest Europe
Europe
* 2.3 Western Europe
Europe
* 2.4 Central Europe
Europe
* 2.5 Eastern Europe
Europe
* 2.6 Southeast Europe
Europe
* 2.7 Southwest Europe
Europe

* 3 Late Medieval
Medieval
European society * 4 Military history

* 5 Christian conflict and reform

* 5.1 The Papal Schism * 5.2 Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation

* 6 Trade and commerce

* 7 Arts and sciences

* 7.1 Philosophy, science and technology * 7.2 Visual arts and architecture * 7.3 Literature * 7.4 Music * 7.5 Theatre * 7.6 After the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 8 Ottomans and Europe
Europe
* 9 Timeline * 10 Gallery * 11 See also

* 12 References

* 12.1 Sources * 12.2 Citations

* 13 External links

HISTORIOGRAPHY AND PERIODIZATION

HUMAN HISTORY

Prehistory
Prehistory

RECORDED HISTORY

ANCIENT

* Earliest records

* Africa
Africa
* Americas
Americas

* East Asia * South Asia

* Southeast Asia * West Asia

* Mediterranean

POSTCLASSICAL

* Africa
Africa
* Americas
Americas

* Central Asia * East Asia

* South Asia

* Southeast Asia * West Asia

* Europe
Europe

MODERN

* Early modern
Early modern
* Late modern

SEE ALSO

* Contemporary * Modernity * Futurology

Future
Future

* v * t * e

The term "Late Middle Ages" refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the High Middle Ages. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People (1442). Flavio Biondo used a similar framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire (1439–1453). Tripartite periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient, Medieval, and New Period (1683).

For 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance
Renaissance
, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit. The heart of this rediscovery lies in Italy
Italy
, where, in the words of Jacob Burckhardt : "Man became a spiritual individual and recognized himself as such". This proposition was later challenged, and it was argued that the 12th century was a period of greater cultural achievement.

As economic and demographic methods were applied to the study of history, the trend was increasingly to see the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as a period of recession and crisis. Belgian historian Henri Pirenne continued the subdivision of Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in the years around World War I
World War I
. Yet it was his Dutch colleague, Johan Huizinga , who was primarily responsible for popularising the pessimistic view of the Late Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(1919). To Huizinga, whose research focused on France and the Low Countries
Low Countries
rather than Italy, despair and decline were the main themes, not rebirth.

Modern
Modern
historiography on the period has reached a consensus between the two extremes of innovation and crisis. It is now generally acknowledged that conditions were vastly different north and south of the Alps, and the term "Late Middle Ages" is often avoided entirely within Italian historiography. The term "Renaissance" is still considered useful for describing certain intellectual, cultural, or artistic developments, but not as the defining feature of an entire European historical epoch. The period from the early 14th century
14th century
up until – and sometimes including – the 16th century, is rather seen as characterized by other trends: demographic and economic decline followed by recovery, the end of western religious unity and the subsequent emergence of the nation state , and the expansion of European influence onto the rest of the world.

HISTORY

The limits of Christian Europe
Europe
were still being defined in the 14th and 15th centuries. While the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow
was beginning to repel the Mongols , and the Iberian kingdoms completed the Reconquista of the peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the Balkans
Balkans
fell under the dominance of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Meanwhile, the remaining nations of the continent were locked in almost constant international or internal conflict.

The situation gradually led to the consolidation of central authority and the emergence of the nation state . The financial demands of war necessitated higher levels of taxation, resulting in the emergence of representative bodies – most notably the English Parliament . The growth of secular authority was further aided by the decline of the papacy with the Western Schism and the coming of the Protestant Reformation .

NORTHERN EUROPE

Main articles: Denmark
Denmark
, Norway
Norway
, Sweden
Sweden

After the failed union of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
of 1319–1365, the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union was instituted in 1397. The Swedes were reluctant members of the Danish -dominated union from the start. In an attempt to subdue the Swedes, King Christian II of Denmark
Denmark
had large numbers of the Swedish aristocracy killed in the Stockholm Bloodbath of 1520. Yet this measure only led to further hostilities, and Sweden broke away for good in 1523. Norway, on the other hand, became an inferior party of the union and remained united with Denmark
Denmark
until 1814.

Iceland
Iceland
benefited from its relative isolation and was the last Scandinavian country to be struck by the Black Death
Black Death
. Meanwhile, the Norse colony in Greenland
Greenland
died out, probably under extreme weather conditions in the 15th century. These conditions might have been the effect of the Little Ice Age .

NORTHWEST EUROPE

Main articles: England
England
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Scotland
Scotland
in the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and Wales in the Late Middle Ages

The death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 threw the country into a succession crisis, and the English king, Edward I , was brought in to arbitrate. Edward claimed overlordship over Scotland, leading to the Wars of Scottish Independence . The English were eventually defeated, and the Scots were able to develop a stronger state under the Stuarts .

From 1337, England's attention was largely directed towards France
France
in the Hundred Years\' War . Henry V’s victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 briefly paved the way for a unification of the two kingdoms, but his son Henry VI soon squandered all previous gains. The loss of France
France
led to discontent at home. Soon after the end of the war in 1453, the dynastic struggles of the Wars of the Roses (c. 1455–1485) began, involving the rival dynasties of the House of Lancaster and House of York .

The war ended in the accession of Henry VII of the Tudor family, who continued the work started by the Yorkist kings of building a strong, centralized monarchy. While England's attention was thus directed elsewhere, the Hiberno-Norman lords in Ireland
Ireland
were becoming gradually more assimilated into Irish society, and the island was allowed to develop virtual independence under English overlordship.

