Middle Ages or Late
Medieval Period was the period of
European history lasting from 1250-1500 AD. The Late Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early
modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance).
Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in
Europe came to a
halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great
1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half
of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came
social unrest and endemic warfare.
serious peasant uprisings, such as the
Jacquerie and the Peasants'
Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the
Hundred Years' War. To add to the many problems of the period, the
unity of the
Catholic Church was temporarily shattered by the Western
Schism. Collectively these events are sometimes called the Crisis of
the Late Middle Ages.
Despite these crises, the
14th century was also a time of great
progress in the arts and sciences. Following a renewed interest in
ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages,
Renaissance began. The absorption of
Latin texts had
started before the
Renaissance of the 12th century through contact
with Arabs during the Crusades, but the availability of important
Greek texts accelerated with the capture of
Constantinople by the
Ottoman Turks, when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the
West, particularly Italy.
Combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of
printing, which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and
democratized learning. These two things would later lead to the
Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, the Age of
Discovery began. The expansion of the
Ottoman Empire cut off trading
possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to seek new trading
routes, leading to the Spanish expedition under Columbus to the
Americas in 1492, and Vasco da Gama’s voyage to
1498. Their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European
The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars
to view this period as the end of the
Middle Ages and beginning of
modern history and early modern Europe. However, the division is
somewhat artificial, since ancient learning was never entirely absent
from European society. As a result there was developmental continuity
between the ancient age (via classical antiquity) and the modern age.
Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the
Middle Ages at all, but rather see the high period of the Middle
Ages transitioning to the
Renaissance and the modern era.
1 Historiography and periodization
2.1 Northern Europe
2.2 Northwest Europe
2.3 Western Europe
2.4 Central Europe
2.5 Eastern Europe
2.6 Southeast Europe
2.7 Southwest Europe
Medieval European society
4 Military history
5 Christian conflict and reform
5.1 The Papal Schism
6 Trade and commerce
7 Arts and sciences
7.1 Philosophy, science and technology
7.2 Visual arts and architecture
7.6 After the Middle Ages
8 Ottomans and Europe
11 See also
13 Further reading
13.2 Specific regions
13.4 The Black Death
13.8 Arts and sciences
14 External links
Historiography and periodization
The term "Late Middle Ages" refers to one of the three periods of the
Middle Ages, along with the Early
Middle Ages and the High Middle
Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite
periodization in his History of the Florentine People (1442).
Flavio Biondo used a similar framework in Decades of History from the
Deterioration of the
Roman Empire (1439–1453). Tripartite
periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph
Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient,
Medieval, and New Period (1683).
For 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the
central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient
learning and the emergence of an individual spirit. The heart of
this rediscovery lies in Italy, where, in the words of Jacob
Burckhardt: "Man became a spiritual individual and recognized himself
as such". This proposition was later challenged, and it was argued
that the 12th century was a period of greater cultural achievement.
As economic and demographic methods were applied to the study of
history, the trend was increasingly to see the late
Middle Ages as a
period of recession and crisis. Belgian historian Henri Pirenne
continued the subdivision of Early, High, and Late
Middle Ages in the
years around World War I. Yet it was his Dutch colleague, Johan
Huizinga, who was primarily responsible for popularising the
pessimistic view of the Late Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of
Middle Ages (1919). To Huizinga, whose research focused on
France and the
Low Countries rather than Italy, despair and decline
were the main themes, not rebirth. 
Modern historiography on the period has reached a consensus between
the two extremes of innovation and crisis. It is now generally
acknowledged that conditions were vastly different north and south of
the Alps, and the term "Late Middle Ages" is often avoided entirely
within Italian historiography. The term "Renaissance" is still
considered useful for describing certain intellectual, cultural, or
artistic developments, but not as the defining feature of an entire
European historical epoch. The period from the early 14th century
up until – and sometimes including – the 16th century,
is rather seen as characterized by other trends: demographic and
economic decline followed by recovery, the end of western religious
unity and the subsequent emergence of the nation state, and the
expansion of European influence onto the rest of the world.
The limits of Christian
Europe were still being defined in the 14th
and 15th centuries. While the
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow was beginning to
repel the Mongols, and the Iberian kingdoms completed the Reconquista
of the peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the
under the dominance of the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, the
remaining nations of the continent were locked in almost constant
international or internal conflict.
The situation gradually led to the consolidation of central authority
and the emergence of the nation state. The financial demands of
war necessitated higher levels of taxation, resulting in the emergence
of representative bodies – most notably the English
Parliament. The growth of secular authority was further aided by
the decline of the papacy with the
Western Schism and the coming of
Main articles: Denmark, Norway, Sweden
After the failed union of
Norway of 1319–1365, the
Kalmar Union was instituted in 1397. The Swedes
were reluctant members of the Danish-dominated union from the start.
In an attempt to subdue the Swedes, King Christian II of
large numbers of the Swedish aristocracy killed in the Stockholm
Bloodbath of 1520. Yet this measure only led to further hostilities,
Sweden broke away for good in 1523. Norway, on the other hand,
became an inferior party of the union and remained united with Denmark
Iceland benefited from its relative isolation and was the last
Scandinavian country to be struck by the Black Death. Meanwhile,
the Norse colony in
Greenland died out, probably under extreme weather
conditions in the 15th century. These conditions might have been
the effect of the Little Ice Age.
England in the Middle Ages,
Scotland in the Late Middle
Ages, and Wales in the Late Middle Ages
The death of
Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 threw the country into
a succession crisis, and the English king, Edward I, was brought in to
arbitrate. Edward claimed overlordship over Scotland, leading to the
Wars of Scottish Independence. The English were eventually
defeated, and the Scots were able to develop a stronger state under
From 1337, England's attention was largely directed towards
the Hundred Years' War. Henry V’s victory at the Battle of
Agincourt in 1415 briefly paved the way for a unification of the two
kingdoms, but his son Henry VI soon squandered all previous gains.
The loss of
France led to discontent at home. Soon after the end of
the war in 1453, the dynastic struggles of the
Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses (c.
1455–1485) began, involving the rival dynasties of the House of
Lancaster and House of York.
