The LATE MIDDLE AGES or LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD were the period of
European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c.
1301–1500). The Late
Middle Ages followed the
High Middle Ages and
preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe,
Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in
Europe came to a
halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great
1315–1317 and the
Black Death , reduced the population to around
half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation
came social unrest and endemic warfare .
France and England
experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the
Jacquerie and the
Peasants\' Revolt , as well as over a century of intermittent conflict
in the Hundred Years\' War . To add to the many problems of the
period, the unity of the
Catholic Church was shattered by the Western
Schism . Collectively these events are sometimes called the Crisis of
Middle Ages .
Despite these crises, the
14th century was also a time of great
progress in the arts and sciences. Following a renewed interest in
ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages,
Renaissance began. The absorption of
Latin texts had
started before the
Renaissance of the 12th century through contact
with Arabs during the
Crusades , but the availability of important
Greek texts accelerated with the capture of
Constantinople by the
Ottoman Turks , when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the
Combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of
printing , which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and
democratized learning. These two things would later lead to the
Protestant Reformation . Toward the end of the period, the Age of
Discovery began. The rise of the
Ottoman Empire , culminating in the
Fall of Constantinople in 1453, eroded the last remnants of the
Byzantine Empire and cut off trading possibilities with the east.
Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the
expedition of Columbus to the
Americas in 1492, and
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama ’s
Africa in 1498. Their discoveries
strengthened the economy and power of European nations.
The changes brought about by these developments have led many
scholars to view this period as the end of the
Middle Ages and
beginning of modern history and early modern
Europe . However, the
division is somewhat artificial, since ancient learning was never
entirely absent from European society. As a result there was
developmental continuity between the ancient age (via classical
antiquity ) and the modern age . Some historians, particularly in
Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late
Middle Ages at all, but rather
see the high period of the
Middle Ages transitioning to the
Renaissance and the modern era.
* 1 Historiography and periodization
* 2 History
* 2.1 Northern
* 2.2 Northwest
* 2.3 Western
* 2.4 Central
* 2.5 Eastern
* 2.6 Southeast
* 2.7 Southwest
* 3 Late
Medieval European society
* 4 Military history
* 5 Christian conflict and reform
* 5.1 The Papal Schism
* 6 Trade and commerce
* 7 Arts and sciences
* 7.1 Philosophy, science and technology
* 7.2 Visual arts and architecture
* 7.3 Literature
* 7.4 Music
* 7.5 Theatre
* 7.6 After the
* 8 Ottomans and
* 9 Timeline
* 10 Gallery
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Sources
* 12.2 Citations
* 13 External links
HISTORIOGRAPHY AND PERIODIZATION
* Earliest records
* East Asia
* South Asia
* Southeast Asia
* West Asia
* Central Asia
* East Asia
* South Asia
* Southeast Asia
* West Asia
* Late modern
The term "Late Middle Ages" refers to one of the three periods of the
Middle Ages, along with the Early
Middle Ages and the High Middle
Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite
periodization in his History of the Florentine People (1442). Flavio
Biondo used a similar framework in Decades of History from the
Deterioration of the Roman Empire (1439–1453). Tripartite
periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph
Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient,
Medieval, and New Period (1683).
For 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the
central theme was the
Renaissance , with its rediscovery of ancient
learning and the emergence of an individual spirit. The heart of this
rediscovery lies in
Italy , where, in the words of
Jacob Burckhardt :
"Man became a spiritual individual and recognized himself as such".
This proposition was later challenged, and it was argued that the 12th
century was a period of greater cultural achievement.
As economic and demographic methods were applied to the study of
history, the trend was increasingly to see the late
Middle Ages as a
period of recession and crisis. Belgian historian Henri Pirenne
continued the subdivision of Early , High , and Late
Middle Ages in
the years around
World War I
World War I . Yet it was his Dutch colleague, Johan
Huizinga , who was primarily responsible for popularising the
pessimistic view of the Late Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of
Middle Ages (1919). To Huizinga, whose research focused on France
Low Countries rather than Italy, despair and decline were the
main themes, not rebirth.
Modern historiography on the period has reached a consensus between
the two extremes of innovation and crisis. It is now generally
acknowledged that conditions were vastly different north and south of
the Alps, and the term "Late Middle Ages" is often avoided entirely
within Italian historiography. The term "Renaissance" is still
considered useful for describing certain intellectual, cultural, or
artistic developments, but not as the defining feature of an entire
European historical epoch. The period from the early
14th century up
until – and sometimes including – the 16th century, is rather seen
as characterized by other trends: demographic and economic decline
followed by recovery, the end of western religious unity and the
subsequent emergence of the nation state , and the expansion of
European influence onto the rest of the world.
The limits of Christian
Europe were still being defined in the 14th
and 15th centuries. While the
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow was beginning to
repel the Mongols , and the Iberian kingdoms completed the Reconquista
of the peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the
under the dominance of the
Ottoman Empire . Meanwhile, the remaining
nations of the continent were locked in almost constant international
or internal conflict.
The situation gradually led to the consolidation of central authority
and the emergence of the nation state . The financial demands of war
necessitated higher levels of taxation, resulting in the emergence of
representative bodies – most notably the English Parliament . The
growth of secular authority was further aided by the decline of the
papacy with the
Western Schism and the coming of the Protestant
After the failed union of
Norway of 1319–1365, the
Kalmar Union was instituted in 1397. The Swedes were
reluctant members of the Danish -dominated union from the start. In an
attempt to subdue the Swedes, King Christian II of
Denmark had large
numbers of the Swedish aristocracy killed in the Stockholm Bloodbath
of 1520. Yet this measure only led to further hostilities, and Sweden
broke away for good in 1523. Norway, on the other hand, became an
inferior party of the union and remained united with
Iceland benefited from its relative isolation and was the last
Scandinavian country to be struck by the
Black Death . Meanwhile, the
Norse colony in
Greenland died out, probably under extreme weather
conditions in the 15th century. These conditions might have been the
effect of the
Little Ice Age .
England in the
Middle Ages ,
Scotland in the Late
Middle Ages , and
Wales in the Late Middle Ages
The death of
Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 threw the country into
a succession crisis, and the English king, Edward I , was brought in
to arbitrate. Edward claimed overlordship over Scotland, leading to
Wars of Scottish Independence . The English were eventually
defeated, and the Scots were able to develop a stronger state under
the Stuarts .
From 1337, England's attention was largely directed towards
the Hundred Years\' War . Henry V’s victory at the Battle of
Agincourt in 1415 briefly paved the way for a unification of the two
kingdoms, but his son Henry VI soon squandered all previous gains.