WESTERN EUROPE

Main articles: France
France
, Burgundy , Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
France
France
in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories

The French House of Valois
House of Valois
, which followed the House of Capet in 1328, was at its outset marginalized in its own country, first by the English invading forces of the Hundred Years\' War , and later by the powerful Duchy of Burgundy . The emergence of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
as a military leader changed the course of war in favour of the French, and the initiative was carried further by King Louis XI .

Meanwhile, Charles the Bold , Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
, met resistance in his attempts to consolidate his possessions, particularly from the Swiss Confederation formed in 1291. When Charles was killed in the Burgundian Wars at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy was reclaimed by France. At the same time, the County of Burgundy and the wealthy Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
came into the Holy Roman Empire under Habsburg
Habsburg
control, setting up conflict for centuries to come.

CENTRAL EUROPE

Main articles: Germany
Germany
, Bohemia
Bohemia
, Hungary
Hungary
, Poland
Poland
, Lithuania
Lithuania
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora , Bohemia, 15th century
15th century

Bohemia
Bohemia
prospered in the 14th century, and the Golden Bull of 1356 made the king of Bohemia
Bohemia
first among the imperial electors , but the Hussite revolution threw the country into crisis. The Holy Roman Empire passed to the Habsburgs in 1438, where it remained until its dissolution in 1806. Yet in spite of the extensive territories held by the Habsburgs, the Empire itself remained fragmented, and much real power and influence lay with the individual principalities. In addition, financial institutions, such as the Hanseatic League and the Fugger
Fugger
family, held great power, on both economic and political levels.

The kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
experienced a golden age during the 14th century. In particular the reigns of the Angevin kings Charles Robert (1308–42) and his son Louis the Great (1342–82) were marked by success. The country grew wealthy as the main European supplier of gold and silver. Louis the Great led successful campaigns from Lithuania
Lithuania
to Southern Italy, and from Poland
Poland
to Northern Greece.

He had the greatest military potential of the 14th century
14th century
with his enormous armies (often over 100,000 men). Meanwhile, Poland
Poland
's attention was turned eastwards, as the union with Lithuania
Lithuania
created an enormous entity in the region. The union, and the conversion of Lithuania, also marked the end of paganism in Europe. Ruins
Ruins
of Beckov Castle in Slovakia
Slovakia

Louis did not leave a son as heir after his death in 1382. Instead, he named as his heir the young prince Sigismund of Luxemburg , who was 15 years old. The Hungarian nobility did not accept his claim, and the result was an internal war. Sigismund eventually achieved total control of Hungary
Hungary
and established his court in Buda and Visegrád. Both palaces were rebuilt and improved, and were considered the richest of the time in Europe. Inheriting the throne of Bohemia
Bohemia
and the Holy Roman Empire, Sigismund continued conducting his politics from Hungary, but he was kept busy fighting the Hussites
Hussites
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, which was becoming a menace to Europe
Europe
in the beginning of the 15th century.

The King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
of Hungary
Hungary
led the largest army of mercenaries of the time, The Black Army of Hungary
Hungary
, which he used to conquer Bohemia
Bohemia
and Austria
Austria
and to fight the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. However, the glory of the Kingdom ended in the early 16th century, when the King Louis II of Hungary
Hungary
was killed in the battle of Mohács in 1526 against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Hungary
Hungary
then fell into a serious crisis and was invaded, ending its significance in central Europe
Europe
during the medieval era.

EASTERN EUROPE

Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow

The state of Kievan Rus\' fell during the 13th century in the Mongol invasion . The Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow
rose in power thereafter, winning a great victory against the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. The victory did not end Tartar rule in the region, however, and its immediate beneficiary was the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
, which extended its influence eastwards.

Under the reign of Ivan the Great (1462–1505), Moscow became a major regional power, and the annexation of the vast Republic of Novgorod
Novgorod
in 1478 laid the foundations for a Russian national state. After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Russian princes started to see themselves as the heirs of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. They eventually took on the imperial title of Tsar
Tsar
, and Moscow was described as the Third Rome .

SOUTHEAST EUROPE

Main articles: Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Bulgaria , Serbia
Serbia
, Albania Ottoman miniature of the siege of Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1456

The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had for a long time dominated the eastern Mediterranean in politics and culture. By the 14th century, however, it had almost entirely collapsed into a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, centered on the city of Constantinople
Constantinople
and a few enclaves in Greece
Greece
. With the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Byzantine Empire was permanently extinguished.

The Bulgarian Empire was in decline by the 14th century, and the ascendancy of Serbia
Serbia
was marked by the Serbian victory over the Bulgarians in the Battle of Velbazhd in 1330. By 1346, the Serbian king Stefan Dušan had been proclaimed emperor. Yet Serbian dominance was short-lived; the Serbian army led by the Lazar Hrebljevanovic was defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, where most of the Serbian nobility was killed and the south of the country came under Ottoman occupation, as much of southern Bulgaria had become Ottoman territory in 1371 . Northern remnants of Bulgaria were finally conquered by 1396, Serbia
Serbia
fell in 1459, Bosnia in 1463, and Albania was finally subordinated in 1479 only a few years after the death of Skanderbeg . Belgrade
Belgrade
, an Hungarian domain at the time, was the last large Balkan city to fall under Ottoman rule, in 1521. By the end of the medieval period, the entire Balkan peninsula was annexed by, or became vassal to, the Ottomans.