The war ended in the accession of Henry VII of the Tudor family, who
continued the work started by the Yorkist kings of building a strong,
centralized monarchy. While England's attention was thus directed
Hiberno-Norman lords in
Ireland were becoming gradually
more assimilated into Irish society, and the island was allowed to
develop virtual independence under English overlordship.
Main articles: France, Burgundy, Burgundian Netherlands
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
The French House of Valois, which followed the
House of Capet
House of Capet in 1328,
was at its outset marginalized in its own country, first by the
English invading forces of the Hundred Years' War, and later by the
powerful Duchy of Burgundy. The emergence of
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc as a
military leader changed the course of war in favour of the French, and
the initiative was carried further by King Louis XI.
Meanwhile, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, met resistance in his
attempts to consolidate his possessions, particularly from the Swiss
Confederation formed in 1291. When Charles was killed in the
Burgundian Wars at the
Battle of Nancy
Battle of Nancy in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy
was reclaimed by France. At the same time, the County of Burgundy
and the wealthy Burgundian
Netherlands came into the Holy Roman Empire
Habsburg control, setting up conflict for centuries to come.
Main articles: Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 15th century
Bohemia prospered in the 14th century, and the Golden Bull of 1356
made the king of
Bohemia first among the imperial electors, but the
Hussite revolution threw the country into crisis. The Holy Roman
Empire passed to the Habsburgs in 1438, where it remained until its
dissolution in 1806. Yet in spite of the extensive territories
held by the Habsburgs, the Empire itself remained fragmented, and much
real power and influence lay with the individual principalities.
In addition, financial institutions, such as the
Hanseatic League and
Fugger family, held great power, on both economic and political
The kingdom of
Hungary experienced a golden age during the 14th
century. In particular the reigns of the Angevin kings Charles
Robert (1308–42) and his son
Louis the Great
Louis the Great (1342–82) were marked
by success. The country grew wealthy as the main European supplier
of gold and silver.
Louis the Great
Louis the Great led successful campaigns from
Lithuania to Southern Italy, and from
Poland to Northern Greece.
He had the greatest military potential of the
14th century with his
enormous armies (often over 100,000 men). Meanwhile, Poland's
attention was turned eastwards, as the union with
Lithuania created an
enormous entity in the region. The union, and the conversion of
Lithuania, also marked the end of paganism in Europe.
Beckov Castle in Slovakia
Louis did not leave a son as heir after his death in 1382. Instead, he
named as his heir the young prince Sigismund of Luxemburg. The
Hungarian nobility did not accept his claim, and the result was an
internal war. Sigismund eventually achieved total control of Hungary
and established his court in Buda and Visegrád. Both palaces were
rebuilt and improved, and were considered the richest of the time in
Europe. Inheriting the throne of
Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire,
Sigismund continued conducting his politics from Hungary, but he was
kept busy fighting the
Hussites and the Ottoman Empire, which was
becoming a menace to
Europe in the beginning of the 15th century.
Matthias Corvinus of
Hungary led the largest army of
mercenaries of the time, The Black Army of Hungary, which he used to
Austria and to fight the Ottoman Empire. However,
the glory of the Kingdom ended in the early 16th century, when the
King Louis II of
Hungary was killed in the battle of Mohács in 1526
against the Ottoman Empire.
Hungary then fell into a serious crisis
and was invaded, ending its significance in central
Europe during the
Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow
The state of
Kievan Rus' fell during the 13th century in the Mongol
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow rose in power thereafter,
winning a great victory against the
Golden Horde at the Battle of
Kulikovo in 1380. The victory did not end Tartar rule in the
region, however, and its immediate beneficiary was the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania, which extended its influence eastwards.
Under the reign of Ivan the Great (1462–1505), Moscow became a major
regional power, and the annexation of the vast
Republic of Novgorod
Republic of Novgorod in
1478 laid the foundations for a Russian national state. After the
Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Russian princes started to see
themselves as the heirs of the Byzantine Empire. They eventually took
on the imperial title of Tsar, and Moscow was described as the Third
Main articles: Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania
Ottoman miniature of the siege of
Belgrade in 1456
Byzantine Empire had for a long time dominated the eastern
Mediterranean in politics and culture. By the 14th century,
however, it had almost entirely collapsed into a tributary state of
the Ottoman Empire, centered on the city of
Constantinople and a few
enclaves in Greece. With the
Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the
Byzantine Empire was permanently extinguished.
The Bulgarian Empire was in decline by the 14th century, and the
Serbia was marked by the Serbian victory over the
Bulgarians in the
Battle of Velbazhd
Battle of Velbazhd in 1330. By 1346, the Serbian
Stefan Dušan had been proclaimed emperor. Yet Serbian
dominance was short-lived; the Serbian army led by the Lazar
Hrebljevanovic was defeated by the Ottomans at the
Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo in
1389, where most of the
Serbian nobility was killed and the south of
the country came under Ottoman occupation, as much of southern
Bulgaria had become Ottoman territory in 1371. Northern remnants
of Bulgaria were finally conquered by 1396,
Serbia fell in 1459,
Bosnia in 1463, and Albania was finally subordinated in 1479 only a
few years after the death of Skanderbeg. Belgrade, an Hungarian domain
at the time, was the last large Balkan city to fall under Ottoman
rule, in 1521. By the end of the medieval period, the entire Balkan
peninsula was annexed by, or became vassal to, the Ottomans.
Main articles: Italy, Crown of Aragon, Spain, Portugal
Battle of Aljubarrota
Battle of Aljubarrota between
Portugal and Castile, 1385
Avignon was the seat of the papacy from 1309 to 1376. With the
return of the
Rome in 1378, the
Papal State developed into a
major secular power, culminating in the morally corrupt papacy of
Florence grew to prominence amongst the Italian
city-states through financial business, and the dominant
became important promoters of the
Renaissance through their patronage
of the arts. Other city states in northern
Italy also expanded
their territories and consolidated their power, primarily
War of the Sicilian Vespers
War of the Sicilian Vespers had by the early 14th
century divided southern
Italy into an Aragon
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily and an
Anjou Kingdom of Naples. In 1442, the two kingdoms were
effectively united under Aragonese control.