The loss of
France led to discontent at home. Soon after the end of
the war in 1453, the dynastic struggles of the
Wars of the Roses (c.
1455–1485) began, involving the rival dynasties of the House of
House of York .
The war ended in the accession of Henry VII of the Tudor family, who
continued the work started by the Yorkist kings of building a strong,
centralized monarchy. While England's attention was thus directed
Hiberno-Norman lords in
Ireland were becoming gradually
more assimilated into Irish society, and the island was allowed to
develop virtual independence under English overlordship.
France , Burgundy , Burgundian
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
House of Valois
House of Valois , which followed the
House of Capet in
1328, was at its outset marginalized in its own country, first by the
English invading forces of the Hundred Years\' War , and later by the
Duchy of Burgundy . The emergence of
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc as a
military leader changed the course of war in favour of the French, and
the initiative was carried further by King Louis XI .
Charles the Bold ,
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy , met resistance in
his attempts to consolidate his possessions, particularly from the
Swiss Confederation formed in 1291. When Charles was killed in the
Burgundian Wars at the
Battle of Nancy in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy
was reclaimed by France. At the same time, the
County of Burgundy and
the wealthy Burgundian
Netherlands came into the Holy Roman Empire
Habsburg control, setting up conflict for centuries to come.
Silver mining and processing in
Kutná Hora , Bohemia,
Bohemia prospered in the 14th century, and the Golden Bull of 1356
made the king of
Bohemia first among the imperial electors , but the
Hussite revolution threw the country into crisis. The Holy Roman
Empire passed to the Habsburgs in 1438, where it remained until its
dissolution in 1806. Yet in spite of the extensive territories held
by the Habsburgs, the Empire itself remained fragmented, and much real
power and influence lay with the individual principalities. In
addition, financial institutions, such as the
Hanseatic League and the
Fugger family, held great power, on both economic and political
The kingdom of
Hungary experienced a golden age during the 14th
century. In particular the reigns of the Angevin kings Charles Robert
(1308–42) and his son
Louis the Great (1342–82) were marked by
success. The country grew wealthy as the main European supplier of
gold and silver.
Louis the Great led successful campaigns from
Lithuania to Southern Italy, and from
Poland to Northern Greece.
He had the greatest military potential of the
14th century with his
enormous armies (often over 100,000 men). Meanwhile,
attention was turned eastwards, as the union with
Lithuania created an
enormous entity in the region. The union, and the conversion of
Lithuania, also marked the end of paganism in Europe.
Beckov Castle in
Louis did not leave a son as heir after his death in 1382. Instead,
he named as his heir the young prince
Sigismund of Luxemburg , who was
15 years old. The Hungarian nobility did not accept his claim, and the
result was an internal war. Sigismund eventually achieved total
Hungary and established his court in Buda and Visegrád.
Both palaces were rebuilt and improved, and were considered the
richest of the time in Europe. Inheriting the throne of
the Holy Roman Empire, Sigismund continued conducting his politics
from Hungary, but he was kept busy fighting the
Hussites and the
Ottoman Empire , which was becoming a menace to
Europe in the
beginning of the 15th century.
Matthias Corvinus of
Hungary led the largest army of
mercenaries of the time, The Black Army of
Hungary , which he used to
Austria and to fight the
Ottoman Empire . However,
the glory of the Kingdom ended in the early 16th century, when the
King Louis II of
Hungary was killed in the battle of Mohács in 1526
Ottoman Empire .
Hungary then fell into a serious crisis
and was invaded, ending its significance in central
Europe during the
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow
The state of Kievan Rus\' fell during the 13th century in the Mongol
invasion . The
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow rose in power thereafter,
winning a great victory against the
Golden Horde at the Battle of
Kulikovo in 1380. The victory did not end Tartar rule in the region,
however, and its immediate beneficiary was the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania , which extended its influence eastwards.
Under the reign of Ivan the Great (1462–1505), Moscow became a
major regional power, and the annexation of the vast Republic of
Novgorod in 1478 laid the foundations for a Russian national state.
Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Russian princes started
to see themselves as the heirs of the
Byzantine Empire . They
eventually took on the imperial title of
Tsar , and Moscow was
described as the
Third Rome .
Byzantine Empire , Bulgaria ,
Serbia , Albania
Ottoman miniature of the siege of
Belgrade in 1456
Byzantine Empire had for a long time dominated the eastern
Mediterranean in politics and culture. By the 14th century, however,
it had almost entirely collapsed into a tributary state of the Ottoman
Empire, centered on the city of
Constantinople and a few enclaves in
Greece . With the
Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Byzantine
Empire was permanently extinguished.
The Bulgarian Empire was in decline by the 14th century, and the
Serbia was marked by the Serbian victory over the
Bulgarians in the
Battle of Velbazhd in 1330. By 1346, the Serbian
Stefan Dušan had been proclaimed emperor. Yet Serbian dominance
was short-lived; the Serbian army led by the Lazar Hrebljevanovic was
defeated by the Ottomans at the
Battle of Kosovo in 1389, where most
Serbian nobility was killed and the south of the country came
under Ottoman occupation, as much of southern Bulgaria had become
Ottoman territory in 1371 . Northern remnants of Bulgaria were
finally conquered by 1396,
Serbia fell in 1459, Bosnia in 1463, and
Albania was finally subordinated in 1479 only a few years after the
Belgrade , an Hungarian domain at the time, was
the last large Balkan city to fall under Ottoman rule, in 1521. By the
end of the medieval period, the entire Balkan peninsula was annexed
by, or became vassal to, the Ottomans.
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon ,
Avignon was the seat of the papacy from 1309 to 1376. With the
return of the
Rome in 1378, the
Papal State developed into a
major secular power, culminating in the morally corrupt papacy of
Alexander VI .
Florence grew to prominence amongst the Italian
city-states through financial business, and the dominant
became important promoters of the
Renaissance through their patronage
of the arts. Other city states in northern
Italy also expanded their
territories and consolidated their power, primarily
War of the Sicilian Vespers had by the early
14th century divided
Italy into an Aragon
Kingdom of Sicily and an Anjou Kingdom
Naples . In 1442, the two kingdoms were effectively united under
The 1469 marriage of
Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon
and the 1479 death of
John II of Aragon led to the creation of
Spain . In 1492,
Granada was captured from the
thereby completing the
Portugal had during the 15th
century – particularly under
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator – gradually
explored the coast of
Africa , and in 1498,
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama found the
sea route to
India . The Spanish monarchs met the Portuguese
challenge by financing the expedition of
Christopher Columbus to find
a western sea route to India, leading to the discovery of the Americas
LATE MEDIEVAL EUROPEAN SOCIETY
Crisis of the Late Middle Ages The peasants preparing
the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter
grain. The background contains the
Louvre , c. 1410
Around 1300–1350 the
Medieval Warm Period gave way to the Little
Ice Age . The colder climate resulted in agricultural crises, the
first of which is known as the
Great Famine of 1315-1317 . The
demographic consequences of this famine , however, were not as severe
as the plagues that occurred later in the century, particularly the
Black Death . Estimates of the death rate caused by this epidemic
range from one third to as much as sixty percent. By around 1420, the
accumulated effect of recurring plagues and famines had reduced the
Europe to perhaps no more than a third of what it was a
century earlier. The effects of natural disasters were exacerbated by
armed conflicts; this was particularly the case in
France during the
Hundred Years\' War .
