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The Last Supper
Last Supper
is the final meal that, in the Gospel
Gospel
accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles
Apostles
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
before his crucifixion.[2] The Last Supper
Last Supper
is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday.[3] The Last Supper
Last Supper
provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".[4] The First Epistle to the Corinthians
First Epistle to the Corinthians
contains the earliest known mention of the Last Supper. The four canonical Gospels all state that the Last Supper
Last Supper
took place towards the end of the week, after Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and that Jesus
Jesus
and his Apostles
Apostles
shared a meal shortly before Jesus
Jesus
was crucified at the end of that week.[5][6] During the meal Jesus
Jesus
predicts his betrayal by one of the Apostles
Apostles
present, and foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny knowing him.[5][6] The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
and the First Epistle to the Corinthians include the account of the institution of the Eucharist
Eucharist
in which Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the Apostles, saying "This is my body given to you".[5][6] The Gospel
Gospel
of John does not include this episode, but tells of Jesus
Jesus
washing the feet of the Apostles, giving the new commandment "to love one another as I have loved you", and has a detailed farewell discourse by Jesus, calling the Apostles
Apostles
who follow his teachings "friends and not servants", as he prepares them for his departure.[7][8] Scholars have looked to the Last Supper
Last Supper
as the source of early Christian Eucharist
Eucharist
traditions.[9][10] Others see the account of the Last Supper
Last Supper
as derived from 1st-century eucharistic practice[10][11] as described by Paul in the mid-50s.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Scriptural basis

2.1 Background and setting 2.2 Prediction of Judas' betrayal 2.3 Institution of the Eucharist 2.4 Prediction of Peter's denial 2.5 Elements unique to the Gospel
Gospel
of John

3 Time and place

3.1 Date 3.2 Location

4 Theology of the Last Supper 5 Remembrances 6 Passover
Passover
parallels 7 Historicity 8 Artistic depictions 9 See also 10 Citations 11 References 12 External links

Terminology[edit]

Last Supper, mosaic

The term "Last Supper" does not appear in the New Testament,[12][13] but traditionally many Christians refer to the New Testament
New Testament
accounts of the last meal Jesus
Jesus
shared with his Apostles
Apostles
as the "Last Supper".[13] Most Protestants use the term "Lord's Supper", stating that the term "last" suggests this was one of several meals and not the meal.[14][15] The term "Lord's Supper" refers both to the biblical event and the act of "Holy Communion" and Eucharistic ("thanksgiving") celebration within their liturgy. Evangelical Protestants also use the term "Lord's Supper", but most do not use the terms "Eucharist" or the word "Holy" with the name "Communion".[16] The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
use the term "Mystical Supper" which refers both to the biblical event and the act of Eucharistic celebration within liturgy.[17] Scriptural basis[edit] The last meal that Jesus
Jesus
shared with his disciples is described in all four canonical Gospels (Mt. 26:17–30, Mk. 14:12–26, Lk. 22:7–39 and Jn. 13:1–17:26). This meal later became known as the Last Supper.[6] The Last Supper
Last Supper
was likely a retelling of the events of the last meal of Jesus
Jesus
among the early Christian community, and became a ritual which recounted that meal.[18] Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians,[11:23–26] which was likely written before the Gospels, includes a reference to the Last Supper but emphasizes the theological basis rather than giving a detailed description of the event or its background.[5][6] Background and setting[edit]

The Last Supper
Last Supper
by Dieric Bouts

The overall narrative that is shared in all Gospel
Gospel
accounts that leads to the Last Supper
Last Supper
is that after the Triumphal entry into Jerusalem early in the week, and encounters with various people and the Jewish elders, Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples share a meal towards the end of the week. After the meal, Jesus
Jesus
is betrayed, arrested, tried, and then crucified.[5][6] Key events in the meal are the preparation of the disciples for the departure of Jesus, the predictions about the impending betrayal of Jesus, and the foretelling of the upcoming denial of Jesus
Jesus
by Apostle Peter.[5][6] Prediction of Judas' betrayal[edit] Main article: Jesus
Jesus
predicts his betrayal In Matthew 26:24–25, Mark 14:18–21, Luke 22:21–23 and John 13:21–30 during the meal, Jesus
Jesus
predicted that one of his Apostles would betray him.[19] Jesus
Jesus
is described as reiterating, despite each Apostle's assertion that he would not betray Jesus, that the betrayer would be one of those who were present, and saying that there would be woe to the man who betrays the Son of man! It would be better for him if he had not been born.[Mark 14:20–21] In Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27, Judas is specifically identified as the traitor. In the Gospel
Gospel
of John, when asked about the traitor, Jesus
Jesus
states: “It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.” Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him."[5][6] Institution of the Eucharist[edit] Main article: Origin of the Eucharist