The 1469 marriage of
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon
and the 1479 death of
John II of Aragon
John II of Aragon led to the creation of
modern-day Spain. In 1492,
Granada was captured from the Moors,
thereby completing the Reconquista.
Portugal had during the 15th
century – particularly under Henry the Navigator –
gradually explored the coast of Africa, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama
found the sea route to India. The Spanish monarchs met the
Portuguese challenge by financing the expedition of Christopher
Columbus to find a western sea route to India, leading to the
discovery of the
Americas in 1492.
Medieval European society
See also: Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and
sowing for the winter grain. The background contains the Louvre, c.
Around 1300–1350 the
Medieval Warm Period
Medieval Warm Period gave way to the Little Ice
Age. The colder climate resulted in agricultural crises, the first
of which is known as the Great
Famine of 1315-1317. The
demographic consequences of this famine, however, were not as severe
as the plagues that occurred later in the century, particularly the
Black Death. Estimates of the death rate caused by this epidemic
range from one third to as much as sixty percent. By around 1420,
the accumulated effect of recurring plagues and famines had reduced
the population of
Europe to perhaps no more than a third of what it
was a century earlier. The effects of natural disasters were
exacerbated by armed conflicts; this was particularly the case in
France during the Hundred Years' War. It took 150 years for the
European population to regain similar levels of 1300.
As the European population was severely reduced, land became more
plentiful for the survivors, and labour consequently more
expensive. Attempts by landowners to forcibly reduce wages, such
as the English 1351 Statute of Laborers, were doomed to fail.
These efforts resulted in nothing more than fostering resentment among
the peasantry, leading to rebellions such as the French
1358 and the English
Peasants' Revolt in 1381. The long-term
effect was the virtual end of serfdom in Western Europe. In
Eastern Europe, on the other hand, landowners were able to exploit the
situation to force the peasantry into even more repressive
The upheavals caused by the
Black Death left certain minority groups
particularly vulnerable, especially the Jews, who were often
blamed for the calamities. Anti-Jewish pogroms were carried out all
over Europe; in February 1349, 2,000 Jews were murdered in
Strasbourg. States were also guilty of discrimination against the
Jews. Monarchs gave in to the demands of the people, and the Jews were
England in 1290, from
France in 1306, from
1492, and from
Portugal in 1497.
While the Jews were suffering persecution, one group that probably
experienced increased empowerment in the Late
Middle Ages was women.
The great social changes of the period opened up new possibilities for
women in the fields of commerce, learning and religion. Yet at the
same time, women were also vulnerable to incrimination and
persecution, as belief in witchcraft increased.
Up until the mid-14th century,
Europe had experienced steadily
increasing urbanisation. Cities were also decimated by the Black
Death, but the role of urban areas as centres of learning, commerce
and government ensured continued growth. By 1500, Venice, Milan,
Constantinople each probably had more than 100,000
inhabitants. Twenty-two other cities were larger than 40,000; most
of these were in
Italy and the Iberian peninsula, but there were also
some in France, the Empire, the Low Countries, plus
Miniature of the
Battle of Crécy
Battle of Crécy (1346)
Manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles.
Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War was the scene of many military innovations.
Through battles such as Courtrai (1302), Bannockburn (1314), and
Morgarten (1315), it became clear to the great territorial princes of
Europe that the military advantage of the feudal cavalry was lost, and
that a well equipped infantry was preferable. Through the Welsh
Wars the English became acquainted with, and adopted, the highly
efficient longbow. Once properly managed, this weapon gave them a
great advantage over the French in the Hundred Years' War.
The introduction of gunpowder affected the conduct of war
significantly. Though employed by the English as early as the
Battle of Crécy
Battle of Crécy in 1346, firearms initially had little effect in the
field of battle. It was through the use of cannons as siege
weapons that major change was brought about; the new methods would
eventually change the architectural structure of fortifications.
Changes also took place within the recruitment and composition of
armies. The use of the national or feudal levy was gradually replaced
by paid troops of domestic retinues or foreign mercenaries. The
practice was associated with Edward III of
England and the condottieri
of the Italian city-states. All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were
in particularly high demand. At the same time, the period also saw
the emergence of the first permanent armies. It was in Valois France,
under the heavy demands of the Hundred Years' War, that the armed
forces gradually assumed a permanent nature.
Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly more
elaborate chivalric code of conduct for the warrior class. This
new-found ethos can be seen as a response to the diminishing military
role of the aristocracy, and gradually it became almost entirely
detached from its military origin. The spirit of chivalry was
given expression through the new (secular) type of chivalric
orders; the first of these was the Order of St. George, founded by
Charles I of
Hungary in 1325, while the best known was probably the
English Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III in 1348.
Christian conflict and reform
The Papal Schism
Main article: Western Schism
The French crown's increasing dominance over the
Papacy culminated in
the transference of the
Holy See to
Avignon in 1309. When the
Pope returned to
Rome in 1377, this led to the election of different
Avignon and Rome, resulting in the Papal Schism
(1378–1417). The Schism divided
Europe along political lines;
while France, her ally
Scotland and the Spanish kingdoms supported the
Avignon Papacy, France's enemy
England stood behind the
Pope in Rome,
together with Portugal,
Scandinavia and most of the German
Council of Constance
Council of Constance (1414–1418), the
Papacy was once more
united in Rome. Even though the unity of the Western Church was
to last for another hundred years, and though the
Papacy was to
experience greater material prosperity than ever before, the Great
Schism had done irreparable damage. The internal struggles within
the Church had impaired her claim to universal rule, and promoted
anti-clericalism among the people and their rulers, paving the way for
Bohemian Reformation and
Jan Hus burnt at the stake
Though many of the events were outside the traditional time period of
the Middle Ages, the end of the unity of the Western Church (the
Protestant Reformation), was one of the distinguishing characteristics
of the medieval period. The
Catholic Church had long fought
against heretic movements, but during the Late Middle Ages, it started
to experience demands for reform from within. The first of these
came from Oxford professor
John Wycliffe in England. Wycliffe
held that the
Bible should be the only authority in religious
questions, and he spoke out against transubstantiation, celibacy and
indulgences. In spite of influential supporters among the English
aristocracy, such as John of Gaunt, the movement was not allowed to
survive. Though Wycliffe himself was left unmolested, his supporters,
the Lollards, were eventually suppressed in England.