As the European population was severely reduced, land became more
plentiful for the survivors, and labour consequently more expensive.
Attempts by landowners to forcibly reduce wages, such as the English
Statute of Laborers , were doomed to fail. These efforts
resulted in nothing more than fostering resentment among the
peasantry, leading to rebellions such as the French
Jacquerie in 1358
and the English Peasants\' Revolt in 1381. The long-term effect was
the virtual end of serfdom in Western Europe. In Eastern Europe, on
the other hand, landowners were able to exploit the situation to force
the peasantry into even more repressive bondage.
The upheavals caused by the
Black Death left certain minority groups
particularly vulnerable, especially the Jews , who were often blamed
for the calamities. Anti-Jewish pogroms were carried out all over
Europe; in February 1349, 2,000 Jews were murdered in
States were also guilty of discrimination against the Jews. Monarchs
gave in to the demands of the people, and the Jews were expelled from
England in 1290, from
France in 1306, from
Spain in 1492, and from
Portugal in 1497.
While the Jews were suffering persecution, one group that probably
experienced increased empowerment in the Late
Middle Ages was women.
The great social changes of the period opened up new possibilities for
women in the fields of commerce, learning and religion. Yet at the
same time, women were also vulnerable to incrimination and
persecution, as belief in witchcraft increased.
Up until the mid-14th century,
Europe had experienced steadily
increasing urbanisation . Cities were also decimated by the Black
Death, but the role of urban areas as centres of learning, commerce
and government ensured continued growth. By 1500,
Constantinople each probably had more than 100,000
inhabitants. Twenty-two other cities were larger than 40,000; most of
these were in
Italy and the Iberian peninsula, but there were also
some in France, the Empire, the Low Countries, plus
London in England.
Miniature of the
Battle of Crécy (1346)
Jean Froissart 's Chronicles .
The Hundred Years\' War was the scene of many military innovations.
Through battles such as Courtrai (1302), Bannockburn (1314), and
Morgarten (1315), it became clear to the great territorial princes of
Europe that the military advantage of the feudal cavalry was lost, and
that a well equipped infantry was preferable. Through the Welsh Wars
the English became acquainted with, and adopted, the highly efficient
longbow . Once properly managed, this weapon gave them a great
advantage over the French in the Hundred Years' War.
The introduction of gunpowder affected the conduct of war
significantly. Though employed by the English as early as the Battle
of Crécy in 1346, firearms initially had little effect in the field
of battle. It was through the use of cannons as siege weapons that
major change was brought about; the new methods would eventually
change the architectural structure of fortifications .
Changes also took place within the recruitment and composition of
armies. The use of the national or feudal levy was gradually replaced
by paid troops of domestic retinues or foreign mercenaries . The
practice was associated with Edward III of
England and the condottieri
of the Italian city-states. All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in
particularly high demand. At the same time, the period also saw the
emergence of the first permanent armies. It was in Valois France,
under the heavy demands of the Hundred Years' War, that the armed
forces gradually assumed a permanent nature.
Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly more
elaborate chivalric code of conduct for the warrior class. This
new-found ethos can be seen as a response to the diminishing military
role of the aristocracy, and gradually it became almost entirely
detached from its military origin. The spirit of chivalry was given
expression through the new (secular ) type of chivalric orders ; the
first of these was the Order of St. George , founded by Charles I of
Hungary in 1325, while the best known was probably the English Order
of the Garter , founded by Edward III in 1348.
CHRISTIAN CONFLICT AND REFORM
THE PAPAL SCHISM
The French crown's increasing dominance over the
Papacy culminated in
the transference of the
Holy See to
Avignon in 1309. When the Pope
Rome in 1377, this led to the election of different popes
Avignon and Rome, resulting in the Papal Schism (1378–1417). The
Europe along political lines; while France, her ally
Scotland and the Spanish kingdoms supported the
England stood behind the
Pope in Rome, together with
Scandinavia and most of the German princes.
Council of Constance (1414–1418), the
Papacy was once more
united in Rome. Even though the unity of the Western Church was to
last for another hundred years, and though the
Papacy was to
experience greater material prosperity than ever before, the Great
Schism had done irreparable damage. The internal struggles within the
Church had impaired her claim to universal rule, and promoted
anti-clericalism among the people and their rulers, paving the way for
Bohemian Reformation and
Jan Hus burnt at the stake
Though many of the events were outside the traditional time period of
the Middle Ages, the end of the unity of the Western Church (the
Protestant Reformation ), was one of the distinguishing
characteristics of the medieval period. The
Catholic Church had long
fought against heretic movements, but during the Late Middle Ages, it
started to experience demands for reform from within. The first of
these came from Oxford professor
John Wycliffe in England. Wycliffe
held that the
Bible should be the only authority in religious
questions, and he spoke out against transubstantiation , celibacy and
indulgences . In spite of influential supporters among the English
aristocracy, such as
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt , the movement was not allowed to
survive. Though Wycliffe himself was left unmolested, his supporters,
Lollards , were eventually suppressed in England.
The marriage of Richard II of
England to Anne of
contacts between the two nations and brought Lollard ideas to her
homeland. The teachings of the Czech priest
Jan Hus were based on
those of John Wycliffe, yet his followers, the
Hussites , were to have
a much greater political impact than the Lollards. Hus gained a great
Bohemia , and in 1414, he was requested to appear at the
Council of Constance to defend his cause. When he was burned as a
heretic in 1415, it caused a popular uprising in the Czech lands. The
Hussite Wars fell apart due to internal quarrels and did
not result in religious or national independence for the
Czechs , but
Catholic Church and the German element within the country
Martin Luther , a German monk, started the
German Reformation by
95 theses on the castle church of
Wittenberg on October 31,
1517. The immediate provocation spurring this act was
Pope Leo X ’s
renewal of the indulgence for the building of the new St. Peter\'s
Basilica in 1514. Luther was challenged to recant his heresy at the
Diet of Worms in 1521. When he refused, he was placed under the ban
of the Empire by Charles V . Receiving the protection of Frederick
the Wise , he was then able to translate the
Bible into German .