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In the course of the Last Supper, Jesus
Jesus
divides up some bread, says a prayer, and hands the pieces of bread to his disciples, saying "this is my body." He then takes a cup of wine, offers another prayer, and hands it around, saying "this is my blood of the everlasting covenant, which is poured for many." Finally, according to Paul and Luke, he tells the disciples "do this in remembrance of me." This event has been regarded by Christians of most denominations as the institution of the Eucharist. There is recorded celebration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
by the early Christian community in Jerusalem.[7] The institution of the Eucharist
Eucharist
is recorded in the three Synoptic Gospels and in Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians. The words of institution differ slightly in each account. In addition, Luke 22:19b–20 is a disputed text which does not appear in some of the early manuscripts of Luke. Some scholars, therefore, believe that it is an interpolation, while others have argued that it is original.[20][21] A comparison of the accounts given in the Gospels and 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
is shown in the table below, with text from the ASV. The disputed text from Luke 22:19b–20 is in italics.

Mark 14:22–24 And as they were eating, he took bread, and when he had blessed, he brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take ye: this is my body. And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them: and they all drank of it. And he said unto them, ‘This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.’

Matthew 26:26–28 And as they were eating, Jesus
Jesus
took bread, and blessed, and brake it; and he gave to the disciples, and said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, ‘Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many unto remission of sins.’

1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
11:23–25 For I received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus
Jesus
in the night in which he was betrayed took bread; and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, ‘This is my body, which is for you: this do in remembrance of me.’ In like manner also the cup, after supper, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood: this do, as often as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.’

Luke 22:19–20 And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and gave to them, saying, ‘This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.’ And the cup in like manner after supper, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood, even that which is poured out for you.’

The Last Supper
Last Supper
by Fritz von Uhde
Fritz von Uhde
(1886)

Jesus' actions in sharing the bread and wine have been linked with Isaiah 53:12 which refers to a blood sacrifice that, as recounted in Exodus 24:8, Moses
Moses
offered in order to seal a covenant with God. Scholars often interpret the description of Jesus' action as asking his disciples to consider themselves part of a sacrifice, where Jesus is the one due to physically undergo it.[22] Although the Gospel
Gospel
of John does not include a description of the bread and wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that John 6:58–59 (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a Eucharistic nature and resonates with the "words of institution" used in the Synoptic Gospels and the Pauline writings on the Last Supper.[23] Prediction of Peter's denial[edit] Main article: Denial of Peter In Matthew 26:33–35, Mark 14:29–31, Luke 22:33–34 and John 13:36–8 Jesus
Jesus
predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him, stating that Peter will disown him three times before the rooster crows the next morning. The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
mention that after the arrest of Jesus, Peter denied knowing him three times, but after the third denial, heard the rooster crow and recalled the prediction as Jesus
Jesus
turned to look at him. Peter then began to cry bitterly.[24][25] Elements unique to the Gospel
Gospel
of John[edit] See also: Washing the feet of the Apostles, The New Commandment, and Farewell discourse

Jesus
Jesus
giving the Farewell Discourse
Farewell Discourse
to his eleven remaining disciples, from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308–1311.