The marriage of Richard II of
England to Anne of
contacts between the two nations and brought Lollard ideas to her
homeland. The teachings of the Czech priest
Jan Hus were based on
those of John Wycliffe, yet his followers, the Hussites, were to have
a much greater political impact than the Lollards. Hus gained a
great following in Bohemia, and in 1414, he was requested to appear at
Council of Constance
Council of Constance to defend his cause. When he was burned
as a heretic in 1415, it caused a popular uprising in the Czech
lands. The subsequent
Hussite Wars fell apart due to internal
quarrels and did not result in religious or national independence for
the Czechs, but both the
Catholic Church and the German element within
the country were weakened.
Martin Luther, a German monk, started the
German Reformation by
95 theses on the castle church of
Wittenberg on October 31,
1517. The immediate provocation spurring this act was
X’s renewal of the indulgence for the building of the new St.
Peter's Basilica in 1514. Luther was challenged to recant his
heresy at the
Diet of Worms
Diet of Worms in 1521. When he refused, he was
placed under the ban of the Empire by Charles V. Receiving the
protection of Frederick the Wise, he was then able to translate the
Bible into German.
To many secular rulers the
Protestant reformation was a welcome
opportunity to expand their wealth and influence. The Catholic
Church met the challenges of the reforming movements with what has
been called the Catholic Reformation, or Counter-Reformation.
Europe became split into northern
Protestant and southern Catholic
parts, resulting in the Religious Wars of the 16th and 17th
Trade and commerce
Medieval Merchant Routes
Main trade routes of late medieval Europe.
Venetian and Genoese
(stippled) Overland and river routes
The increasingly dominant position of the
Ottoman Empire in the
eastern Mediterranean presented an impediment to trade for the
Christian nations of the west, who in turn started looking for
alternatives. Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new trade
routes – south of
Africa to India, and across the Atlantic
Ocean to America. As Genoese and Venetian merchants opened up
direct sea routes with Flanders, the
Champagne fairs lost much of
At the same time, English wool export shifted from raw wool to
processed cloth, resulting in losses for the cloth manufacturers of
the Low Countries. In the Baltic and North Sea, the Hanseatic
League reached the peak of their power in the 14th century, but
started going into decline in the fifteenth.
In the late 13th and early 14th centuries, a process took
place – primarily in
Italy but partly also in the
Empire – that historians have termed a 'commercial
revolution'. Among the innovations of the period were new forms
of partnership and the issuing of insurance, both of which contributed
to reducing the risk of commercial ventures; the bill of exchange and
other forms of credit that circumvented the canonical laws for
gentiles against usury, and eliminated the dangers of carrying
bullion; and new forms of accounting, in particular double-entry
bookkeeping, which allowed for better oversight and accuracy.
With the financial expansion, trading rights became more jealously
guarded by the commercial elite. Towns saw the growing power of
guilds, while on a national level special companies would be granted
monopolies on particular trades, like the English wool Staple.
The beneficiaries of these developments would accumulate immense
wealth. Families like the Fuggers in Germany, the Medicis in Italy,
the de la Poles in England, and individuals like
Jacques Coeur in
France would help finance the wars of kings, and achieve great
political influence in the process.
Though there is no doubt that the demographic crisis of the 14th
century caused a dramatic fall in production and commerce in absolute
terms, there has been a vigorous historical debate over whether the
decline was greater than the fall in population. While the older
orthodoxy held that the artistic output of the
Renaissance was a
result of greater opulence, more recent studies have suggested that
there might have been a so-called 'depression of the
Renaissance'. In spite of convincing arguments for the case, the
statistical evidence is simply too incomplete for a definite
conclusion to be made.
Arts and sciences
In the 14th century, the predominant academic trend of scholasticism
was challenged by the humanist movement. Though primarily an attempt
to revitalise the classical languages, the movement also led to
innovations within the fields of science, art and literature, helped
on by impulses from Byzantine scholars who had to seek refuge in the
west after the
Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
In science, classical authorities like
Aristotle were challenged for
the first time since antiquity. Within the arts, humanism took the
form of the Renaissance. Though the
Renaissance was a
highly localised phenomenon – limited mostly to the city states
of northern Italy – artistic developments were taking place
also further north, particularly in the Netherlands.
Philosophy, science and technology
Medieval philosophy, History of science in the Middle
European output of manuscripts 500–1500. The rising trend in
medieval book production saw its continuation in the period.
The predominant school of thought in the 13th century was the
Thomistic reconciliation of the teachings of
Aristotle with Christian
theology. The Condemnation of 1277, enacted at the University of
Paris, placed restrictions on ideas that could be interpreted as
heretical; restrictions that had implication for Aristotelian
thought. An alternative was presented by William of Ockham,
following the manner of the earlier Franciscan John Duns Scotus, who
insisted that the world of reason and the world of faith had to be
kept apart. Ockham introduced the principle of parsimony – or
Occam's razor – whereby a simple theory is preferred to a more
complex one, and speculation on unobservable phenomena is
avoided. This maxim is, however, often misquoted. Occam was
referring to his nominalism in this quotation. Essentially saying the
theory of absolutes, or metaphysical realism, was unnecessary to make
sense of the world.
This new approach liberated scientific speculation from the dogmatic
restraints of Aristotelian science, and paved the way for new
approaches. Particularly within the field of theories of motion great
advances were made, when such scholars as Jean Buridan, Nicole Oresme
Oxford Calculators challenged the work of Aristotle.
Buridan developed the theory of impetus as the cause of the motion of
projectiles, which was an important step towards the modern concept of
inertia. The works of these scholars anticipated the heliocentric
worldview of Nicolaus Copernicus.
Certain technological inventions of the period – whether of
Arab or Chinese origin, or unique European innovations – were
to have great influence on political and social developments, in
particular gunpowder, the printing press and the compass. The
introduction of gunpowder to the field of battle affected not only
military organisation, but helped advance the nation state.