To many secular rulers the
Protestant reformation was a welcome
opportunity to expand their wealth and influence. The Catholic Church
met the challenges of the reforming movements with what has been
called the Catholic Reformation, or
Counter-Reformation . Europe
became split into northern
Protestant and southern Catholic parts,
resulting in the Religious Wars of the 16th and 17th centuries.
TRADE AND COMMERCE
MEDIEVAL MERCHANT ROUTES
Main trade routes of late medieval Europe.
Venetian and Genoese
(stippled) Overland and river routes
The increasingly dominant position of the
Ottoman Empire in the
eastern Mediterranean presented an impediment to trade for the
Christian nations of the west, who in turn started looking for
alternatives. Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new trade routes
– south of
India , and across the
Atlantic Ocean to
America . As Genoese and Venetian merchants opened up direct sea
Flanders , the
Champagne fairs lost much of their
At the same time, English wool export shifted from raw wool to
processed cloth, resulting in losses for the cloth manufacturers of
the Low Countries. In the Baltic and
North Sea , the Hanseatic League
reached the peak of their power in the 14th century, but started going
into decline in the fifteenth.
In the late 13th and early 14th centuries, a process took place –
Italy but partly also in the Empire – that historians
have termed a 'commercial revolution'. Among the innovations of the
period were new forms of partnership and the issuing of insurance ,
both of which contributed to reducing the risk of commercial ventures;
the bill of exchange and other forms of credit that circumvented the
canonical laws for gentiles against usury , and eliminated the dangers
of carrying bullion ; and new forms of accounting , in particular
double-entry bookkeeping , which allowed for better oversight and
With the financial expansion, trading rights became more jealously
guarded by the commercial elite. Towns saw the growing power of guilds
, while on a national level special companies would be granted
monopolies on particular trades, like the English wool Staple . The
beneficiaries of these developments would accumulate immense wealth.
Families like the Fuggers in Germany, the Medicis in Italy, the de la
Poles in England, and individuals like
Jacques Coeur in
help finance the wars of kings, and achieve great political influence
in the process.
Though there is no doubt that the demographic crisis of the 14th
century caused a dramatic fall in production and commerce in absolute
terms, there has been a vigorous historical debate over whether the
decline was greater than the fall in population. While the older
orthodoxy held that the artistic output of the
Renaissance was a
result of greater opulence, more recent studies have suggested that
there might have been a so-called 'depression of the Renaissance'. In
spite of convincing arguments for the case, the statistical evidence
is simply too incomplete for a definite conclusion to be made.
ARTS AND SCIENCES
In the 14th century, the predominant academic trend of scholasticism
was challenged by the humanist movement. Though primarily an attempt
to revitalise the classical languages , the movement also led to
innovations within the fields of science, art and literature, helped
on by impulses from Byzantine scholars who had to seek refuge in the
west after the
Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
In science, classical authorities like
Aristotle were challenged for
the first time since antiquity. Within the arts, humanism took the
form of the
Renaissance . Though the
Renaissance was a
highly localised phenomenon – limited mostly to the city states of
Italy – artistic developments were taking place also
further north, particularly in the Netherlands.
PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Medieval philosophy , History of science in the Middle
Ages , and
Medieval technology European output of manuscripts
500–1500. The rising trend in medieval book production saw its
continuation in the period.
The predominant school of thought in the 13th century was the
Thomistic reconciliation of the teachings of
Aristotle with Christian
theology . The Condemnation of 1277 , enacted at the University of
Paris , placed restrictions on ideas that could be interpreted as
heretical; restrictions that had implication for Aristotelian thought.
An alternative was presented by
William of Ockham
William of Ockham , who insisted that
the world of reason and the world of faith had to be kept apart.
Ockham introduced the principle of parsimony – or Occam\'s razor –
whereby a simple theory is preferred to a more complex one, and
speculation on unobservable phenomena is avoided. This maxim is,
however, often misquoted. Occam was referring to his nominalism in
this quotation. Essentially saying the theory of absolutes, or
metaphysical realism, was unnecessary to make sense of the world.
This new approach liberated scientific speculation from the dogmatic
restraints of Aristotelian science, and paved the way for new
approaches. Particularly within the field of theories of motion great
advances were made, when such scholars as
Jean Buridan , Nicole Oresme
Oxford Calculators challenged the work of Aristotle. Buridan
developed the theory of impetus as the cause of the motion of
projectiles, which was an important step towards the modern concept of
inertia . The works of these scholars anticipated the heliocentric
Nicolaus Copernicus .
Certain technological inventions of the period – whether of
Chinese origin, or unique European innovations – were to have great
influence on political and social developments, in particular
gunpowder , the printing press and the compass . The introduction of
gunpowder to the field of battle affected not only military
organisation, but helped advance the nation state. Gutenberg 's
movable type printing press made possible not only the Reformation ,
but also a dissemination of knowledge that would lead to a gradually
more egalitarian society. The compass , along with other innovations
such as the cross-staff , the mariner\'s astrolabe , and advances in
shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans , and the
early phases of colonialism . Other inventions had a greater impact
on everyday life, such as eyeglasses and the weight-driven clock .
VISUAL ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE
Medieval art and
Medieval architecture Urban
dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.
A precursor to
Renaissance art can be seen already in the early
14th-century works of Giotto . Giotto was the first painter since
antiquity to attempt the representation of a three-dimensional
reality, and to endow his characters with true human emotions. The
most important developments, however, came in
15th century Florence.
The affluence of the merchant class allowed extensive patronage of the
arts, and foremost among the patrons were the Medici.
The period saw several important technical innovations, like the
principle of linear perspective found in the work of
Masaccio , and
later described by Brunelleschi . Greater realism was also achieved
through the scientific study of anatomy, championed by artists like
Donatello . This can be seen particularly well in his sculptures,
inspired by the study of classical models. As the centre of the
movement shifted to Rome, the period culminated in the High
Renaissance masters da Vinci ,
The ideas of the Italian
Renaissance were slow to cross the Alps into
northern Europe, but important artistic innovations were made also in
the Low Countries. Though not – as previously believed – the
inventor of oil painting,
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a champion of the new
medium, and used it to create works of great realism and minute
detail. The two cultures influenced each other and learned from each
other, but painting in the
Netherlands remained more focused on
textures and surfaces than the idealized compositions of Italy.