In John, Jesus' last supper is not explicitly referred to as a Passover
Passover
meal. Furthermore, John's recounting of events has the crucifixion taking place concurrently with the evening Passover
Passover
meal. Recent scholarship suggests that John's chronological peculiarity is a result of his use of a more modern calendar than the one that would have been in use when Jesus
Jesus
was alive years earlier. As a result, the evidence dates the Last Supper
Last Supper
to the same evening as the start of Passover, with the crucifixion taking place two days later.[26] John therefore stands alone in its sequencing, which contradicts not only the uniform chronology expressed in the Synoptics but also the recent scholarship, the conclusions of which are supported by historical astronomical data.[26] John 13 includes the account of the washing the feet of the Apostles by Jesus
Jesus
before the meal.[27] In this episode, Apostle Peter
Apostle Peter
objects and does not want to allow Jesus
Jesus
to wash his feet, but Jesus
Jesus
answers him, “Unless I wash you, you have no part with me”,[Jn 13:8] after which Peter agrees. In the Gospel
Gospel
of John, after the departure of Judas from the Last Supper, Jesus
Jesus
tells his remaining disciples [John 13:33] that he will be with them for only a short time, then gives them a New Commandment, stating:[28][29] “A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another.” in John 13:34–35. Two similar statements also appear later in John 15:12: "My command is this: Love each other as I have loved you", and John 15:17: "This is my command: Love each other."[29] At the Last Supper
Last Supper
in the Gospel
Gospel
of John, Jesus
Jesus
gives an extended sermon to his disciples.[John 14–16] This discourse resembles farewell speeches called testaments, in which a father or religious leader, often on the deathbed, leaves instructions for his children or followers.[30] This sermon is referred to as the Farewell discourse
Farewell discourse
of Jesus, and has historically been considered a source of Christian doctrine, particularly on the subject of Christology. John 17:1–26 is generally known as the Farewell Prayer
Prayer
or the High Priestly Prayer, given that it is an intercession for the coming Church.[31] The prayer begins with Jesus' petition for his glorification by the Father, given that completion of his work and continues to an intercession for the success of the works of his disciples and the community of his followers.[31] Time and place[edit] Date[edit]

13th century Orthodox Russian icon from 1497

See also: Chronology of Jesus Historians estimate that the date of the crucifixion fell in the range AD 30–36.[32][33][34] Physicists such as Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
and Colin Humphreys have ruled out the years 31, 32, 35, and 36 on astronomical grounds, leaving 7 April AD 30 and 3 April AD 33 as possible crucifixion dates.[35] Humphreys proposes narrowing down the date of the Last Supper
Last Supper
as having occurred in the evening of Wednesday, 1 April AD 33,[36] by revising Annie Jaubert's double- Passover
Passover
theory. The rationale is as follows. All Gospels agree that Jesus
Jesus
held a Last Supper
Last Supper
with his disciples prior to dying on a Friday at or just before the time of Passover (annually on 15 Nisan, the official Jewish day beginning at sunset) and that his body was left in the tomb for the whole of the next day, which was a Shabbat
Shabbat
(Saturday).[Mk. 15:42] [16:1–2] However, while the Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
present the Last Supper
Last Supper
as a Passover
Passover
meal,[Matt. 26:17][Mk. 14:1–2] [Lk 22:1–15] the Gospel
Gospel
of John makes no explicit mention that the Last Supper
Last Supper
was a Passover
Passover
meal and presents the official Jewish Passover
Passover
feast as beginning in the evening a few hours after the death of Jesus. John thus implies that the Friday of the crucifixion was the day of preparation for the feast (14 Nisan), not the feast itself (15 Nisan), and astronomical calculations of ancient Passover
Passover
dates initiated by Isaac Newton, and posthumously published in 1733, support John's chronology.[37] Historically, various attempts to reconcile the three synoptic accounts with John have been made, some of which are indicated in the article on the Last Supper
Last Supper
by Francis Mershman in the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia. The Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
church tradition assumes that the Last Supper
Last Supper
was held on the evening before the crucifixion day (although, strictly speaking, in no Gospel
Gospel
is it unequivocally said that this meal took place on the night before Jesus
Jesus
died).[38] A new approach to resolve this contrast was undertaken in the wake of the excavations at Qumran
Qumran
in the 1950s when Annie Jaubert argued that there were two Passover
Passover
feast dates: while the official Jewish lunar calendar had Passover
Passover
begin on a Friday evening in the year that Jesus died, a solar calendar was also used, for instance by the Essene community at Qumran, which always had the Passover
Passover
feast begin on a Tuesday evening. According to Jaubert, Jesus
Jesus
would have celebrated the Passover
Passover
on Tuesday, and the Jewish authorities three days later, on Friday.[39] However, Humphreys has calculated that Jaubert's proposal cannot be correct, as the Qumran
Qumran
solar Passover
Passover
would always fall after the official Jewish lunar Passover. Nevertheless, he agrees with the approach of two Passover
Passover
dates, and argues that the Last Supper
Last Supper
took place on the evening of Wednesday 1 April 33, based on his recent discovery of the Essene, Samaritan, and Zealot lunar calendar, which is based on Egyptian reckoning.[40][41] Humphreys' implication is that Jesus
Jesus
and other communities were following the original Hebrew calendar putatively imported from Egypt by Moses
Moses
(which requires calculating the time of the invisible new moon), rather than the official Jewish calendar which had been adopted more recently, in the 6th century BC during the Babylonian exile (which simply requires observing the visible waxing moon). A Last Supper
Last Supper
on Wednesday, he argues, would allow more time than in the traditional view (Last Supper on Thursday) for the various interrogations of Jesus
Jesus
and his presentation to Pilate before he was crucified on Friday. Furthermore, a Wednesday Last Supper, followed by a Thursday daylight Sanhedrin trial, followed by a Friday judicial confirmation and crucifixion would not require violating Jewish court procedure as documented in the 2nd century, which forbade capital trials at night and moreover required a confirmatory session the following day. In a review of Humphreys' book, the Bible scholar William R Telford points out that the non-astronomical parts of his argument are based on the assumption that the chronologies described in the New Testament are historical and based on eyewitness testimony. In doing so, Telford says, Humphreys has built an argument upon unsound premises which "does violence to the nature of the biblical texts, whose mixture of fact and fiction, tradition and redaction, history and myth all make the rigid application of the scientific tool of astronomy to their putative data a misconstrued enterprise."[42] Location[edit] Main article: Cenacle