Gutenberg's movable type printing press made possible not only the
Reformation, but also a dissemination of knowledge that would lead to
a gradually more egalitarian society. The compass, along with other
innovations such as the cross-staff, the mariner's astrolabe, and
advances in shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans,
and the early phases of colonialism. Other inventions had a
greater impact on everyday life, such as eyeglasses and the
Visual arts and architecture
Medieval art and
Urban dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.
A precursor to
Renaissance art can be seen already in the early
14th-century works of Giotto. Giotto was the first painter since
antiquity to attempt the representation of a three-dimensional
reality, and to endow his characters with true human emotions.
The most important developments, however, came in 15th century
Florence. The affluence of the merchant class allowed extensive
patronage of the arts, and foremost among the patrons were the
The period saw several important technical innovations, like the
principle of linear perspective found in the work of Masaccio, and
later described by Brunelleschi. Greater realism was also
achieved through the scientific study of anatomy, championed by
artists like Donatello. This can be seen particularly well in his
sculptures, inspired by the study of classical models. As the
centre of the movement shifted to Rome, the period culminated in the
Renaissance masters da Vinci,
Michelangelo and Raphael.
The ideas of the Italian
Renaissance were slow to cross the Alps into
northern Europe, but important artistic innovations were made also in
the Low Countries. Though not – as previously
believed – the inventor of oil painting,
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a
champion of the new medium, and used it to create works of great
realism and minute detail. The two cultures influenced each other
and learned from each other, but painting in the
more focused on textures and surfaces than the idealized compositions
In northern European countries
Gothic architecture remained the norm,
and the gothic cathedral was further elaborated. In Italy, on the
other hand, architecture took a different direction, also here
inspired by classical ideals. The crowning work of the period was the
Santa Maria del Fiore
Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, with Giotto's clock tower,
Ghiberti's baptistery gates, and Brunelleschi's cathedral dome of
Dante by Domenico di Michelino, from a fresco painted in 1465
The most important development of late medieval literature was the
ascendancy of the vernacular languages. The vernacular had been
in use in
England since the 8th century and
France since the 11th
century, where the most popular genres had been the chanson de geste,
troubadour lyrics and romantic epics, or the romance. Though
Italy was later in evolving a native literature in the vernacular
language, it was here that the most important developments of the
period were to come.
Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, written in the early 14th century,
merged a medieval world view with classical ideals. Another
promoter of the
Italian language was Boccaccio with his
Decameron. The application of the vernacular did not entail a
rejection of Latin, and both
Dante and Boccaccio wrote prolifically in
Latin as well as Italian, as would
Petrarch later (whose Canzoniere
also promoted the vernacular and whose contents are considered the
first modern lyric poems). Together the three poets established
Tuscan dialect as the norm for the modern Italian language.
The new literary style spread rapidly, and in
France influenced such
Eustache Deschamps and Guillaume de Machaut. In
Geoffrey Chaucer helped establish
Middle English as a literary
language with his Canterbury Tales, which contained a wide variety of
narrators and stories (including some translated from Boccaccio).
The spread of vernacular literature eventually reached as far as
Bohemia, and the Baltic, Slavic and Byzantine worlds.
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval
Music was an important part of both secular and spiritual culture, and
in the universities it made up part of the quadrivium of the liberal
arts. From the early 13th century, the dominant sacred musical
form had been the motet; a composition with text in several
parts. From the 1330s and onwards, emerged the polyphonic style,
which was a more complex fusion of independent voices. Polyphony
had been common in the secular music of the Provençal troubadours.
Many of these had fallen victim to the 13th-century Albigensian
Crusade, but their influence reached the papal court at Avignon.
The main representatives of the new style, often referred to as ars
nova as opposed to the ars antiqua, were the composers Philippe de
Vitry and Guillaume de Machaut. In Italy, where the Provençal
troubadours had also found refuge, the corresponding period goes under
the name of trecento, and the leading composers were Giovanni da
Jacopo da Bologna and Francesco Landini. Prominent
reformer of Orthodox Church music from the first half of 14th century
was John Kukuzelis; he also introduced a system of notation widely
used in the
Balkans in the following centuries.
In the British Isles, plays were produced in some 127 different towns
during the Middle Ages. These vernacular
Mystery plays were written in
cycles of a large number of plays: York (48 plays), Chester (24),
Wakefield (32) and Unknown (42). A larger number of plays survive from
Germany in this period and some type of religious dramas
were performed in nearly every European country in the Late Middle
Ages. Many of these plays contained comedy, devils, villains and
Morality plays emerged as a distinct dramatic form around 1400 and
flourished until 1550. The most interesting morality play is The
Castle of Perseverance which depicts mankind's progress from birth to
death. However, the most famous morality play and perhaps best known
medieval drama is Everyman.
Everyman receives Death's summons,
struggles to escape and finally resigns himself to necessity. Along
the way, he is deserted by Kindred, Goods, and Fellowship – only
Good Deeds goes with him to the grave.
At the end of the Late Middle Ages, professional actors began to
England and Europe. Richard III and Henry VII both
maintained small companies of professional actors. Their plays were
performed in the
Great Hall of a nobleman's residence, often with a
raised platform at one end for the audience and a "screen" at the
other for the actors. Also important were Mummers' plays, performed
Christmas season, and court masques. These masques were
especially popular during the reign of
Henry VIII who had a House of
Revels built and an Office of Revels established in 1545.
The end of medieval drama came about due to a number of factors,
including the weakening power of the Catholic Church, the Protestant
Reformation and the banning of religious plays in many countries.
Elizabeth I forbid all religious plays in 1558 and the great cycle
plays had been silenced by the 1580s. Similarly, religious plays were
banned in the
Netherlands in 1539, the
Papal States in 1547 and in
Paris in 1548. The abandonment of these plays destroyed the
international theatre that had thereto existed and forced each country
to develop its own form of drama. It also allowed dramatists to turn
to secular subjects and the reviving interest in Greek and Roman
theatre provided them with the perfect opportunity.
After the Middle Ages
Early modern period
After the end of the late
Middle Ages period, the
unevenly over continental
Europe from the southern European region.