In northern European countries
Gothic architecture remained the norm,
and the gothic cathedral was further elaborated. In Italy, on the
other hand, architecture took a different direction, also here
inspired by classical ideals. The crowning work of the period was the
Santa Maria del Fiore
Santa Maria del Fiore in
Florence , with Giotto's clock tower,
Ghiberti 's baptistery gates, and Brunelleschi 's cathedral dome of
Dante by Domenico di
Michelino , from a fresco painted in 1465
The most important development of late medieval literature was the
ascendancy of the vernacular languages. The vernacular had been in
England since the 8th century and
France since the 11th
century, where the most popular genres had been the chanson de geste ,
troubadour lyrics and romantic epics, or the romance . Though Italy
was later in evolving a native literature in the vernacular language,
it was here that the most important developments of the period were to
Dante Alighieri 's Divine
Comedy , written in the early 14th century,
merged a medieval world view with classical ideals. Another promoter
Italian language was Boccaccio with his Decameron . The
application of the vernacular did not entail a rejection of
Dante and Boccaccio wrote prolifically in
Latin as well as
Italian, as would
Petrarch later (whose Canzoniere also promoted the
vernacular and whose contents are considered the first modern lyric
poems ). Together the three poets established the
Tuscan dialect as
the norm for the modern
Italian language .
The new literary style spread rapidly, and in
France influenced such
Eustache Deschamps and
Guillaume de Machaut . In England
Geoffrey Chaucer helped establish
Middle English as a literary
language with his
Canterbury Tales , which contained a wide variety of
narrators and stories (including some translated from Boccaccio). The
spread of vernacular literature eventually reached as far as Bohemia,
and the Baltic, Slavic and Byzantine worlds.
Medieval music A musician plays the vielle in a
Medieval manuscript .
Music was an important part of both secular and spiritual culture,
and in the universities it made up part of the quadrivium of the
liberal arts. From the early 13th century, the dominant sacred
musical form had been the motet ; a composition with text in several
parts. From the 1330s and onwards, emerged the polyphonic style,
which was a more complex fusion of independent voices.
been common in the secular music of the Provençal troubadours . Many
of these had fallen victim to the 13th-century
Albigensian Crusade ,
but their influence reached the papal court at Avignon.
The main representatives of the new style, often referred to as ars
nova as opposed to the ars antiqua , were the composers Philippe de
Guillaume de Machaut . In Italy, where the Provençal
troubadours had also found refuge, the corresponding period goes under
the name of trecento , and the leading composers were Giovanni da
Jacopo da Bologna and
Francesco Landini . Prominent reformer
of Orthodox Church music from the first half of
14th century was John
Kukuzelis ; he also introduced a system of notation widely used in the
Balkans in the following centuries.
British Isles , plays were produced in some 127 different
towns during the Middle Ages. These vernacular
Mystery plays were
written in cycles of a large number of plays: York (48 plays), Chester
(24), Wakefield (32) and Unknown (42). A larger number of plays
Germany in this period and some type of
religious dramas were performed in nearly every European country in
the Late Middle Ages. Many of these plays contained comedy , devils ,
villains and clowns .
Morality plays emerged as a distinct dramatic form around 1400 and
flourished until 1550. The most interesting morality play is The
Castle of Perseverance which depicts mankind 's progress from birth to
death. However, the most famous morality play and perhaps best known
medieval drama is
Death 's summons,
struggles to escape and finally resigns himself to necessity. Along
the way, he is deserted by Kindred , Goods , and Fellowship – only
Good Deeds goes with him to the grave.
At the end of the Late Middle Ages, professional actors began to
Europe . Richard III and Henry VII both
maintained small companies of professional actors. Their plays were
performed in the
Great Hall of a nobleman's residence, often with a
raised platform at one end for the audience and a "screen" at the
other for the actors. Also important were Mummers\' plays , performed
Christmas season, and court masques . These masques were
especially popular during the reign of
Henry VIII who had a House of
Revels built and an Office of Revels established in 1545.
The end of medieval drama came about due to a number of factors,
including the weakening power of the
Catholic Church , the Protestant
Reformation and the banning of religious plays in many countries.
Elizabeth I forbid all religious plays in 1558 and the great cycle
plays had been silenced by the 1580s. Similarly, religious plays were
banned in the
Netherlands in 1539, the
Papal States in 1547 and in
Paris in 1548. The abandonment of these plays destroyed the
international theatre that had thereto existed and forced each country
to develop its own form of drama. It also allowed dramatists to turn
to secular subjects and the reviving interest in Greek and Roman
theatre provided them with the perfect opportunity.
AFTER THE MIDDLE AGES
Early modern period
After the end of the late
Middle Ages period, the
unevenly over continental
Europe from the southern European region.
The intellectual transformation of the
Renaissance is viewed as a
bridge between the
Middle Ages and the
Modern era. Europeans would
later begin an era of world discovery . Combined with the influx of
classical ideas was the invention of printing which facilitated
dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. These two
things would lead to the
Protestant Reformation . Europeans also
discovered new trading routes, as was the case with Columbus ’
travel to the
Americas in 1492, and
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama ’s
India in 1498. Their discoveries
strengthened the economy and power of European nations.
OTTOMANS AND EUROPE
OTTOMANS AND EUROPE
John of Capistrano and the Hungarian armies fighting
Ottoman Empire at the Siege of
Belgrade in 1456.
Matthias Corvinus 's Black Army Campaign.
At the end of the
15th century the
Ottoman Empire advanced all over
Europe , eventually conquering the
Byzantine Empire and
extending control over the Balkan states.
Hungary was the last bastion
Latin Christian world in the East, and fought to keep its rule
over a period of two centuries. After the tragic death of the young
king Vladislaus I of
Hungary during the
Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna in 1444
against the Ottomans, the Kingdom was placed in the hands of count
John Hunyadi , who became Hungary's regent-governor (1446–1453).
Hunyadi was considered one of the most relevant military figures of
the 15th century:
Pius II awarded him the title of Athleta
Christi or Champion of Christ for being the only hope of resisting the
Ottomans from advancing to Central and Western Europe.
Hunyadi succeeded during the Siege of
Belgrade in 1456 against the
Ottomans, the biggest victory against that empire in decades. This
battle became a real Crusade against the Muslims, as the peasants were
motivated by the Franciscan monk Saint
John of Capistrano , who came
Italy predicating Holy War. The effect that it created in that
time was one of the main factors that helped in achieving the victory.
However the premature death of the Hungarian Lord left Pannonia
defenseless and in chaos. In an extremely unusual event for the
Middle Ages, Hunyadi's son, Matthias, was elected as King of Hungary
by the nobility. For the first time, a member of an aristocratic
family (and not from a royal family) was crowned.