SOUTHWEST EUROPE

Main articles: Italy
Italy
, Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
, Spain
Spain
, Portugal
Portugal

Avignon
Avignon
was the seat of the papacy from 1309 to 1376. With the return of the Pope
Pope
to Rome
Rome
in 1378, the Papal State developed into a major secular power, culminating in the morally corrupt papacy of Alexander VI . Florence
Florence
grew to prominence amongst the Italian city-states through financial business, and the dominant Medici
Medici
family became important promoters of the Renaissance
Renaissance
through their patronage of the arts. Other city states in northern Italy
Italy
also expanded their territories and consolidated their power, primarily Milan
Milan
and Venice
Venice
. The War of the Sicilian Vespers had by the early 14th century
14th century
divided southern Italy
Italy
into an Aragon Kingdom of Sicily and an Anjou Kingdom of Naples
Naples
. In 1442, the two kingdoms were effectively united under Aragonese control.

The 1469 marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon and the 1479 death of John II of Aragon led to the creation of modern-day Spain
Spain
. In 1492, Granada
Granada
was captured from the Moors
Moors
, thereby completing the Reconquista
Reconquista
. Portugal
Portugal
had during the 15th century – particularly under Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
– gradually explored the coast of Africa
Africa
, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
found the sea route to India
India
. The Spanish monarchs met the Portuguese challenge by financing the expedition of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to find a western sea route to India, leading to the discovery of the Americas in 1492.

LATE MEDIEVAL EUROPEAN SOCIETY

See also: Crisis of the Late Middle Ages The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain. The background contains the Louvre
Louvre
, c. 1410

Around 1300–1350 the Medieval Warm Period gave way to the Little Ice Age . The colder climate resulted in agricultural crises, the first of which is known as the Great Famine of 1315-1317 . The demographic consequences of this famine , however, were not as severe as the plagues that occurred later in the century, particularly the Black Death
Black Death
. Estimates of the death rate caused by this epidemic range from one third to as much as sixty percent. By around 1420, the accumulated effect of recurring plagues and famines had reduced the population of Europe
Europe
to perhaps no more than a third of what it was a century earlier. The effects of natural disasters were exacerbated by armed conflicts; this was particularly the case in France
France
during the Hundred Years\' War .

As the European population was severely reduced, land became more plentiful for the survivors, and labour consequently more expensive. Attempts by landowners to forcibly reduce wages, such as the English 1351 Statute of Laborers , were doomed to fail. These efforts resulted in nothing more than fostering resentment among the peasantry, leading to rebellions such as the French Jacquerie in 1358 and the English Peasants\' Revolt in 1381. The long-term effect was the virtual end of serfdom in Western Europe. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, landowners were able to exploit the situation to force the peasantry into even more repressive bondage.

The upheavals caused by the Black Death
Black Death
left certain minority groups particularly vulnerable, especially the Jews , who were often blamed for the calamities. Anti-Jewish pogroms were carried out all over Europe; in February 1349, 2,000 Jews were murdered in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
. States were also guilty of discrimination against the Jews. Monarchs gave in to the demands of the people, and the Jews were expelled from England
England
in 1290, from France
France
in 1306, from Spain
Spain
in 1492, and from Portugal
Portugal
in 1497.

While the Jews were suffering persecution, one group that probably experienced increased empowerment in the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was women. The great social changes of the period opened up new possibilities for women in the fields of commerce, learning and religion. Yet at the same time, women were also vulnerable to incrimination and persecution, as belief in witchcraft increased.

Up until the mid-14th century, Europe
Europe
had experienced steadily increasing urbanisation . Cities were also decimated by the Black Death, but the role of urban areas as centres of learning, commerce and government ensured continued growth. By 1500, Venice
Venice
, Milan
Milan
, Naples
Naples
, Paris
Paris
and Constantinople
Constantinople
each probably had more than 100,000 inhabitants. Twenty-two other cities were larger than 40,000; most of these were in Italy
Italy
and the Iberian peninsula, but there were also some in France, the Empire, the Low Countries, plus London
London
in England.

MILITARY HISTORY

Main article: Medieval warfare
Medieval warfare

MEDIEVAL WARFARE

Miniature of the Battle of Crécy (1346) Manuscript
Manuscript
of Jean Froissart 's Chronicles .

------------------------- The Hundred Years\' War was the scene of many military innovations.

Through battles such as Courtrai (1302), Bannockburn (1314), and Morgarten (1315), it became clear to the great territorial princes of Europe
Europe
that the military advantage of the feudal cavalry was lost, and that a well equipped infantry was preferable. Through the Welsh Wars the English became acquainted with, and adopted, the highly efficient longbow . Once properly managed, this weapon gave them a great advantage over the French in the Hundred Years' War.

The introduction of gunpowder affected the conduct of war significantly. Though employed by the English as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346, firearms initially had little effect in the field of battle. It was through the use of cannons as siege weapons that major change was brought about; the new methods would eventually change the architectural structure of fortifications .

Changes also took place within the recruitment and composition of armies. The use of the national or feudal levy was gradually replaced by paid troops of domestic retinues or foreign mercenaries . The practice was associated with Edward III of England
England
and the condottieri of the Italian city-states. All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in particularly high demand. At the same time, the period also saw the emergence of the first permanent armies. It was in Valois France, under the heavy demands of the Hundred Years' War, that the armed forces gradually assumed a permanent nature.

Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly more elaborate chivalric code of conduct for the warrior class. This new-found ethos can be seen as a response to the diminishing military role of the aristocracy, and gradually it became almost entirely detached from its military origin. The spirit of chivalry was given expression through the new (secular ) type of chivalric orders ; the first of these was the Order of St. George , founded by Charles I of Hungary
Hungary
in 1325, while the best known was probably the English Order of the Garter , founded by Edward III in 1348.

