Late Jurassic
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The Late Jurassic is the third
epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
of the
Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a Geological period, geologic period and System (stratigraphy), stratigraphic system that spanned from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period, approximately Mya. The Ju ...
Period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical composition * Period, a descriptor for a historical or period drama ...
, and it spans the
geologic time The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological datingChronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously establish ...

geologic time
from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8
million years ago One million (1,000,000), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' l ...
(Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic
strata (Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is ...
.Owen 1987. In European
lithostratigraphy through Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a Geological period, geologic period and System (stratigraphy), stratigraphic system that spanned from the end of the Triassic period million years ago (Year, Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous period app ...
, the name "Malm" indicates rocks of Late Jurassic age. In the past, ''Malm'' was also used to indicate the unit of geological time, but this usage is now discouraged to make a clear distinction between lithostratigraphic and geochronologic/chronostratigraphic units.


Subdivisions

The Late Jurassic is divided into three ages, which correspond with the three (faunal) stages of Upper Jurassic rock:


Paleogeography

During the Late Jurassic Epoch,
Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea () was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology) ...

Pangaea
broke up into two
supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...
s,
Laurasia Laurasia (), a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "Portmanteau (luggage), portmanteau") is a Blend word, blend of words
to the north, and
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (ge ...

Gondwana
to the south. The result of this break-up was the spawning of the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. However, at this time, the Atlantic Ocean was relatively narrow.


Life forms of the epoch

This epoch is well known for many famous types of
dinosaur Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptile Reptiles, as most commonly defined, are the animals in the Class (biology), class Reptilia , a paraphyletic grouping comprising all amniotes except synapsids (mammals and their extinct relatives) an ...

dinosaur
s, such as the
sauropod Sauropoda (), whose members are known as sauropods (; from ''sauro- This is a list of common affixes used when scientific name, scientifically naming species, particularly extinct species for whom only their scientific names are used, along wit ...

sauropod
s, the
theropod Theropoda ( from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mi ...
s, the
thyreophora Thyreophora ("shield bearers", often known simply as "armored dinosaurs") is a group of Armour (zoology), armored ornithischian dinosaurs that lived from the early Jurassic Geological period, Period until the end of the Cretaceous. Thyreophorans ...
ns, and the
ornithopod Ornithopods () or members of the clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic—that is, composed of a common ancestor and al ...

ornithopod
s. Other animals, such as
crocodile Crocodiles (family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subj ...

crocodile
s and the first
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of indiv ...

bird
s, appeared in the Jurassic. Listed here are only a few of the many Jurassic animals: :*''
Camarasaurus ''Camarasaurus'' ( ) was a genus of quadrupedal, herbivore, herbivorous dinosaurs. It was the most common of the giant sauropods to be found in North America. Its fossil remains have been found in the Morrison Formation of Colorado and Utah, dati ...

Camarasaurus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from North America :*''
Apatosaurus ''Apatosaurus'' (; meaning "deceptive lizard") is a genus of herbivorous sauropod dinosaur that lived in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisph ...

Apatosaurus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from North America :*''
Brachiosaurus ''Brachiosaurus'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classificatio ...

Brachiosaurus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from North America :*''
Brontosaurus ''Brontosaurus'' (; meaning "thunder lizard" from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its po ...

Brontosaurus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from North America :*''
Diplodocus ''Diplodocus'' (, , or ) is a genus of diplodocid sauropod dinosaurs, whose fossils were first discovered in 1877 by Samuel Wendell Williston, S. W. Williston. The generic name, coined by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, is a New Latin, neo-Lati ...

Diplodocus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from North America :*''
Barosaurus ''Barosaurus'' ( ) was a giant, long-tailed, long-necked, herbivore, plant-eating dinosaur closely related to the more familiar ''Diplodocus''. Remains have been found in the Morrison Formation from the Jurassic, Upper Jurassic Period (geology), ...

Barosaurus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from North America :*''
Europasaurus ''Europasaurus'' is a basal macronarian sauropod, a form of quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaur. It lived during the Late Jurassic (middle Kimmeridgian, about 154 million years ago) of northern Germany, and has been identified as an example of insula ...

Europasaurus
'', a small herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from Europe :*''
Supersaurus ''Supersaurus'' (meaning "super lizard") is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. ...

Supersaurus
'', possibly the largest North American sauropod of them all :*''
Dicraeosaurus
Dicraeosaurus
'', a large herbivorous sauropod dinosaur from Africa :*''
Giraffatitan ''Giraffatitan'' (name meaning "titanic giraffe") is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period (geology), Period (Kimmeridgian–Tithonian stages). It was originally named as an African species of ''Brachiosaurus'' ( ...
'', another large sauropod from Africa (usually recognized as a species of ''Brachiosaurus'') :*''
Allosaurus ''Allosaurus'' () is a genus of large carnivorous theropoda, theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Epoch (geology), epoch (Kimmeridgian to late TithonianTurner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). ...

Allosaurus
'', possibly the biggest Jurassic predator, the most common Late Jurassic theropod of North America, also present in Europe :*'' Epanterias'', one of the largest Jurassic carnivores, from North America (possibly just ''Allosaurus'') :*''Torvosaurus'', a large Jurassic carnivore, from North America and Europe :*''Ceratosaurus'', a medium-sized Jurassic carnivore of North America, Europe, and possibly Africa :*''Compsognathus'', a small theropod from Europe :*''Yangchuanosaurus'', a large theropod from Asia :*''Tuojiangosaurus'', a thyreophoran from Asia :*''Stegosaurus'', a thyreophoran from North America and Europe :*''Dryosaurus'', a North American ornithopod :*''Camptosaurus'', an ornithopod from North America and possibly Europe :*''Gargoyleosaurus'', a thyreophoran from North America :*''Archaeopteryx'', the first known bird, from Europe :*''Rhamphorhynchus (pterosaur), Rhamphorhynchus'' a long-tailed pterosaur from Europe :*''Pterodactylus'', a short-tailed pterosaur from Europe. :*''Ophthalmosaurus'', a very common sea-going ichthyosaur from what is now Europe and North America :*''Liopleurodon'', a medium-sized sea-going pliosaur from what is now Europe :*''Perisphinctes'', an ammonite


References

* * {{Authority control Late Jurassic, Geological epochs Jurassic geochronology