The Cenacle
Cenacle
on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.

According to later tradition, the Last Supper
Last Supper
took place in what is today called The Room of the Last Supper
Last Supper
on Mount Zion, just outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is traditionally known as The Upper Room. This is based on the account in the Synoptic Gospels that states that Jesus
Jesus
had instructed two disciples (Luke 22:8 specifies that Jesus
Jesus
sent Peter and John) to go to "the city" to meet "a man carrying a jar of water", who would lead them to a house, where they would find "a large upper room furnished and ready".[Mark 14:13–15] In this upper room they "prepare the Passover". No more specific indication of the location is given in the New Testament, and the "city" referred to may be a suburb of Jerusalem, such as Bethany, rather than Jerusalem
Jerusalem
itself. The traditional location is in an area that, according to archaeology, had a large Essene
Essene
community, a point made by scholars who suspect a link between Jesus
Jesus
and the group (Kilgallen 265). Saint Mark's Syrian Orthodox Church in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is another possible site for the room in which the Last Supper
Last Supper
was held, and contains a Christian stone inscription testifying to early reverence for that spot. Certainly the room they have is older than that of the current coenaculum (crusader – 12th century) and as the room is now underground the relative altitude is correct (the streets of 1st century Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were at least twelve feet (3.7 metres) lower than those of today, so any true building of that time would have even its upper story currently under the earth). They also have a revered Icon of the Virgin Mary, reputedly painted from life by St Luke. Bargil Pixner[43] claims the original site is located beneath the current structure of the Cenacle
Cenacle
on Mount Zion. Theology of the Last Supper[edit]

The Washing of Feet and the Supper, from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308–1311. Peter often displays amazement in feet washing depictions, as in John 13:8.

St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
viewed The Father, Christ, and the Holy Spirit as teachers and masters who provide lessons, at times by example. For Aquinas, the Last Supper
Last Supper
and the Cross form the summit of the teaching that wisdom flows from intrinsic grace, rather than external power.[44] For Aquinas, at the Last Supper
Last Supper
Christ taught by example, showing the value of humility (as reflected in John's foot washing narrative) and self-sacrifice, rather than by exhibiting external, miraculous powers.[44][45] Aquinas stated that based on John 15:15 (in the Farewell discourse) in which Jesus
Jesus
said: "No longer do I call you servants; ...but I have called you friends". Those who are followers of Christ and partake in the Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Eucharist
Eucharist
become his friends, as those gathered at the table of the Last Supper.[44][45][46] For Aquinas, at the Last Supper Christ made the promise to be present in the Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Eucharist, and to be with those who partake in it, as he was with his disciples at the Last Supper.[47] John Calvin
John Calvin
believed only in the two sacraments of Baptism and the "Lord's Supper" (i.e., Eucharist). Thus, his analysis of the Gospel accounts of the Last Supper
Last Supper
were an important part of his entire theology.[48][49] Calvin related the Synoptic Gospel
Gospel
accounts of the Last Supper
Last Supper
with the Bread of Life Discourse
Bread of Life Discourse
in John 6:35 that states: "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will never go hungry."[49] Calvin also believed that the acts of Jesus
Jesus
at the Last Supper
Last Supper
should be followed as an example, stating that just as Jesus
Jesus
gave thanks to the Father before breaking the bread,[1 Cor. 11:24] those who go to the "Lord's Table" to receive the sacrament of the Eucharist must give thanks for the "boundless love of God" and celebrate the sacrament with both joy and thanksgiving.[49] Remembrances[edit] Main article: Maundy Thursday See also: Agape
Agape
feast

Simon Ushakov's icon of the Mystical Supper.

