The Info List - Late Latin

--- Advertisement ---

Late Latin
is the scholarly name for the written Latin
of Late Antiquity.[1] The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD,[2][3] extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century.[1] This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
is not identical with Vulgar. The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin
reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin
vocabulary and constructs, it remains largely classical in its overall features, depending on the author. Some are more literary and classical, but some are more inclined to the vernacular. Also, Late Latin
is not identical to Christian or to patristic Latin, the theological writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote much Late Latin, especially in the early part of the period. Late Latin
formed while mercenaries from non-Latin-speaking peoples on the borders of the empire were being subsumed and assimilated in large numbers, and the rise of Christianity was introducing a heightened divisiveness in Roman society, creating a greater need for a standard means of communicating between different socioeconomic registers and widely separated regions of the sprawling empire. A new and more universal speech evolved from the main elements: Classical Latin, Christian Latin, which featured sermo humilis, "ordinary speech" in which the people were to be addressed,[4] and all the various dialects of Vulgar Latin.[5] The linguist Antoine Meillet
Antoine Meillet
said, "without the exterior appearance of the language being much modified, Latin
became in the course of the imperial epoch a new language”,[6] and “serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary ...”.[7]


1 Philological constructs

1.1 Late and post-classical Latin 1.2 Imperial Latin 1.3 Christian, patristic, vulgate and ancient Latin 1.4 Low Latin 1.5 Through the death of Boethius

2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Philological constructs[edit] Late and post-classical Latin[edit] Neither Late Latin
nor Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
are modern terms or concepts; their origin remains obscure. Neither are they ancient; a notice in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of the publication of Andrews' Freund's Lexicon of the Latin
Language in 1850 mentions that the dictionary divides Latin
into ante-classic, quite classic, Ciceronian, Augustan, post-Augustan and post-classic or late Latin,[8][9] which indicates the term already was in professional use by English classicists in the early 19th century. Instances of English vernacular use of the term may also be found from the 18th century. The term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Imperial Latin[edit] Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel's first edition (1870) of History of Roman Literature defined an early period, the Golden Age, the Silver Age and then goes on to define other ages first by dynasty and then by century (see under Classical Latin). In subsequent editions he subsumed all periods under three headings: the First Period (Old Latin), the Second Period (the Golden Age) and the Third Period, "the Imperial Age", subdivided into the Silver Age, the 2nd century, and Centuries 3–6 together, which was a recognition of Late Latin, as he sometimes refers to the writings of those times as "late." Imperial Latin
went on into English literature; Fowler's History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903.[10] There are, however, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin. Politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, and yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
no longer existed; the rule of Gothic kings prevailed. Subsequently the term Imperial Latin
was dropped by historians of Latin
literature, although it may be seen in marginal works. The Silver Age was extended a century and the final four centuries represent Late Latin. Christian, patristic, vulgate and ancient Latin[edit] Main articles: Ecclesiastical Latin, Vulgate, Vetus Latina, Patrologia Latina, and Patristics Low Latin[edit]

St. Gildas, one of a number of Late Latin
writers to promulgate an excidium or ruina Britanniae because of moral turpitude.

Low Latin
is a vague and often pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin
from Late Latin
through Renaissance Latin depending on the author.[clarification needed] Its origins are obscure but the Latin
expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary (by today's standards a dictionary) by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange. The multi-volume set had many editions and expansions by other authors subsequently. The title varies somewhat; most commonly used was Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis. It has been translated by expressions of widely different meanings. The uncertainty is understanding what media, "middle", and infima, "low", mean in this context. The media is securely connected to Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
by Cange's own terminology expounded in the Praefatio,[11] such as scriptores mediae aetatis, "writers of the middle age." Cange's Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period (Late Latin) to the Renaissance, dipping into the classical period if a word originated there. Either media et infima Latinitas refers to one age, which must be the middle age covering the entire post-classical range, or it refers to two consecutive periods, infima Latinitas and media Latinitas. Both interpretations have their adherents.

Edward Gibbon, English historian who espoused the concept of a decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
resulting in its fall.