CHRISTIAN CONFLICT AND REFORM

THE PAPAL SCHISM

Main article: Western Schism

The French crown's increasing dominance over the Papacy
Papacy
culminated in the transference of the Holy See
Holy See
to Avignon
Avignon
in 1309. When the Pope returned to Rome
Rome
in 1377, this led to the election of different popes in Avignon
Avignon
and Rome, resulting in the Papal Schism (1378–1417). The Schism divided Europe
Europe
along political lines; while France, her ally Scotland
Scotland
and the Spanish kingdoms supported the Avignon
Avignon
Papacy, France's enemy England
England
stood behind the Pope
Pope
in Rome, together with Portugal, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and most of the German princes.

At the Council of Constance (1414–1418), the Papacy
Papacy
was once more united in Rome. Even though the unity of the Western Church was to last for another hundred years, and though the Papacy
Papacy
was to experience greater material prosperity than ever before, the Great Schism had done irreparable damage. The internal struggles within the Church had impaired her claim to universal rule, and promoted anti-clericalism among the people and their rulers, paving the way for reform movements.

PROTESTANT REFORMATION

Main articles: Bohemian Reformation and Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
Jan Hus
Jan Hus
burnt at the stake

Though many of the events were outside the traditional time period of the Middle Ages, the end of the unity of the Western Church (the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
), was one of the distinguishing characteristics of the medieval period. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
had long fought against heretic movements, but during the Late Middle Ages, it started to experience demands for reform from within. The first of these came from Oxford professor John Wycliffe in England. Wycliffe held that the Bible
Bible
should be the only authority in religious questions, and he spoke out against transubstantiation , celibacy and indulgences . In spite of influential supporters among the English aristocracy, such as John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
, the movement was not allowed to survive. Though Wycliffe himself was left unmolested, his supporters, the Lollards , were eventually suppressed in England.

The marriage of Richard II of England
England
to Anne of Bohemia
Bohemia
established contacts between the two nations and brought Lollard ideas to her homeland. The teachings of the Czech priest Jan Hus
Jan Hus
were based on those of John Wycliffe, yet his followers, the Hussites
Hussites
, were to have a much greater political impact than the Lollards. Hus gained a great following in Bohemia
Bohemia
, and in 1414, he was requested to appear at the Council of Constance to defend his cause. When he was burned as a heretic in 1415, it caused a popular uprising in the Czech lands. The subsequent Hussite Wars fell apart due to internal quarrels and did not result in religious or national independence for the Czechs , but both the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the German element within the country were weakened.

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
, a German monk, started the German Reformation by posting 95 theses on the castle church of Wittenberg
Wittenberg
on October 31, 1517. The immediate provocation spurring this act was Pope
Pope
Leo X ’s renewal of the indulgence for the building of the new St. Peter\'s Basilica in 1514. Luther was challenged to recant his heresy at the Diet of Worms in 1521. When he refused, he was placed under the ban of the Empire by Charles V . Receiving the protection of Frederick the Wise , he was then able to translate the Bible
Bible
into German .

To many secular rulers the Protestant
Protestant
reformation was a welcome opportunity to expand their wealth and influence. The Catholic Church met the challenges of the reforming movements with what has been called the Catholic Reformation, or Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
. Europe became split into northern Protestant
Protestant
and southern Catholic parts, resulting in the Religious Wars of the 16th and 17th centuries.

TRADE AND COMMERCE

MEDIEVAL MERCHANT ROUTES

Main trade routes of late medieval Europe.

------------------------- Hansa Venetian Genoese Venetian and Genoese (stippled) Overland and river routes

The increasingly dominant position of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the eastern Mediterranean presented an impediment to trade for the Christian nations of the west, who in turn started looking for alternatives. Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new trade routes – south of Africa
Africa
to India
India
, and across the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to America . As Genoese and Venetian merchants opened up direct sea routes with Flanders
Flanders
, the Champagne fairs lost much of their importance.

At the same time, English wool export shifted from raw wool to processed cloth, resulting in losses for the cloth manufacturers of the Low Countries. In the Baltic and North Sea
North Sea
, the Hanseatic League reached the peak of their power in the 14th century, but started going into decline in the fifteenth.

In the late 13th and early 14th centuries, a process took place – primarily in Italy
Italy
but partly also in the Empire – that historians have termed a 'commercial revolution'. Among the innovations of the period were new forms of partnership and the issuing of insurance , both of which contributed to reducing the risk of commercial ventures; the bill of exchange and other forms of credit that circumvented the canonical laws for gentiles against usury , and eliminated the dangers of carrying bullion ; and new forms of accounting , in particular double-entry bookkeeping , which allowed for better oversight and accuracy.

With the financial expansion, trading rights became more jealously guarded by the commercial elite. Towns saw the growing power of guilds , while on a national level special companies would be granted monopolies on particular trades, like the English wool Staple . The beneficiaries of these developments would accumulate immense wealth. Families like the Fuggers in Germany, the Medicis in Italy, the de la Poles in England, and individuals like Jacques Coeur
Jacques Coeur
in France
France
would help finance the wars of kings, and achieve great political influence in the process.

Though there is no doubt that the demographic crisis of the 14th century caused a dramatic fall in production and commerce in absolute terms, there has been a vigorous historical debate over whether the decline was greater than the fall in population. While the older orthodoxy held that the artistic output of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was a result of greater opulence, more recent studies have suggested that there might have been a so-called 'depression of the Renaissance'. In spite of convincing arguments for the case, the statistical evidence is simply too incomplete for a definite conclusion to be made.