Matthias Corvinus of
Hungary (1458–1490) was one of the most
prominent figures of the period, directing campaigns to the West,
Bohemia in answer to the Pope's call for help against the
Hussite Protestants. Also, in resolving political hostilities with the
German emperor Frederick III of
Habsburg , he invaded his western
domains. Matthew organized the Black Army of mercenary soldiers; it
was considered as the biggest army of its time. Using this powerful
tool, the Hungarian king led wars against the Turkish armies and
stopped the Ottomans during his reign. After the death of Matthew, and
with end of the Black Army, the
Ottoman Empire grew in strength and
Europe was defenseless. At the
Battle of Mohács , the forces
Ottoman Empire annihilated the Hungarian army and Louis II of
Hungary drowned in the Csele Creek while trying to escape. The leader
of the Hungarian army, Pál Tomori, also died in the battle. This is
considered to be one of the final battles of
Main article: Timeline of the
Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details
Middle Ages Themes Other themes See also:
Universal history 14th
century Main article:
* 1307: The
Knights Templar were destroyed
Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
* 1309: Beginning of
Dante began Divine
Battle of Bannockburn
* 1315–1317 Great
* 1321–1328 Byzantine civil war
First War of Scottish Independence
* 1337: The Hundred Years\' War begins
* 1346: Stephen Dušan established a short lived
* 1347: The
* 1347: University of Prague was founded
Giovanni Villani finishes work on
* 1348–1349: Byzantine–Genoese War
Jagiellonian University was founded
Battle of Maritsa —first substantial Ottoman victory in
Europe; partition of Bulgaria
Battle of Kulikovo
The Canterbury Tales
* 1381: Peasants\' Revolt (England)
John Wycliffe translated the Bible
Union of Krewo
University of Heidelberg was founded
Battle of Kosovo —Serbian and Bosnian forces defeated by
Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis and first Ottoman conquest in Europe
15th century Main article:
* 1409: Venetian
Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
Jan Hus was burned at the stake
* 1417: The
Council of Constance
Hussite Wars in
* 1429: Battle of Orléans
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
* 1434: The
Medici family in
Johannes Gutenberg first used movable type printing in
Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
Battle of Suzdal
Constantinople falls to Ottoman conquest
* 1456: Siege of
* 1461: The
Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond fell to the Turks
Battle of Lipnic
* 1478: The
Catholic Monarchs established the
Battle of Breadfield
Thomas Malory (Le Morte d\'Arthur )
Reconquista ended with the fall of
Christopher Columbus reached the "
New World "
Treaty of Tordesillas
* 1497–1498: Portuguese explorer
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama 's first voyage
India after circumnavigating Africa
Battle of Zonchio
Peasants in fields
Très Riches Heures .
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
(Hundred Years\' War )
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary )
Protestant Reformation )
Middle Ages portal
* History portal
List of basic medieval history topics
* Timeline of the
* Church and state in medieval
* History of the Jews in the
* The New Cambridge
Medieval History, vol. 6: c. 1300 – c. 1415,
(2000). Michael Jones (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-36290-3 .
* The New Cambridge
Medieval History, vol. 7: c. 1415 – c. 1500,
Christopher Allmand (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-38296-3 .
* Brady, Thomas A., Jr., Heiko A. Oberman, James D. Tracy (eds.)
(1994). Handbook of European History, 1400–1600: Late Middle Ages,
Renaissance and Reformation. Leiden, New York: E.J. Brill. ISBN
90-04-09762-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Cantor, Norman (1994). The Civilization of the Middle Ages. New
York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-017033-6 .
* Hay, Denys (1988).
Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth
Centuries (2nd ed.). London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49179-7 .
* Hollister, C. Warren (2005).
Medieval Europe: A Short History
(10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 0-07-295515-5 .
* Holmes, George (ed.) (2001). The Oxford History of
(New ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280133-3 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Keen, Maurice (1991). The Penguin History of
ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-013630-4 .
* Le Goff, Jacques (2005). The Birth of Europe: 400–1500.
WileyBlackwell. ISBN 0-631-22888-8 .
* Waley, Daniel; Denley, Peter (2001). Later
1250–1520 (3rd ed.). London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-25831-6 .
* Abulafia, David (1997). The Western Mediterranean Kingdoms: The
Struggle for Dominion, 1200-1500. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-07820-2
* Duby, Georges (1993).
France in the Middle Ages, 987–1460: From
Hugh Capet to
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc (New ed.). WileyBlackwell. ISBN
* Fine, John V.A. (1994). The Late
Medieval Balkans: A Critical
Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Reprint
ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4 .
* Jacob, E.F. (1961). The Fifteenth Century: 1399–1485. Oxford:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821714-5 .
* McKisack, May (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307–1399. Oxford:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821712-9 .
* Mango, Cyril (ed.) (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814098-3 . CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link )
* Martin, Janet (2007).
Medieval Russia, 980–1584 (2nd ed.).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85916-6 .
* Najemy, John M. (ed.) (2004).
Italy in the Age of the Renaissance:
1300–1550 (New ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN
0-19-870040-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Petry, Carl F. (1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 1.
Cambridge: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9780521471374 .
* Reilly, Bernard F. (2008). 978-1845115494. Cambridge: I. B.
Tauris. ISBN 978-1845115494 .
* Wandycz, Piotr (2001). The Price of Freedom: A History of East
Europe from the
Middle Ages to the Present (2nd ed.). London:
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25491-4 .
* Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1994). Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of
Architecture and its Culture (Reprint ed.). Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4 .
* Chazan, Robert (2006). The Jews of
Medieval Western Christendom:
1000–1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-61664-6
* Herlihy, David (1985).
Medieval Households. Cambridge,
Massachusetts; London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-56375-1 .
* Herlihy, David (1968).
Medieval Culture and Society. London:
Macmillan. ISBN 0-88133-747-1 .
* Jordan, William Chester (1996). The Great Famine: Northern Europe
in the Early Fourteenth Century. New Jersey: Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-01134-6 .
* Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane (1994). A history of women in the West
(New ed.). Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press. ISBN
THE BLACK DEATH:
* Benedictow, Ole J. (2004). The
Black Death 1346–1353: The
Complete History. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-943-5 .
* Herlihy, David (1997). The
Black Death and the transformation of
the West. Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press. ISBN
* Horrox, Rosemary (1994). The Black Death. Manchester: Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-3497-3 .
* Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Volume
1 (1st ed.). Taylor & Francis, Inc.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Ziegler, Philip (2003). The
Black Death (New ed.). Sutton: Sutton
Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7509-3202-3 .