In the former case the infimae appears extraneous; it recognizes the corruptio of the corrupta Latinitas Cange said his Glossary covered.[12] The two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, translated into English as "Low Latin" (which in the one-period case would be identical to media Latinitas). Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero
(of the Golden Age). He has already said in the Preface that he rejects the ages scheme used by some: Golden Age, Silver Age, Brass Age, Iron Age. A second category are the inferioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Apuleius (Silver Age). The third and main category are the infimae Latinitatis scriptores, who must be post-classical; that is, Late Latin, unless they are also medieval. His failure to state which authors are low leaves the issue unresolved. He does however give some idea of the source of his infima, which is a classical word, "lowest", of which the comparative degree is inferior, "lower." In the Preface he opposes the style of the scriptores aevi inferioris (Silver Age) to the elegantes sermones, "elegant speech", the high and low styles of Latinitas defined by the classical authors. Apparently Cange was basing his low style on sermo humilis, the simplified speech devised by Late Latin
Christian writers to address the ordinary people. Humilis (humble, humility) means "low", "of the ground". The Christian writers were not interested in the elegant speech of the best or classical Latin, which belonged to their aristocratic pagan opponents. Instead they preferred a humbler style lower in correctness, so that they might better deliver the gospel to the vulgus or "common people." Low Latin
in this view is the Latin
of the two periods in which it has the least degree of purity, or is most corrupt. By corrupt du Cange only meant that the language had resorted to non-classical vocabulary and constructs from various sources, but his choice of words was unfortunate. It allowed the "corruption" to extend to other aspects of society, providing fuel for the fires of religious (Catholic vs. Protestant) and class (conservative vs. revolutionary) conflict. Low Latin
passed from the heirs of the Italian renaissance to the new philologists of the northern and Germanic climes, where it became a different concept. In Britain Gildas' view that Britain fell to the Anglo-Saxons because it was morally slack was already well known to the scholarly world. The northern Protestants now worked a role reversal: if the language was "corrupt" it must be symptomatic of a corrupt society, which indubitably led to a "decline and fall", as Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
put it, of imperial society. Writers taking this line relied heavily on the scandalous behavior of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian dynasty
and the bad emperors reported by Tacitus
and other writers and later by the secret history of Procopius, who hated his royal employers to such a degree that he could not contain himself about their real methods and way of life any longer. They, however, spoke elegant Latin. The Protestants changed the scenario to fit their ideology that the church needed to be purified of corruption. For example, Baron Bielfeld, a Prussian officer and comparative Latinist, characterised the low in Low Latin, which he saw as medieval Latin, as follows:

French: Le quatrieme âge de la langue Latine, est celui où pendant le reste du moyen âge & les premiers siecles des temps modernes, le Latin
tomba successivement dans une telle décadence, que ce ne fut plus qu’un jargon barbare. C’est au Latin
de cet âge qu’on a donné le nom de basse Latinité ; […] en effet […] tellement corrompu, altéré, mêlé d’expressions étrangeres […] Et que pouvoit-on espérer pour la langue Latine d’un temps où des Nations Barbares pénétrerent dans toute l’Europe, & sur-tout en Italie, où l’Empire d’Orient étoit gouverné par des imbécilles, où les moeurs étoient abominables, où les arts & les sciences étoient comme anéantis, où les Prêtres & les Moines, &c. étoient les seuls lettrés, & néanmoins les plus ignorans & les plus ineptes personnages du monde. Aussi faut-il ranger sous ces temps ténébreux ce Latin
absurde qu’on nommoit lingua Ecclesiastica, & qu’on ne sauroit lire sans dégoût.[13]

The fourth age of the Latin
tongue is that of the remainder of the middle age, and the 1st centuries of modern times, during which the language fell by degrees into so great a decadency, that it became nothing better than a barbarous jargon. It is the style of these times that is given the name of Low Latin. ... What indeed could be expected from this language, at a time when the barbarians had taken possession of Europe, but especially of Italy; when the empire of the east was governed by idiots; when there was a total corruption of morals; when the priests and monks were the only men of letters, and were at the same time the most ignorant and futile mortals in the world. Under these times of darkness, we must, therefore, rank that Latin, which is called lingua ecclesiastica, and which we cannot read without disgust.[14]