The intellectual transformation of the
Renaissance is viewed as a
bridge between the
Middle Ages and the
Modern era. Europeans would
later begin an era of world discovery. Combined with the influx of
classical ideas was the invention of printing which facilitated
dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. These two
things would lead to the
Protestant Reformation. Europeans also
discovered new trading routes, as was the case with Columbus’ travel
Americas in 1492, and Vasco da Gama’s circumnavigation of
India in 1498. Their discoveries strengthened the economy
and power of European nations.
Ottomans and Europe
Ottomans and Europe
John of Capistrano
John of Capistrano and the Hungarian armies fighting the Ottoman
Empire at the Siege of
Belgrade in 1456.
King Matthias Corvinus's Black Army Campaign.
By the end of the
15th century the
Ottoman Empire had advanced all
over Southeastern Europe, eventually conquering the Byzantine Empire
and extending control over the Balkan states.
Hungary was the last
bastion of the
Latin Christian world in the East, and fought to keep
its rule over a period of two centuries. After the tragic death of the
young king Vladislaus I of
Hungary during the
Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna in 1444
against the Ottomans, the Kingdom was placed in the hands of count
John Hunyadi, who became Hungary's regent-governor (1446–1453).
Hunyadi was considered one of the most relevant military figures of
the 15th century:
Pius II awarded him the title of Athleta
Christi or Champion of Christ for being the only hope of resisting the
Ottomans from advancing to Central and Western Europe.
Hunyadi succeeded during the Siege of
Belgrade in 1456 against the
Ottomans, the biggest victory against that empire in decades. This
battle became a real Crusade against the Muslims, as the peasants were
motivated by the Franciscan monk Saint John of Capistrano, who came
Italy predicating Holy War. The effect that it created in that
time was one of the main factors that helped in achieving the victory.
However the premature death of the Hungarian Lord left Pannonia
defenseless and in chaos. In an extremely unusual event for the
Middle Ages, Hunyadi's son, Matthias, was elected as King of Hungary
by the nobility. For the first time, a member of an aristocratic
family (and not from a royal family) was crowned.
Matthias Corvinus of
Hungary (1458–1490) was one of the most
prominent figures of the period, directing campaigns to the West,
Bohemia in answer to the Pope's call for help against the
Hussite Protestants. Also, in resolving political hostilities with the
German emperor Frederick III of Habsburg, he invaded his western
domains. Matthew organized the Black Army of mercenary soldiers; it
was considered as the biggest army of its time. Using this powerful
tool, the Hungarian king led wars against the Turkish armies and
stopped the Ottomans during his reign. After the death of Matthew, and
with end of the Black Army, the
Ottoman Empire grew in strength and
Europe was defenseless. At the Battle of Mohács, the forces
Ottoman Empire annihilated the Hungarian army and Louis II of
Hungary drowned in the Csele Creek while trying to escape. The leader
of the Hungarian army, Pál Tomori, also died in the battle. This is
considered to be one of the final battles of
Main article: Timeline of the Middle Ages
Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details
Middle Ages Themes
See also: Universal history
Main article: 14th century
William Wallace was executed
Knights Templar were destroyed
Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
1309: Beginning of
Dante began Divine Comedy
1314: Battle of Bannockburn
1315–1317 Great Famine
1321–1328 Byzantine civil war
1328: First War of Scottish Independence
Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War begins
1346: Stephen Dušan established a short lived Serbian Empire
1347: The Black Death
1347: University of Prague was founded
Giovanni Villani finishes work on Nuova Cronica
1348–1349: Byzantine–Genoese War
Jagiellonian University was founded
1371: Battle of Maritsa—first substantial Ottoman victory in Europe;
partition of Bulgaria
1380: Battle of Kulikovo
1380: The Canterbury Tales
Peasants' Revolt (England)
John Wycliffe translated the Bible
1385: Union of Krewo, initiation of the Polish–Lithuanian union
1385: Battle of Aljubarrota
University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg was founded
1389: Battle of Kosovo—Serbian and Bosnian forces defeated by the
1342-1392: Partitioning of the
Kingdom of Rus
Kingdom of Rus (Galicia) between Poland
Lithuania (Galicia–Volhynia Wars)
Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis and first Ottoman conquest in Europe
1397: Kalmar Union
Main article: 15th century
1409: Venetian Dalmatia
1410: Battle of Grunwald
1415: Conquest of Ceuta
1415: Battle of Agincourt
Jan Hus was burned at the stake
1417: The Council of Constance
Hussite Wars in Bohemia
1429: Battle of Orléans
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc was burned at the stake
Medici family in Florence
Johannes Gutenberg first used movable type printing in Europe
1444: Battle of Varna
1445: Battle of Suzdal
Constantinople falls to Ottoman conquest
1456: Siege of Belgrade
Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond fell to the Turks
1469: Catholic Monarchs
1470: Battle of Lipnic
1474–1477: Burgundian Wars
Muscovy conquered Novgorod
Catholic Monarchs established the Spanish Inquisition
1479: Battle of Breadfield
Thomas Malory (Le Morte d'Arthur)
1492: Alhambra Decree
Reconquista ended with the fall of Granada
Christopher Columbus reached the "New World"
1494: Treaty of Tordesillas
1497–1498: Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama's first voyage reached
India after circumnavigating Africa
1499: Battle of Zonchio
Peasants in fields
Très Riches Heures.
Joan of Arc
(Hundred Years' War)
(Kingdom of Hungary)
Middle Ages portal
List of basic medieval history topics
Timeline of the Middle Ages
Church and state in medieval Europe
History of the Jews in the Middle Ages
^ Wallace K. Ferguson,
Europe in transition, 1300-1520 (1962) online.
^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world
epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p.
21. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7.
^ Norman Cantor, The Civilization of the
Middle Ages (1994) p. 480.
^ Cantor, p. 594.
^ Leonardo Bruni, James Hankins, History of the Florentine people,
Volume 1, Books 1–4, (2001), p. xvii.
^ Brady et al., p. xiv; Cantor, p. 529.
^ Burckhardt, Jacob (1860). The Civilization of the
Italy. p. 121. ISBN 0-06-090460-7.