ARTS AND SCIENCES

In the 14th century, the predominant academic trend of scholasticism was challenged by the humanist movement. Though primarily an attempt to revitalise the classical languages , the movement also led to innovations within the fields of science, art and literature, helped on by impulses from Byzantine scholars who had to seek refuge in the west after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

In science, classical authorities like Aristotle
Aristotle
were challenged for the first time since antiquity. Within the arts, humanism took the form of the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Though the 15th century
15th century
Renaissance
Renaissance
was a highly localised phenomenon – limited mostly to the city states of northern Italy
Italy
– artistic developments were taking place also further north, particularly in the Netherlands.

PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Main articles: Medieval philosophy , History of science in the Middle Ages , and Medieval technology
Medieval technology
European output of manuscripts 500–1500. The rising trend in medieval book production saw its continuation in the period.

The predominant school of thought in the 13th century was the Thomistic reconciliation of the teachings of Aristotle
Aristotle
with Christian theology . The Condemnation of 1277 , enacted at the University of Paris
Paris
, placed restrictions on ideas that could be interpreted as heretical; restrictions that had implication for Aristotelian thought. An alternative was presented by William of Ockham
William of Ockham
, who insisted that the world of reason and the world of faith had to be kept apart. Ockham introduced the principle of parsimony – or Occam\'s razor – whereby a simple theory is preferred to a more complex one, and speculation on unobservable phenomena is avoided. This maxim is, however, often misquoted. Occam was referring to his nominalism in this quotation. Essentially saying the theory of absolutes, or metaphysical realism, was unnecessary to make sense of the world.

This new approach liberated scientific speculation from the dogmatic restraints of Aristotelian science, and paved the way for new approaches. Particularly within the field of theories of motion great advances were made, when such scholars as Jean Buridan , Nicole Oresme and the Oxford Calculators challenged the work of Aristotle. Buridan developed the theory of impetus as the cause of the motion of projectiles, which was an important step towards the modern concept of inertia . The works of these scholars anticipated the heliocentric worldview of Nicolaus Copernicus .

Certain technological inventions of the period – whether of Arab
Arab
or Chinese origin, or unique European innovations – were to have great influence on political and social developments, in particular gunpowder , the printing press and the compass . The introduction of gunpowder to the field of battle affected not only military organisation, but helped advance the nation state. Gutenberg 's movable type printing press made possible not only the Reformation , but also a dissemination of knowledge that would lead to a gradually more egalitarian society. The compass , along with other innovations such as the cross-staff , the mariner\'s astrolabe , and advances in shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans , and the early phases of colonialism . Other inventions had a greater impact on everyday life, such as eyeglasses and the weight-driven clock .

VISUAL ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE

Main articles: Medieval art and Medieval architecture Urban dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.

A precursor to Renaissance
Renaissance
art can be seen already in the early 14th-century works of Giotto . Giotto was the first painter since antiquity to attempt the representation of a three-dimensional reality, and to endow his characters with true human emotions. The most important developments, however, came in 15th century
15th century
Florence. The affluence of the merchant class allowed extensive patronage of the arts, and foremost among the patrons were the Medici.

The period saw several important technical innovations, like the principle of linear perspective found in the work of Masaccio
Masaccio
, and later described by Brunelleschi . Greater realism was also achieved through the scientific study of anatomy, championed by artists like Donatello
Donatello
. This can be seen particularly well in his sculptures, inspired by the study of classical models. As the centre of the movement shifted to Rome, the period culminated in the High Renaissance
Renaissance
masters da Vinci , Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Raphael
Raphael
.

The ideas of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
were slow to cross the Alps into northern Europe, but important artistic innovations were made also in the Low Countries. Though not – as previously believed – the inventor of oil painting, Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
was a champion of the new medium, and used it to create works of great realism and minute detail. The two cultures influenced each other and learned from each other, but painting in the Netherlands
Netherlands
remained more focused on textures and surfaces than the idealized compositions of Italy.

In northern European countries Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
remained the norm, and the gothic cathedral was further elaborated. In Italy, on the other hand, architecture took a different direction, also here inspired by classical ideals. The crowning work of the period was the Santa Maria del Fiore
Santa Maria del Fiore
in Florence
Florence
, with Giotto's clock tower, Ghiberti 's baptistery gates, and Brunelleschi 's cathedral dome of unprecedented proportions.

LITERATURE

Further information: Medieval literature Dante
Dante
by Domenico di Michelino , from a fresco painted in 1465

The most important development of late medieval literature was the ascendancy of the vernacular languages. The vernacular had been in use in England
England
since the 8th century and France
France
since the 11th century, where the most popular genres had been the chanson de geste , troubadour lyrics and romantic epics, or the romance . Though Italy was later in evolving a native literature in the vernacular language, it was here that the most important developments of the period were to come.

Dante Alighieri 's Divine Comedy
Comedy
, written in the early 14th century, merged a medieval world view with classical ideals. Another promoter of the Italian language was Boccaccio with his Decameron . The application of the vernacular did not entail a rejection of Latin
Latin
, and both Dante
Dante
and Boccaccio wrote prolifically in Latin
Latin
as well as Italian, as would Petrarch later (whose Canzoniere also promoted the vernacular and whose contents are considered the first modern lyric poems ). Together the three poets established the Tuscan dialect as the norm for the modern Italian language .