— The Elements of Universal Erudition, containing an Analytical Abrigement of the Sciences, Polite Arts and Belles Lettres

As ‘Low Latin’ tends to be muddled with Vulgar Latin, Late Latin and Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and has unfortunate extensions of meaning into the sphere of socioeconomics, it has gone out of use by the mainstream philologists of Latin
literature. A few writers on the periphery still mention it, influenced by the dictionaries and classic writings of former times.



As Teuffel's scheme of the Golden Age and the Silver Age is the generally accepted one, the canonical list of authors should begin just after the end of the Silver Age, regardless of what 3rd century event is cited as the beginning; otherwise there are gaps. Teuffel gave the end of the Silver Age as the death of Hadrian
at 138 AD. His classification of styles left a century between that event and his final period, the 3rd–6th centuries BC, which was in other systems being considered Late Antiquity. Starting with Charles Thomas Crutwell's A History of Roman Literature from the Earliest Period to the Death of Marcus Aurelius, which first came out in 1877, English literary historians have included the spare century in Silver Latin. Accordingly, the latter ends with the death of the last of the five good emperors in 180 AD. Other authors use other events, such as the end of the Nervan–Antonine dynasty
Nervan–Antonine dynasty
in 192 AD or later events. A good round date of 200 AD gives a canonical list of nearly no overlap. The transition between Late Latin
and Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
is by no means as easy to assess. Taking that media et infima Latinitas was one style, Mantello in a recent handbook asserts of "the Latin
used in the middle ages" that it is "here interpreted broadly to include late antiquity and therefore to extend from c. AD 200 to 1500."[15] Although recognizing "late antiquity" he does not recognize Late Latin. It did not exist and Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
began directly at 200 BC. In this view all differences from Classical Latin
are bundled as though they evolved through a single continuous style. Of the two-style interpretations the Late Latin
period of Erich Auerbach and others is one of the shortest: "In the first half of the 6th century, which witnessed the beginning and end of Ostrogoth
rule in Italy, Latin
literature becomes medieval. Boethius
was the last 'ancient' author and the role of Rome
as the center of the ancient world, as communis patria, was at an end."[16] In essence, the lingua franca of classical vestiges was doomed when Italy
was overrun by the Goths, but its momentum carried it one lifetime further, ending with the death of Boethius
in 524 AD. Not everyone agrees that the lingua franca came to an end with the fall of Rome, but argue that it continued and became the language of the reinstituted Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(predecessor of the Holy Roman Empire) under Charlemagne. Toward the end of his reign his administration conducted some language reforms. The first recognition that Late Latin
could not be understood by the masses and therefore was not a lingua franca was the decrees of 813 AD by synods at Mainz, Rheims
that from then on preaching was to be done in a language more understandable to the people, which was stated by Tours
Canon 17 as rustica Romana lingua, identified as proto-Romance, the descendant of Vulgar Latin.[17] Late Latin
as defined by Meillet was at an end; however, Pucci's Harrington's Mediaeval Latin
sets the end of Late Latin
when Romance began to be written, " Latin
retired to the cloister" and "Romanitas lived on only in the fiction of the Holy Roman Empire."[18] The final date given by those authors is 900 AD. Through the death of Boethius[edit]