^ Haskins, Charles Homer (1927). The
Renaissance of the Twelfth
Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
^ "Les périodes de l'histoire du capitalisme", Académie Royale de
Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres, 1914.
^ Huizinga, Johan (1924). The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of
the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in
France and the
the XIVth and XVth Centuries. London: E. Arnold.
^ Allmand, ed. The New Cambridge
Medieval History, vol. 7: c. 1415 –
c. 1500, (1998) p 299.
^ Norman Cantor, The Civilization of the
Middle Ages (1994) p. 530.
^ Le Goff, p. 154. See e.g. Najemy, John M. (2004).
Italy in the Age
of the Renaissance: 1300–1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ a b c Brady et al., p. xvii.
^ a b For references, see below.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 3; Holmes, p. 294; Koenigsberger, pp. 299–300.
^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Jones, p. 21.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 29; Cantor, p. 514; Koenigsberger, pp. 300–3.
^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Holmes, p. 276; Ozment, p. 4.
^ Hollister, p. 366; Jones, p. 722.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 703
^ Bagge, Sverre; Mykland, Knut (1989). Norge i dansketiden:
1380–1814 (2nd ed.). Oslo: Cappelen.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 673.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 193.
^ Alan Cutler (1997-08-13). "The Little Ice Age: When global cooling
gripped the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
^ Jones, pp. 348–9.
^ Jones, pp. 350–1; Koenigsberger, p. 232; McKisack, p. 40.
^ Jones, p. 351.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 458; Koenigsberger, p. 309.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 458; Nicholas, pp. 32–3.
^ Hollister, p. 353; Jones, pp. 488–92.
^ McKisack, pp. 228–9.
^ Hollister, p. 355; Holmes, pp. 288-9; Koenigsberger, p. 304.
^ Duby, p. 288-93; Holmes, p. 300.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 450-5; Jones, pp. 528-9.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 355; Koenigsberger, p. 304.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 363; Koenigsberger, pp. 306-7.
^ Holmes, p. 311–2; Wandycz, p. 40
^ Hollister, p. 362; Holmes, p. 280.
^ Cantor, p. 507; Hollister, p. 362.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 152–153; Cantor, p. 508; Koenigsberger, p.
^ Wandycz, p. 38.
^ Wandycz, p. 40.
^ Jones, p. 737.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 318; Wandycz, p. 41.
^ Jones, p. 7.
^ Martin, pp. 100–1.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 322; Jones, p. 793; Martin, pp. 236–7.
^ Martin, p. 239.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 754; Koenigsberger, p. 323.
^ Allmand, p. 769; Hollister, p. 368.
^ Hollister, p. 49.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 771–4; Mango, p. 248.
^ Hollister, p. 99; Koenigsberger, p. 340.
^ Jones, pp. 796–7.
^ Jones, p. 875.
^ a b Hollister, p. 360; Koenigsberger, p. 339.
^ Hollister, p. 338.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 586; Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260.
^ Allmand, pp. 150, 155; Cantor, p. 544; Hollister, p. 326.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 547; Hollister, p. 363; Holmes, p. 258.
^ Cantor, p. 511; Hollister, p. 264; Koenigsberger, p. 255.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 577.
^ Hollister, p. 356; Koenigsberger, p. 314
^ Allmand (1998), p. 162; Hollister, p. 99; Holmes, p. 265.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 192; Cantor, 513.
^ Cantor, 513; Holmes, pp. 266–7.
^ Grove, Jean M. (2003). The Little Ice Age. London: Routledge.
^ Jones, p. 88.
^ Harvey, Barbara F. (1991). "Introduction: The 'Crisis' of the Early
Fourteenth Century". In Campbell, B.M.S. Before the Black Death:
Studies in The 'Crisis' of the Early Fourteenth Century. Manchester:
Manchester University Press. pp. 1–24.
^ Jones, pp. 136–8;Cantor, p. 482.
^ Herlihy (1997), p. 17; Jones, p. 9.
^ Hollister, p. 347.
^ Duby, p. 270; Koenigsberger, p. 284; McKisack, p. 334.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 285.
^ Cantor, p. 484; Hollister, p. 332; Holmes, p. 303.
^ Cantor, p. 564; Hollister, pp. 332–3; Koenigsberger, p. 285.
^ Hollister, pp. 332–3; Jones, p. 15.
^ Chazan, p. 194.
^ Hollister, p. 330; Holmes, p. 255.
^ Brady et al., pp. 266–7; Chazan, pp. 166, 232; Koenigsberger, p.
^ a b Klapisch-Zuber, p. 268.
^ Hollister, p. 323; Holmes, p. 304.
^ Jones, p. 164; Koenigsberger, p. 343.
^ a b Allmand (1998), p. 125
^ Jones, p. 350; McKisack, p. 39; Verbruggen, p. 111.
^ Allmand (1988), p. 59; Cantor, p. 467.
^ McKisack, p. 240, Verbruggen, pp. 171–2
^ Contamine, pp. 139–40; Jones, pp. 11–2.
^ Contamine, pp. 198–200.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 169; Contamine, pp. 200–7.
^ Cantor, p. 515.
^ Contamine, pp. 150–65; Holmes, p. 261; McKisack, p. 234.
^ Contamine, pp. 124, 135.
^ Contamine, pp. 165–72; Holmes, p. 300.
^ Cantor, p. 349; Holmes, pp. 319–20.
^ Hollister, p. 336.
^ Cantor, p. 537; Jones, p. 209; McKisack, p. 251.
^ Cantor, p. 496.
^ Cantor, p. 497; Hollister, p. 338; Holmes, p. 309.
^ Hollister, p. 338; Koenigsberger, p. 326; Ozment, p. 158.
^ Cantor, p. 498; Ozment, p. 164.
^ Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8; MacCulloch, p. 34.
^ Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260; Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8.
^ A famous account of the nature and suppression of a heretic movement
is Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie. (1978).
Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294–1324.
London: Scolar Press. ISBN 0-85967-403-7.
^ MacCulloch, p. 34–5.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 15; Cantor, pp. 499–500; Koenigsberger, p. 331.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 15–6; MacCulloch, p. 35.