* Allmand, Christopher (1988). The Hundred Years War:
France at War c. 1300–c. 1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-31923-4 .
* Chase, Kenneth (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521822749 .
* Contamine, Philippe (1984). War in the Middle Ages. Oxford:
Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-13142-6 .
* Curry, Anne (1993). The Hundred Years War. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
ISBN 0-333-53175-2 .
* Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to
the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195143663 .
* Keen, Maurice (1984). Chivalry. New Haven: Yale University Press.
ISBN 0-300-03150-5 .
* Verbruggen, J. F. (1997). The Art of Warfare in Western Europe
during the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340 (2nd ed.).
Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-630-4 .
* Cipolla, Carlo M. (1993). Before the Industrial Revolution:
European Society and Economy 1000–1700 (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
ISBN 0-415-09005-9 .
* Cipolla, Carlo M. (ed.) (1993). The Fontana Economic History of
Europe, Volume 1: The
Middle Ages (2nd ed.). New York: Fontana Books.
ISBN 0-85527-159-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Postan, M.M. (2002). Mediaeval Trade and Finance. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52202-1 .
* Pounds, N.J.P. (1994). An Economic History of
London and New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-21599-4 .
* Kenny, Anthony (1985). Wyclif. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-287647-3 .
* MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2005). The Reformation. Penguin. ISBN
* Ozment, Steven E. (1980). The Age of Reform, 1250–1550: An
Intellectual and Religious History of Late
Medieval and Reformation
Europe. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN
* Smith, John H. (1970). The Great Schism, 1378. London: Hamilton.
ISBN 0-241-01520-0 .
* Southern, R.W. (1970). Western society and the Church in the
Middle Ages. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-020503-9 .
ARTS AND SCIENCE:
* Brotton, Jerry (2006). The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280163-5 .
* Burke, Peter (1998). The European Renaissance: Centres and
Peripheries (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19845-8 .
* Curtius, Ernest Robert (1991). European Literature and the Latin
Middle Ages (New ed.). New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN
* Grant, Edward (1996). The Foundations of
Modern Science in the
Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual
Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56762-9 .
* Snyder, James (2004). Northern
Renaissance Art: Painting,
Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575 (2nd ed.). Prentice
Hall. ISBN 0-13-189564-8 .
* Welch, Evelyn (2000). Art in
Renaissance Italy, 1350–1500
(reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284279-X .
* Wilson, David Fenwick (1990). Music of the Middle Ages. New York:
Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-872951-X .
* ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world
epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p.
21. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7 .
* ^ Cantor, p. 480.
* ^ Cantor, p. 594.
* ^ Leonardo Bruni, James Hankins, History of the Florentine
people, Volume 1, Books 1–4, (2001), p. xvii.
* ^ Brady et al., p. xiv; Cantor, p. 529.
* ^ Burckhardt, Jacob (1860). The Civilization of the Renaissance
in Italy. p. 121. ISBN 0-06-090460-7 .
* ^ Haskins, Charles Homer (1927). The
Renaissance of the Twelfth
Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN
* ^ "Les périodes de l'histoire du capitalisme", Académie Royale
de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres, 1914.
* ^ Huizinga, Johan (1924). The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study
of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in
France and the
the XIVth and XVth Centuries. London: E. Arnold. ISBN 0-312-85540-0 .
* ^ A B Allmand, p. 299; Cantor, p. 530.
* ^ Le Goff, p. 154. See e.g. Najemy, John M. (2004).
Italy in the
Age of the Renaissance: 1300–1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-870040-7 .
* ^ A B C Brady et al., p. xvii.
* ^ A B For references, see below.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 3; Holmes, p. 294; Koenigsberger, pp.
* ^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Jones, p. 21.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 29; Cantor, p. 514; Koenigsberger, pp.
* ^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Holmes, p. 276; Ozment, p. 4.
* ^ Hollister, p. 366; Jones, p. 722.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 703
* ^ Bagge, Sverre ; Mykland, Knut (1989). Norge i dansketiden:
1380–1814 (2nd ed.). Oslo: Cappelen. ISBN 978-82-02-12369-7 .
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 673.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 193.
* ^ Alan Cutler (1997-08-13). "The Little Ice Age: When global
cooling gripped the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
* ^ Jones, pp. 348–9.
* ^ Jones, pp. 350–1; Koenigsberger, p. 232; McKisack, p. 40.
* ^ Jones, p. 351.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 458; Koenigsberger, p. 309.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 458; Nicholas, pp. 32–3.
* ^ Hollister, p. 353; Jones, pp. 488–92.
* ^ McKisack, pp. 228–9.
* ^ Hollister, p. 355; Holmes, pp. 288-9; Koenigsberger, p. 304.
* ^ Duby, p. 288-93; Holmes, p. 300.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 450-5; Jones, pp. 528-9.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 355; Koenigsberger, p.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 363; Koenigsberger, pp.
* ^ Holmes, p. 311–2; Wandycz, p. 40
* ^ Hollister, p. 362; Holmes, p. 280.
* ^ Cantor, p. 507; Hollister, p. 362.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 152–153; Cantor, p. 508; Koenigsberger,
* ^ Wandycz, p. 38.
* ^ Wandycz, p. 40.
* ^ Jones, p. 737.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 318; Wandycz, p. 41.
* ^ Jones, p. 7.
* ^ Martin, pp. 100–1.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 322; Jones, p. 793; Martin, pp. 236–7.
* ^ Martin, p. 239.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 754; Koenigsberger, p. 323.
* ^ Allmand, p. 769; Hollister, p. 368.
* ^ Hollister, p. 49.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 771–4; Mango, p. 248.
* ^ Hollister, p. 99; Koenigsberger, p. 340.
* ^ Jones, pp. 796–7.
* ^ Jones, p. 875.
* ^ A B Hollister, p. 360; Koenigsberger, p. 339.
* ^ Hollister, p. 338.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 586; Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260.
* ^ Allmand, pp. 150, 155; Cantor, p. 544; Hollister, p. 326.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 547; Hollister, p. 363; Holmes, p. 258.
* ^ Cantor, p. 511; Hollister, p. 264; Koenigsberger, p. 255.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 577.
* ^ Hollister, p. 356; Koenigsberger, p. 314; Reilly, p. 209.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 162; Hollister, p. 99; Holmes, p. 265.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 192; Cantor, 513.
* ^ Cantor, 513; Holmes, pp. 266–7.
* ^ Grove, Jean M. (2003). The Little Ice Age. London: Routledge.
ISBN 0-415-01449-2 .
* ^ Jones, p. 88.