Constantine the Great



Domitius Ulpianus
Domitius Ulpianus
(170 AD – 228 AD), jurist, imperial officer Julius Paulus Prudentissimus (2nd & 3rd centuries AD), jurist, imperial officer Aelius Marcianus (2nd & 3rd centuries AD), jurist Herennius Modestinus (3rd century AD), jurist Censorinus (3rd century AD), historian, essayist Quintus Gargilius Martialis (3rd century AD), horticulturalist, pharmacologist Gaius Asinius Quadratus (3rd century AD), historian Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (AD 160 - 220), "the father of Latin
Christianity", polemicist against heresy Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus (AD 200 - 258), converted rhetorician, bishop of Carthage, martyr, saint Novatianus
(200 AD – 258 AD), theologian, rival pope, excommunicant Quintus Serenus Sammonicus
Serenus Sammonicus
(2nd century AD, early 3rd century AD), scholar, educator Commodianus (3rd century AD), poet, Christian educator Lucius Caelius Firmianus Lactantius
(AD 240 - 320), converted rhetorician, scholar, Christian apologist and educator Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
(4th century AD), soldier, imperial officer, historian Claudius Claudianus
Claudius Claudianus
(4th century AD), court poet Gaius Julius Solinus (3rd or 4th century AD), topical writer Nonius Marcellus (3rd or 4th century AD), topical writer Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus (fl. 283 AD), poet Aquila Romanus (3rd century AD), rhetorician Eumenius of Autun (3rd century AD), educator Aelius Festus Aphthonius (3rd or 4th century AD), grammarian Calcidius
(4th century AD), translator Gaius Marius Victorinus (4th century AD), converted philosopher Arnobius of Sicca
Arnobius of Sicca
(4th century), Christian apologist Constantine I
Constantine I
(272 AD – 337 AD), first Christian emperor Nazarius (4th century AD), rhetorician, educator Gaius Julius Victor (4th century AD), rhetorician Gaius Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus (4th century AD), Christian poet Nonius Marcellus (3rd and 4th centuries AD), grammarian, lexicographer Julius Firmicus Maternus (4th century AD), converted advocate, pagan and Christian writer Aelius Donatus (4th century AD), grammarian, rhetorician, educator Palladius (408/431 AD – 457/461 AD), saint, first bishop of Ireland Sextus Aurelius Victor (AD 320 - 390), imperial officer, historian Eutropius (4th century AD), imperial officer, historian Aemilius Magnus Arborius (4th century AD), poet, educator, friend of the imperial family Decimius Magnus Ausonius
(ca. 310 AD – 395 AD), poet, rhetorician, educator, friend of the imperial family Claudius Mamertinus (4th century AD), imperial officer, panegyricist, embezzler Hilarius (4th century AD), converted neo-Platonist, theologian, bishop of Poitiers, saint Ambrosius (337/340 AD – 397 AD), theologian, Bishop of Milan, saint Lucifer (d. 370/371 AD), theologian, Bishop of Sardinia Priscillianus (d. 385 AD), theologian, first person executed as a heretic Flavius Sosipater Charisius (4th century AD), grammarian Diomedes Grammaticus (4th century AD), grammarian Postumius Rufus Festus Avienus (4th century AD), imperial officer, poet, translator Priscianus Caesariensis
Priscianus Caesariensis
(fl. AD 500), grammarian

See also[edit]

Decline of the Roman Empire Panegyrici Latini, a collection of 3rd to 4th century panegyrics; their language is however predominantly classical (Golden Age) Latin base, derived from an education heavy on Cicero, mixed with a large number of Silver Age usages and a small number of Late and Vulgar terms.