^ Holmes, p. 312; MacCulloch, pp. 35–6; Ozment, p. 165.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 16; Cantor, p. 500.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 377; Koenigsberger, p. 332.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 332; MacCulloch, p. 36.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 353; Hollister, p. 344; Koenigsberger, p.
^ MacCulloch, p. 115.
^ MacCulloch, pp. 70, 117.
^ MacCulloch, p. 127; Ozment, p. 245.
^ MacCulloch, p. 128.
^ Ozment, p. 246.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 16–7; Cantor, pp. 500–1.
^ MacCulloch, p. 107; Ozment, p. 397.
^ MacCulloch, p. 266; Ozment, pp. 259–60.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 159–60; Pounds, pp. 467–8.
^ Hollister, pp. 334–5.
^ Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Koenigsberger, p. 295; Pounds, p. 361.
^ Cipolla (1976), p. 283; Koenigsberger, p. 297; Pounds, pp. 378–81.
^ Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Cipolla (1994), p. 203, 234; Pounds, pp.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, p. 407.
^ Cipolla (1976), pp. 318–29; Cipolla (1994), pp. 160–4; Holmes,
p. 235; Jones, pp. 176–81; Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, pp.
^ Jones, p. 121; Pearl, pp. 299–300; Koenigsberger, pp. 286, 291.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 150–3; Holmes, p. 304; Koenigsberger, p. 299;
McKisack, p. 160.
^ Pounds, p. 483.
^ Cipolla, C.M. (1964). "Economic depression of the Renaissance?".
Economic History Review. xvi: 519–24. doi:10.2307/2592852.
^ Pounds, pp. 484–5.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 243–54; Cantor, p. 594; Nicholas, p. 156.
^ Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the “Rise of the
West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term
Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal
of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–445 (416,
^ Jones, p. 42; Koenigsberger, p. 242.
^ Hans Thijssen (2003). "Condemnation of 1277". Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
^ Grant, p. 142; Nicholas, p. 134.
^ Grant, pp. 100–3, 149, 164–5.
^ Grant, pp. 95–7.
^ Grant, pp. 112–3.
^ Jones, pp. 11–2; Koenigsberger, pp. 297–8; Nicholas, p. 165.
^ Grant, p. 160; Koenigsberger, p. 297.
^ Cantor, p. 433; Koenigsberger, p. 363.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 155; Brotton, p. 27.
^ Burke, p. 24; Koenigsberger, p. 363; Nicholas, p. 161.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 253; Cantor, p. 556.
^ Cantor, p. 554; Nichols, pp. 159–60.
^ Brotton, p. 67; Burke, p. 69.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 269; Koenigsberger, p. 376.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 302; Cantor, p. 539.
^ Burke, p. 250; Nicholas, p. 161.
^ Allmand (1998), pp. 300–1, Hollister, p. 375.
^ Allmand (1998), p. 305; Cantor, p. 371.
^ Jones, p. 8.
^ Cantor, p. 346.
^ Curtius, p. 387; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
^ Cantor, p. 546; Curtius, pp. 351, 378.
^ Curtius, p. 396; Koenigsberger, p. 368; Jones, p. 258.
^ Curtius, p. 26; Jones, p. 258; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 369.
^ Jones, p. 264.
^ Curtius, p. 35; Jones. p. 264.
^ Jones, p. 9.
^ Allmand, p. 319; Grant, p. 14; Koenigsberger, p. 382.
^ Allmand, p. 322; Wilson, p. 229.
^ Wilson, pp. 229, 289–90, 327.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 381; Wilson, p. 329.
^ Koenigsberger, p. 383; Wilson, p. 329.
^ Wilson, pp. 357–8, 361–2.
^ Brockett and Hildy (2003, 86)
^ a b Brockett and Hildy (2003, 101-103)
^ Draskóczy, István (2000). A tizenötödik század története.
Pannonica Kiadó. Budapest: Hungary.
^ Engel Pál, Kristó Gyula, Kubinyi András. (2005) Magyarország
Története 1301- 1526. Budapest, Hungary: Osiris Kiadó.
^ Fügedi, Erik. (2004). Uram Királyom. Fekete Sas Kiadó
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Medieval Russia, 980–1584 (2nd ed.).
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Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1994). Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of
Architecture and its Culture (Reprint ed.). Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
Chazan, Robert (2006). The Jews of
Medieval Western Christendom:
1000–1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Herlihy, David (1985).
Medieval Households. Cambridge, Massachusetts;
London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-56375-1.
Herlihy, David (1968).
Medieval Culture and Society. London:
Macmillan. ISBN 0-88133-747-1.
Jordan, William Chester (1996). The Great Famine: Northern
the Early Fourteenth Century. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane (1994). A history of women in the West (New
ed.). Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press.
The Black Death
Benedictow, Ole J. (2004). The
Black Death 1346–1353: The Complete
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Herlihy, David (1997). The
Black Death and the transformation of the
West. Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press.
Horrox, Rosemary (1994). The Black Death. Manchester: Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-3497-3.
Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Volume 1
(1st ed.). Taylor & Francis, Inc.: Cambridge University Press.
Ziegler, Philip (2003). The
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Allmand, Christopher (1988). The Hundred Years War:
England and France
at War c. 1300–c. 1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chase, Kenneth (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge:
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Contamine, Philippe (1984). War in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Curry, Anne (1993). The Hundred Years War. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the
Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195143663.
Keen, Maurice (1984). Chivalry. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Verbruggen, J. F. (1997). The Art of Warfare in Western
the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340 (2nd ed.).
Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-630-4.
Cipolla, Carlo M. (1993). Before the Industrial Revolution: European
Society and Economy 1000–1700 (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
Cipolla, Carlo M. (ed.) (1993). The Fontana Economic History of
Europe, Volume 1: The
Middle Ages (2nd ed.). New York: Fontana Books.
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Kenny, Anthony (1985). Wyclif. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Arts and sciences
Brotton, Jerry (2006). The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction.
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Snyder, James (2004). Northern
Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture,
the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575 (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.
Welch, Evelyn (2000). Art in
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Wilson, David Fenwick (1990). Music of the Middle Ages. New York:
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