The institution of the Eucharist
Eucharist
at the Last Supper
Last Supper
is remembered by Roman Catholics as one of the Luminous Mysteries
Luminous Mysteries
of the Rosary, the First Station of a so-called New Way of the Cross and by most Christians as the "inauguration of the New Covenant", mentioned by the prophet Jeremiah, fulfilled at the last supper when Jesus
Jesus
"took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to them, and said, 'Take; this is my body.' And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. And he said to them, 'This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.'"[Mk. 14:22–24] [Mt. 26:26–28][Lk. 22:19–20] Other Christian groups consider the Bread and Wine remembrance to be a change to the Passover ceremony, as Jesus
Jesus
Christ has become "our Passover, sacrificed for us",[1 Cor. 5:7] and hold that partaking of the Passover Communion (or fellowship) is now the sign of the New Covenant, when properly understood by the practicing believer. These meals evolved into more formal worship services and became codified as the Mass in the Catholic Church, and as the Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church; at these liturgies, Catholics and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
celebrate the Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Eucharist. The name "Eucharist" is from the Greek word εὐχαριστία (eucharistia) which means "thanksgiving". Early Christianity
Early Christianity
observed a ritual meal known as the "agape feast"[50] These "love feasts" were apparently a full meal, with each participant bringing food, and with the meal eaten in a common room. They were held on Sundays, which became known as the Lord's Day, to recall the resurrection, the appearance of Christ to the disciples on the road to Emmaus, the appearance to Thomas and the Pentecost
Pentecost
which all took place on Sundays after the Passion. Passover
Passover
parallels[edit]

Last Supper, Carl Bloch. In some depictions John the Apostle
John the Apostle
is placed on the right side of Jesus, some to the left.

Among Christian denominations, the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church holds that this Eucharistic meal was not the Passover
Passover
Seder, but a separate meal.[51] The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
documents also specifically reject the Seder arguments and state that given that no Jewish Seder texts exist earlier than the 9th century, it is historically implausible to attempt a reconstruction of the Seder to create a parallel to the Last Supper, and that the Gospel
Gospel
accounts clearly indicate that the purpose of the Last Supper
Last Supper
was not the annual repetition of the Exodus.[52] The fifth chapter in Quran, Al-Ma'ida (the table) contains a reference to a meal (Sura 5:114) with a table sent down from God to ʿĪsá (i.e., Jesus) and the apostles (Hawariyyin). However, there is nothing in Sura 5:114 to indicate that Jesus
Jesus
was celebrating that meal regarding his impending death, especially as the Qur'an insists that Jesus
Jesus
was never crucified to begin with. Thus although, Sura 5:114 refers to "a meal", there is no indication that it is the Last Supper.[53] However, some scholars believe that Jesus' manner of speech during which the table was sent down suggests that it was an affirmation of the apostles' resolves and to strengthen their faiths as the impending trial was about to befall them.[54] Historicity[edit] Some Jesus
Jesus
Seminar scholars consider the Lord's supper to have derived not from Jesus' last supper with the disciples but rather from the gentile tradition of memorial dinners for the dead.[55] In this view, the Last Supper
Last Supper
is a tradition associated mainly with the gentile churches that Paul established, rather than with the earlier, Jewish congregations.[55] Prominent New Testament
New Testament
Scholar E.P. Sanders states in his book The Historical Figure of Jesus
Jesus
that Jesus
Jesus
having a final meal with his disciples is almost beyond dispute, and belongs to the framework of the narrative of Jesus' life.[56] Luke is the only Gospel
Gospel
in which Jesus
Jesus
tells his disciples to repeat the ritual of bread and wine.[57] Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
states that these particular lines do not appear in certain ancient manuscripts and might not be original to the text.[58] However, it is in the earliest Greek manuscripts, e.g. P75, Sinaticus, Vaticanus and Ephraemi Rescriptus. However, many early Church Fathers
Church Fathers
have attested to the belief that at the Last Supper, Christ made the promise to be present in the Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Eucharist, with attestations dating back to the first century AD.[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66] The teaching was also affirmed by many councils throughout the Church's history.[67][68] Artistic depictions[edit] Main article: Last Supper
Last Supper
in Christian art