^ a b Roberts (1996), p.537. ^ "Late Latin". Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Volume II, H to R. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 1961.  ^ "Late Latin". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.). Boston, New York, London: Houghton Mifflin Company.  ^ Auerbach (1958), Chapter 1, Sermo Humilis. ^ Harrington, Karl Pomeroy; Pucci, Joseph Michael (1997). Mediaeval Latin
(2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-226-31713-7. Retrieved 1 June 2011. The combination of features specific to Vulgar Latin
and Ecclesiastical Latin
had the effect, then, of transforming the language by the fourth century into something of extraordinary vigor.  ^ Meillet (1928), p.270: "Sans que l'aspect extérieur de la langue se soit beaucoup modifié, le Latin
est devenu au cours de l'epoque impériale une langue nouvelle." ^ Meillet (1928), p. 273. "Servant en quelque sorte de lingua franca à un grand empire, le Latin
a tendu à se simplifier, à garder surtout ce qu'il avait de banal ...." ^ "Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Monthly Record of Current Events". I. 1850: 705.  ^ Ethan Allen Andrews; William Freund (1851). A Copious and Critical Latin-English Lexicon: Founded on the Larger Latin-German Lexicon of Dr. William Freund; with Additions and Corrections from the Lexicons of Gesner, Facciolati, Scheller, Georges, Etc. Harper & Brothers.  ^ Fowler, Harold North (1903). A History of Roman Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 3. The third or Imperial Period lasts from 14 A. D. to the beginning of the Middle Ages.  ^ Du Cange, Charles du Fresne; et al. (1840). "Præfatio LXII". Glossarium mediæ et infimæ Latinitatis. Volume 1. Paris: Firmin Didot Fratres. p. 41. Retrieved 1 June 2011.  ^ Du Cange, Charles du Fresne; et al. (1840). "Præfatio LXIII". Glossarium mediæ et infimæ Latinitatis. Volume 1. Paris: Firmin Didot Fratres. pp. 41–42. Retrieved 1 June 2011.  ^ The text was originally published in French, the court language of Prussia
at the time: von Bielfeld, Jakob Friedrich (1767). Les premiers traits de l'érudition universelle : ou, analyse abregée de toutes les sciences, des beaux-arts et des belles-lettres. III. Leiden: Luchtmans. p. 317.  ^ von Bielfeld, Jakob Friedrich (1770). The Elements of Universal Erudition, containing an Analytical Abrigement of the Sciences, Polite Arts and Belles Lettres. III. Translated by Hooper, W. London: G. Scott. p. 345.  ^ Mantello, FAC (1999) [1996]. "Part I". In Mantello, Frank Anthony Carl; Rigg, A. G. Medieval Latin: an introduction and bibliographical guide. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press. p. 3.  ^ Auerbach (1965), p.85. ^ Uytfanghe, Marc Van (1996). "The consciousness of a linguistic dichotomy (Latin-Romance) in Carolingian Gaul: the contradictions of the sources and of their interpretation". In Wright, Roger. Latin
and the Romance languages
Romance languages
in the early Middle Ages. University Park, Penn.: Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 114–120. ISBN 0-271-01569-1.  ^ Harrington, Karl Pomeroy; Pucci, Joseph Michael (1997). Mediaeval Latin
(2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 196. ISBN 0-226-31713-7. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 


Auerbach, Erich (1965) [1958]. Literary Language and its Public in Late Latin
Antiquity and in the Middle Ages. Bollingen Series LXXIV. Trans. Ralph Mannheim. Pantheon Books.  Meillet, Antoine (1928). Esquisse d'une Histoire de la Langue Latine (in French). Paris: Hachette.  Roberts, Michael (1996). "The Latin
Literature of Late Antiquity". In Anthony, Frank; Mantello, Carl; Rigg, A.G. Medieval Latin: an introduction and bibliographical guide. Catholic University of America Press. pp. 537–546.  Teuffel, Wilhelm Sigismund; Schwabe, Ludwig (1892). Teuffel's History of Roman Literature Revised and Enlarged. II, The Imperial Period. Trans. George C.W. Warr (from the 5th German ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. 

Library resources about Late Latin

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Adams, J. N., Nigel Vincent, and Valerie Knight. 2016. Early and Late Latin: Continuity Or Change? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Courcelle, Pierre. 1969. Late Latin
Writers and Their Greek Sources. Translated by Harry Wedeck. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Elsner, Jaś, and Jesús Hernández Lobato. 2017. The Poetics of Late Latin
Literature. New York: Oxford University Press. Langslow, D. R. 2006. The Latin
Alexander Trallianus: The Text and Transmission of a Late Latin
Medical Book. London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. Löfstedt, Einar. 1959. Late Latin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Wright, Roger. 1982. Late Latin
and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France. Liverpool, UK: Francis Cairns. --. 2003. A sociophilological study of Late Latin. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

External links[edit]