The new literary style spread rapidly, and in France
France
influenced such writers as Eustache Deschamps and Guillaume de Machaut . In England Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
helped establish Middle English as a literary language with his Canterbury Tales
Canterbury Tales
, which contained a wide variety of narrators and stories (including some translated from Boccaccio). The spread of vernacular literature eventually reached as far as Bohemia, and the Baltic, Slavic and Byzantine worlds.

MUSIC

Main article: Medieval music A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval
Medieval
manuscript .

Music was an important part of both secular and spiritual culture, and in the universities it made up part of the quadrivium of the liberal arts. From the early 13th century, the dominant sacred musical form had been the motet ; a composition with text in several parts. From the 1330s and onwards, emerged the polyphonic style, which was a more complex fusion of independent voices. Polyphony had been common in the secular music of the Provençal troubadours . Many of these had fallen victim to the 13th-century Albigensian Crusade , but their influence reached the papal court at Avignon.

The main representatives of the new style, often referred to as ars nova as opposed to the ars antiqua , were the composers Philippe de Vitry and Guillaume de Machaut . In Italy, where the Provençal troubadours had also found refuge, the corresponding period goes under the name of trecento , and the leading composers were Giovanni da Cascia , Jacopo da Bologna and Francesco Landini . Prominent reformer of Orthodox Church music from the first half of 14th century
14th century
was John Kukuzelis ; he also introduced a system of notation widely used in the Balkans
Balkans
in the following centuries.

THEATRE

Main article: Medieval
Medieval
theatre

In the British Isles
British Isles
, plays were produced in some 127 different towns during the Middle Ages. These vernacular Mystery plays were written in cycles of a large number of plays: York (48 plays), Chester (24), Wakefield (32) and Unknown (42). A larger number of plays survive from France
France
and Germany
Germany
in this period and some type of religious dramas were performed in nearly every European country in the Late Middle Ages. Many of these plays contained comedy , devils , villains and clowns .

Morality plays emerged as a distinct dramatic form around 1400 and flourished until 1550. The most interesting morality play is The Castle of Perseverance which depicts mankind 's progress from birth to death. However, the most famous morality play and perhaps best known medieval drama is Everyman . Everyman receives Death
Death
's summons, struggles to escape and finally resigns himself to necessity. Along the way, he is deserted by Kindred , Goods , and Fellowship – only Good Deeds goes with him to the grave.

At the end of the Late Middle Ages, professional actors began to appear in England
England
and Europe
Europe
. Richard III and Henry VII both maintained small companies of professional actors. Their plays were performed in the Great Hall
Great Hall
of a nobleman's residence, often with a raised platform at one end for the audience and a "screen" at the other for the actors. Also important were Mummers\' plays , performed during the Christmas
Christmas
season, and court masques . These masques were especially popular during the reign of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
who had a House of Revels built and an Office of Revels established in 1545.

The end of medieval drama came about due to a number of factors, including the weakening power of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, the Protestant Reformation and the banning of religious plays in many countries. Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
forbid all religious plays in 1558 and the great cycle plays had been silenced by the 1580s. Similarly, religious plays were banned in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1539, the Papal States
Papal States
in 1547 and in Paris
Paris
in 1548. The abandonment of these plays destroyed the international theatre that had thereto existed and forced each country to develop its own form of drama. It also allowed dramatists to turn to secular subjects and the reviving interest in Greek and Roman theatre provided them with the perfect opportunity.

AFTER THE MIDDLE AGES

Main article: Early modern period

After the end of the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
period, the Renaissance
Renaissance
spread unevenly over continental Europe
Europe
from the southern European region. The intellectual transformation of the Renaissance
Renaissance
is viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Modern
Modern
era. Europeans would later begin an era of world discovery . Combined with the influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. These two things would lead to the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
. Europeans also discovered new trading routes, as was the case with Columbus ’ travel to the Americas
Americas
in 1492, and Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
’s circumnavigation of Africa
Africa
and India
India
in 1498. Their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations.

OTTOMANS AND EUROPE

OTTOMANS AND EUROPE

Saint John of Capistrano and the Hungarian armies fighting the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at the Siege of Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1456.

King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
's Black Army Campaign.

At the end of the 15th century
15th century
the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
advanced all over Southeastern Europe
Europe
, eventually conquering the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and extending control over the Balkan states. Hungary
Hungary
was the last bastion of the Latin
Latin
Christian world in the East, and fought to keep its rule over a period of two centuries. After the tragic death of the young king Vladislaus I of Hungary
Hungary
during the Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
in 1444 against the Ottomans, the Kingdom was placed in the hands of count John Hunyadi , who became Hungary's regent-governor (1446–1453). Hunyadi was considered one of the most relevant military figures of the 15th century: Pope
Pope
Pius II awarded him the title of Athleta Christi or Champion of Christ for being the only hope of resisting the Ottomans from advancing to Central and Western Europe.

Hunyadi succeeded during the Siege of Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1456 against the Ottomans, the biggest victory against that empire in decades. This battle became a real Crusade against the Muslims, as the peasants were motivated by the Franciscan monk Saint John of Capistrano , who came from Italy
Italy
predicating Holy War. The effect that it created in that time was one of the main factors that helped in achieving the victory. However the premature death of the Hungarian Lord left Pannonia defenseless and in chaos. In an extremely unusual event for the Middle Ages, Hunyadi's son, Matthias, was elected as King of Hungary by the nobility. For the first time, a member of an aristocratic family (and not from a royal family) was crowned.