* ^ Harvey, Barbara F. (1991). "Introduction: The 'Crisis' of the
Early Fourteenth Century". In Campbell, B.M.S. Before the Black Death:
Studies in The 'Crisis' of the Early Fourteenth Century. Manchester:
Manchester University Press. pp. 1–24. ISBN 0-7190-3208-3 .
* ^ Jones, pp. 136–8;Cantor, p. 482.
* ^ Herlihy (1997), p. 17; Jones, p. 9.
* ^ Hollister, p. 347.
* ^ Duby, p. 270; Koenigsberger, p. 284; McKisack, p. 334.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 285.
* ^ Cantor, p. 484; Hollister, p. 332; Holmes, p. 303.
* ^ Cantor, p. 564; Hollister, pp. 332–3; Koenigsberger, p. 285.
* ^ Hollister, pp. 332–3; Jones, p. 15.
* ^ Chazan, p. 194.
* ^ Hollister, p. 330; Holmes, p. 255.
* ^ Brady et al., pp. 266–7; Chazan, pp. 166, 232; Koenigsberger,
* ^ A B Klapisch-Zuber, p. 268.
* ^ Hollister, p. 323; Holmes, p. 304.
* ^ Jones, p. 164; Koenigsberger, p. 343.
* ^ A B Allmand (1998), p. 125
* ^ Jones, p. 350; McKisack, p. 39; Verbruggen, p. 111.
* ^ Allmand (1988), p. 59; Cantor, p. 467.
* ^ McKisack, p. 240, Verbruggen, pp. 171–2
* ^ Contamine, pp. 139–40; Jones, pp. 11–2.
* ^ Contamine, pp. 198–200.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 169; Contamine, pp. 200–7.
* ^ Cantor, p. 515.
* ^ Contamine, pp. 150–65; Holmes, p. 261; McKisack, p. 234.
* ^ Contamine, pp. 124, 135.
* ^ Contamine, pp. 165–72; Holmes, p. 300.
* ^ Cantor, p. 349; Holmes, pp. 319–20.
* ^ Hollister, p. 336.
* ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03691a.htm
* ^ Cantor, p. 537; Jones, p. 209; McKisack, p. 251.
* ^ Cantor, p. 496.
* ^ Cantor, p. 497; Hollister, p. 338; Holmes, p. 309.
* ^ Hollister, p. 338; Koenigsberger, p. 326; Ozment, p. 158.
* ^ Cantor, p. 498; Ozment, p. 164.
* ^ Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8; MacCulloch, p. 34.
* ^ Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260; Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8.
* ^ A famous account of the nature and suppression of a heretic
Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie 's Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie.
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* ^ MacCulloch, p. 34–5.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 15; Cantor, pp. 499–500; Koenigsberger, p.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 15–6; MacCulloch, p. 35.
* ^ Holmes, p. 312; MacCulloch, pp. 35–6; Ozment, p. 165.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 16; Cantor, p. 500.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 377; Koenigsberger, p. 332.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 332; MacCulloch, p. 36.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 353; Hollister, p. 344; Koenigsberger, p.
* ^ MacCulloch, p. 115.
* ^ MacCulloch, pp. 70, 117.
* ^ MacCulloch, p. 127; Ozment, p. 245.
* ^ MacCulloch, p. 128.
* ^ Ozment, p. 246.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 16–7; Cantor, pp. 500–1.
* ^ MacCulloch, p. 107; Ozment, p. 397.
* ^ MacCulloch, p. 266; Ozment, pp. 259–60.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 159–60; Pounds, pp. 467–8.
* ^ Hollister, pp. 334–5.
* ^ Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Koenigsberger, p. 295; Pounds, p. 361.
* ^ Cipolla (1976), p. 283; Koenigsberger, p. 297; Pounds, pp.
* ^ Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Cipolla (1994), p. 203, 234; Pounds,
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, p. 407.
* ^ Cipolla (1976), pp. 318–29; Cipolla (1994), pp. 160–4;
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* ^ Jones, p. 121; Pearl, pp. 299–300; Koenigsberger, pp. 286,
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299; McKisack, p. 160.
* ^ Pounds, p. 483.
* ^ Cipolla, C.M. (1964). "Economic depression of the
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* ^ Pounds, pp. 484–5.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 243–54; Cantor, p. 594; Nicholas, p. 156.
* ^ Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the “Rise
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* ^ Jones, p. 42; Koenigsberger, p. 242.
* ^ Hans Thijssen (2003). "Condemnation of 1277". Stanford
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* ^ Grant, p. 142; Nicholas, p. 134.
* ^ Grant, pp. 100–3, 149, 164–5.
* ^ Grant, pp. 95–7.
* ^ Grant, pp. 112–3.
* ^ Jones, pp. 11–2; Koenigsberger, pp. 297–8; Nicholas, p.
* ^ Grant, p. 160; Koenigsberger, p. 297.
* ^ Cantor, p. 433; Koenigsberger, p. 363.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 155; Brotton, p. 27.
* ^ Burke, p. 24; Koenigsberger, p. 363; Nicholas, p. 161.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 253; Cantor, p. 556.
* ^ Cantor, p. 554; Nichols, pp. 159–60.
* ^ Brotton, p. 67; Burke, p. 69.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 269; Koenigsberger, p. 376.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 302; Cantor, p. 539.
* ^ Burke, p. 250; Nicholas, p. 161.
* ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 300–1, Hollister, p. 375.
* ^ Allmand (1998), p. 305; Cantor, p. 371.
* ^ Jones, p. 8.
* ^ Cantor, p. 346.
* ^ Curtius, p. 387; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
* ^ Cantor, p. 546; Curtius, pp. 351, 378.
* ^ Curtius, p. 396; Koenigsberger, p. 368; Jones, p. 258.
* ^ Curtius, p. 26; Jones, p. 258; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 369.
* ^ Jones, p. 264.
* ^ Curtius, p. 35; Jones. p. 264.
* ^ Jones, p. 9.
* ^ Allmand, p. 319; Grant, p. 14; Koenigsberger, p. 382.
* ^ Allmand, p. 322; Wilson, p. 229.
* ^ Wilson, pp. 229, 289–90, 327.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 381; Wilson, p. 329.
* ^ Koenigsberger, p. 383; Wilson, p. 329.
* ^ Wilson, pp. 357–8, 361–2.
* ^ Brockett and Hildy (2003, 86)
* ^ A B Brockett and Hildy (2003, 101-103)
* ^ Draskóczy, István (2000). A TIZENöTöDIK SZáZAD
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* ^ Fügedi, Erik. (2004). URAM KIRáLYOM. Fekete Sas Kiadó
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