"Christian Latin" (in Latin). The Latin
Library. Retrieved 12 October 2009.  Du Cange, Charles du Fresne (2009) [1710]. Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Latinitatis. Francofurti ad Moenum: apud Johannem Adamum Jungium, CAMENA - Corpus Automatum Multiplex Electorum Neolatinitatis Auctorum, University of Heidelberg.  "du Cange, le Glossarium: en ligne". École nationale des Chartres. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2009.  "Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis". Documenta Catholica Omnia. 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2009. 

v t e

Ages of Latin

until 75 BC Old Latin

75 BC – 200 AD Classical Latin

200–900 Late Latin

900–1300 Medieval Latin

1300–1500 Renaissance Latin

1500–present New Latin

1900–present Contemporary Latin

History of Latin Latin
literature Vulgar Latin Ecclesiastical Latin Romance languages Latino sine flexione Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum Hiberno-Latin Judeo-Latin

v t e

Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome

Outline Timeline


Foundation Kingdom




Pax Romana Principate Dominate Western Empire

fall historiography of the fall

Byzantine Empire

decline fall


History Kingdom Republic Empire Late Empire Senate Legislative assemblies

Curiate Centuriate Tribal Plebeian

Executive magistrates SPQR


Curia Forum Cursus honorum Collegiality Emperor Legatus Dux Officium Prefect Vicarius Vigintisexviri Lictor Magister militum Imperator Princeps senatus Pontifex Maximus Augustus Caesar Tetrarch Optimates Populares Province



Consul Censor Praetor Tribune Tribune
of the Plebs Military tribune Quaestor Aedile Promagistrate Governor


Rex Interrex Dictator Magister Equitum Decemviri Consular Tribune Triumvir


Twelve Tables Mos maiorum Citizenship Auctoritas Imperium Status Litigation


Borders Establishment Structure Campaigns Political control Strategy Engineering Frontiers and fortifications


Technology Army

Legion Infantry tactics Personal equipment Siege engines

Navy Auxiliaries Decorations and punishments Hippika gymnasia


Agriculture Deforestation Commerce Finance Currency Republican currency Imperial currency


Abacus Numerals Civil engineering Military engineering Military technology Aqueducts Bridges Circus Concrete Domes Forum Metallurgy Roads Sanitation Thermae


Architecture Art Bathing Calendar Clothing Cosmetics Cuisine Hairstyles Education Literature Music Mythology Religion Romanization Sexuality Theatre Wine


Patricians Plebs Conflict of the Orders Secessio plebis Equites Gens Tribes Naming conventions Demography Women Marriage Adoption Slavery Bagaudae


History Alphabet Versions

Old Classical Vulgar Late Medieval Renaissance New Contemporary Ecclesiastical

Romance languages



Ammianus Marcellinus Appian Appuleius Asconius Pedianus Augustine Aurelius Victor Ausonius Boëthius Caesar Catullus Cassiodorus Censorinus Cicero Claudian Columella Ennius Eutropius Fabius Pictor Festus Florus Frontinus Fulgentius Gellius Horace Jerome Juvenal Livy Lucan Lucretius Macrobius Marcus Aurelius Martial Orosius Ovid Petronius Phaedrus Plautus Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger Priscian Propertius Quintilian Quintus Curtius Rufus Sallust Seneca the Elder Seneca the Younger Servius Sidonius Apollinaris Statius Suetonius Symmachus Tacitus Terence Tertullian Tibullus Valerius Antias Valerius Maximus Varro Velleius Paterculus Verrius Flaccus Virgil Vitruvius


Arrian Cassius Dio Diodorus Siculus Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dioscorides Eusebius of Caesaria Galen Herodian Josephus Pausanias Philostratus Phlegon of Tralles Photius Plutarch Polybius Porphyrius Procopius Strabo Zonaras Zosimus

Major cities

Alexandria Antioch Aquileia Berytus Bononia Carthage Constantinopolis Eboracum Leptis Magna Londinium Lutetia Mediolanum Pompeii Ravenna Roma Smyrna Vindobona Volubilis

Lists and other topics

Cities and towns Climate Consuls Distinguished women Emperors Generals Gentes Geographers Institutions Laws Legacy Legions Nomina Tribunes Wars and battles

Fiction Films