King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
of Hungary
Hungary
(1458–1490) was one of the most prominent figures of the period, directing campaigns to the West, conquering Bohemia
Bohemia
in answer to the Pope's call for help against the Hussite Protestants. Also, in resolving political hostilities with the German emperor Frederick III of Habsburg
Habsburg
, he invaded his western domains. Matthew organized the Black Army of mercenary soldiers; it was considered as the biggest army of its time. Using this powerful tool, the Hungarian king led wars against the Turkish armies and stopped the Ottomans during his reign. After the death of Matthew, and with end of the Black Army, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
grew in strength and Central Europe
Europe
was defenseless. At the Battle of Mohács , the forces of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
annihilated the Hungarian army and Louis II of Hungary
Hungary
drowned in the Csele Creek while trying to escape. The leader of the Hungarian army, Pál Tomori, also died in the battle. This is considered to be one of the final battles of Medieval
Medieval
times.

TIMELINE

Main article: Timeline of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Themes Other themes See also: Universal history 14th century Main article: 14th century
14th century

* 1307: The Knights Templar were destroyed * 1307: Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy * 1309: Beginning of Avignon
Avignon
papacy * 1310: Dante
Dante
began Divine Comedy
Comedy
* 1314: Battle of Bannockburn * 1315–1317 Great Famine
Famine
* 1321–1328 Byzantine civil war * 1328: First War of Scottish Independence * 1337: The Hundred Years\' War begins * 1346: Stephen Dušan established a short lived Serbian Empire * 1347: The Black Death
Black Death
* 1347: University of Prague was founded * 1348: Giovanni Villani finishes work on Nuova Cronica * 1348–1349: Byzantine–Genoese War

* 1364: Jagiellonian University was founded * 1371: Battle of Maritsa —first substantial Ottoman victory in Europe; partition of Bulgaria * 1378: Avignon
Avignon
Papacy
Papacy
ended * 1380: Battle of Kulikovo * 1380: The Canterbury Tales * 1381: Peasants\' Revolt (England) * 1381: John Wycliffe translated the Bible * 1385: Union of Krewo * 1386: University of Heidelberg was founded * 1389: Battle of Kosovo —Serbian and Bosnian forces defeated by the Ottomans * 1396: Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis
and first Ottoman conquest in Europe * 1397: Kalmar Union

15th century
15th century
Main article: 15th century
15th century

* 1409: Venetian Dalmatia
Dalmatia
* 1410: Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
* 1415: Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
* 1415: Jan Hus
Jan Hus
was burned at the stake * 1417: The Council of Constance * 1419–1434: Hussite Wars in Bohemia
Bohemia
* 1429: Battle of Orléans * 1430: Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
* 1434: The Medici
Medici
family in Florence
Florence
* 1439: Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
first used movable type printing in Europe * 1444: Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
* 1445: Battle of Suzdal * 1453: Constantinople
Constantinople
falls to Ottoman conquest * 1456: Siege of Belgrade
Belgrade

* 1461: The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
fell to the Turks * 1469: Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
* 1470: Battle of Lipnic * 1474–1477: Burgundian Wars * 1478: Muscovy
Muscovy
conquered Novgorod
Novgorod
* 1478: The Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
established the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
* 1479: Battle of Breadfield * 1485: Thomas Malory (Le Morte d\'Arthur ) * 1492: Alhambra Decree
Alhambra Decree
* 1492: Reconquista
Reconquista
ended with the fall of Granada
Granada
* 1492: Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
reached the " New World " * 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas * 1497–1498: Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
's first voyage reached India
India
after circumnavigating Africa * 1499: Battle of Zonchio

GALLERY

*

Peasants in fields Très Riches Heures . *

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
(Hundred Years\' War ) *

Charles I ( Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
) *

Jan Hus
Jan Hus
( Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
)

SEE ALSO

* Middle Ages
Middle Ages
portal * History portal

* List of basic medieval history topics * Timeline of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Church and state in medieval Europe
Europe
* History of the Jews in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

REFERENCES

SOURCES

GENERAL:

* The New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History, vol. 6: c. 1300 – c. 1415, (2000). Michael Jones (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36290-3 . * The New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History, vol. 7: c. 1415 – c. 1500, (1998). Christopher Allmand (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38296-3 . * Brady, Thomas A., Jr., Heiko A. Oberman, James D. Tracy (eds.) (1994). Handbook of European History, 1400–1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance
Renaissance
and Reformation. Leiden, New York: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09762-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Cantor, Norman (1994). The Civilization of the Middle Ages. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-017033-6 . * Hay, Denys (1988). Europe
Europe
in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (2nd ed.). London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49179-7 . * Hollister, C. Warren (2005). Medieval
Medieval
Europe: A Short History (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 0-07-295515-5 . * Holmes, George (ed.) (2001). The Oxford History of Medieval
Medieval
Europe (New ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280133-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Keen, Maurice (1991). The Penguin History of Medieval
Medieval
Europe
Europe
(New ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-013630-4 . * Le Goff, Jacques (2005). The Birth of Europe: 400–1500. WileyBlackwell. ISBN 0-631-22888-8 . * Waley, Daniel; Denley, Peter (2001). Later Medieval
Medieval
Europe: 1250–1520 (3rd ed.). London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-25831-6 .

SPECIFIC REGIONS:

* Abulafia, David (1997). The Western Mediterranean Kingdoms: The Struggle for Dominion, 1200-1500. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-07820-2 . * Duby, Georges (1993). France
France
in the Middle Ages, 987–1460: From Hugh Capet to Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
(New ed.). WileyBlackwell. ISBN 0-631-18945-9 . * Fine, John V.A. (1994). The Late Medieval
Medieval
Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Reprint ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4 . * Jacob, E.F. (1961). The Fifteenth Century: 1399–1485. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821714-5 . * McKisack, May (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307–1399. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821712-9 . * Mango, Cyril (ed.) (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814098-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Martin, Janet (2007). Medieval
Medieval
Russia, 980–1584 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85916-6 . * Najemy, John M. (ed.) (2004). Italy
Italy
in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300–1550 (New ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-870040-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Petry, Carl F. (1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 1. Cambridge: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9780521471374 . * Reilly, Bernard F. (2008). 978-1845115494. Cambridge: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1845115494 . * Wandycz, Piotr (2001). The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe
Europe
from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Present (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25491-4 .

SOCIETY:

* Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1994). Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and its Culture (Reprint ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4 . * Chazan, Robert (2006). The Jews of Medieval
Medieval
Western Christendom: 1000–1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-61664-6 . * Herlihy, David (1985). Medieval
Medieval
Households. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-56375-1 . * Herlihy, David (1968). Medieval
Medieval
Culture and Society. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-88133-747-1 . * Jordan, William Chester (1996). The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01134-6 . * Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane (1994). A history of women in the West (New ed.). Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-40368-1 .

THE BLACK DEATH:

* Benedictow, Ole J. (2004). The Black Death
Black Death
1346–1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-943-5 . * Herlihy, David (1997). The Black Death
Black Death
and the transformation of the West. Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-7509-3202-3 . * Horrox, Rosemary (1994). The Black Death. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-3497-3 . * Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Volume 1 (1st ed.). Taylor & Francis, Inc.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781579582456 . * Ziegler, Philip (2003). The Black Death
Black Death
(New ed.). Sutton: Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7509-3202-3 .

WARFARE:

* Allmand, Christopher (1988). The Hundred Years War: England
England
and France
France
at War c. 1300–c. 1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31923-4 . * Chase, Kenneth (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521822749 . * Contamine, Philippe (1984). War in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-13142-6 . * Curry, Anne (1993). The Hundred Years War. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-53175-2 . * Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195143663 . * Keen, Maurice (1984). Chivalry. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03150-5 . * Verbruggen, J. F. (1997). The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340 (2nd ed.). Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-630-4 .

ECONOMY:

* Cipolla, Carlo M. (1993). Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000–1700 (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-09005-9 . * Cipolla, Carlo M. (ed.) (1993). The Fontana Economic History of Europe, Volume 1: The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(2nd ed.). New York: Fontana Books. ISBN 0-85527-159-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Postan, M.M. (2002). Mediaeval Trade and Finance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52202-1 . * Pounds, N.J.P. (1994). An Economic History of Medieval
Medieval
Europe
Europe
(2nd ed.). London
London
and New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-21599-4 .

RELIGION:

* Kenny, Anthony (1985). Wyclif. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-287647-3 . * MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2005). The Reformation. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-303538-X . * Ozment, Steven E. (1980). The Age of Reform, 1250–1550: An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval
Medieval
and Reformation Europe. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02477-0 . * Smith, John H. (1970). The Great Schism, 1378. London: Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-01520-0 . * Southern, R.W. (1970). Western society and the Church in the Middle Ages. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-020503-9 .

ARTS AND SCIENCE:

* Brotton, Jerry (2006). The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280163-5 . * Burke, Peter (1998). The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19845-8 . * Curtius, Ernest Robert (1991). European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(New ed.). New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01899-5 . * Grant, Edward (1996). The Foundations of Modern
Modern
Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56762-9 . * Snyder, James (2004). Northern Renaissance
Renaissance
Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575 (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-189564-8 . * Welch, Evelyn (2000). Art in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy, 1350–1500 (reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284279-X . * Wilson, David Fenwick (1990). Music of the Middle Ages. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-872951-X .

CITATIONS

* ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7 . * ^ Cantor, p. 480. * ^ Cantor, p. 594. * ^ Leonardo Bruni, James Hankins, History of the Florentine people, Volume 1, Books 1–4, (2001), p. xvii. * ^ Brady et al., p. xiv; Cantor, p. 529. * ^ Burckhardt, Jacob (1860). The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. p. 121. ISBN 0-06-090460-7 . * ^ Haskins, Charles Homer (1927). The Renaissance
Renaissance
of the Twelfth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-19-821934-2 . * ^ "Les périodes de l'histoire du capitalisme", Académie Royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres, 1914. * ^ Huizinga, Johan (1924). The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in France
France
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
in the XIVth and XVth Centuries. London: E. Arnold. ISBN 0-312-85540-0 . * ^ A B Allmand, p. 299; Cantor, p. 530. * ^ Le Goff, p. 154. See e.g. Najemy, John M. (2004). Italy
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in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300–1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-870040-7 . * ^ A B C Brady et al., p. xvii. * ^ A B For references, see below. * ^ Allmand (1998), p. 3; Holmes, p. 294; Koenigsberger, pp. 299–300. * ^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Jones, p. 21. * ^ Allmand (1998), p. 29; Cantor, p. 514; Koenigsberger, pp. 300–3. * ^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Holmes, p. 276; Ozment, p. 4. * ^ Hollister, p. 366; Jones, p. 722. * ^ Allmand (1998), p. 703 * ^ Bagge, Sverre ; Mykland, Knut (1989). Norge i dansketiden: 1380–1814 (2nd ed.). Oslo: Cappelen. ISBN 978-82-02-12369-7 . * ^ Allmand (1998), p. 673. * ^ Allmand (1998), p. 193. * ^ Alan Cutler (1997-08-13). "The Little Ice Age: When global cooling gripped the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-03-12.

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