The first Eucharist, depicted by Juan de Juanes, mid-late 16th century

The Last Supper
Last Supper
has been a popular subject in Christian art.[1] Such depictions date back to early Christianity
Christianity
and can be seen in the Catacombs of Rome. Byzantine
Byzantine
artists frequently focused on the Apostles
Apostles
receiving Communion, rather than the reclining figures having a meal. By the Renaissance, the Last Supper
Last Supper
was a favorite topic in Italian art.[69] There are three major themes in the depictions of the Last Supper: the first is the dramatic and dynamic depiction of Jesus' announcement of his betrayal. The second is the moment of the institution of the tradition of the Eucharist. The depictions here are generally solemn and mystical. The third major theme is the farewell of Jesus
Jesus
to his disciples, in which Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
is no longer present, having left the supper. The depictions here are generally melancholy, as Jesus prepares his disciples for his departure.[1] There are also other, less frequently depicted scenes, such as the washing of the feet of the disciples.[70] Well known examples include Leonardo da Vinci's depiction, which is considered the first work of High Renaissance
Renaissance
art due to its high level of harmony,[71] Tintoretto's depiction which is unusual in that it includes secondary characters carrying or taking the dishes from the table[72] and Salvadore Dali's depiction combines the typical Christian themes with modern approaches of Surrealism.[73]

Depictions of Last Supper

Miniature depiction from circa 1230

Communion of the Apostles, by Fra Angelico, with donor portrait, 1440–41

Domenico Ghirlandaio, 1480, depicting Judas separately

Valentin de Boulogne, 1625–1626

Last Supper, sculpture

Last Supper
Last Supper
by Jaume Huguet

Last Supper
Last Supper
by Tiepolo

The Last Supper, by Bouveret, 19th century

Last Supper, by Gustave Van de Woestijne, 1927

See also[edit]

Bread of Life Discourse Chronology of Jesus Eucharist Farewell discourse Friday the 13th Life of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament List of dining events New Covenant (theology)

Citations[edit]

^ a b c Gospel
Gospel
figures in art by Stefano Zuffi 2003 ISBN 978-0892367276 pp. 254–59 ^ "Last Supper. The final meal Christ with His Apostles
Apostles
on the night before the Crucifixion.", Cross, F. L., & Livingstone, E. A. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd ed. rev.) (958). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ^ Gwyneth Windsor, John Hughes (21 November 1990). Worship and Festivals. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0435302733. Retrieved 11 April 2009. On the Thursday, which is known as Maundy Thursday, Christians remember the Last Supper
Last Supper
which Jesus
Jesus
had with His disciples. It was the Jewish Feast of the Passover, and the meal which they had together was the traditional Seder feast, eaten that evening by the Jews everywhere.  ^ Walter Hazen (1 September 2002). Inside Christianity. Lorenz Educational Press. ISBN 978-0787705596. Retrieved 3 April 2012. The Anglican Church in England uses the term Holy Communion. In the Roman Catholic Church, both terms are used. Most Protestant churches refer to the sacrament simply as communion or The Lord's Supper. Communion reenacts the Last Supper
Last Supper
that Jesus
Jesus
ate with His disciples before he was arrested and crucified.  ^ a b c d e f g The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0781438683 pp. 465–77 ^ a b c d e f g h The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, 2005 ISBN 978-0802824165 pp. 52–56 ^ a b Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church / editors, F. L. Cross & E. A. Livingstone 2005 ISBN 978-0192802903, article Eucharist ^ The Gospel
Gospel
according to John by Colin G. Kruse 2004 ISBN 0802827713 p. 103 ^ "The custom of placing the eucharist at the heart of the worship and fellowship of the Church may have been inspired not only by the disciples’ memory of the Last Supper
Last Supper
with Jesus
Jesus
but also by the memory of their fellowship meals with Him during both His days on earth and the forty days of His risen appearances.", Bromiley, G. W. (1988; 2002). Vol. 3: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised (164). Wm. B. Eerdmans. ^ a b The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN 0195138864 ^ Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus
Jesus
Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. Introduction, pp. 1–40 ^ An Episcopal dictionary of the church by Donald S. Armentrout, Robert Boak Slocum 2005 ISBN 0898692113 p. 292 ^ a b The Gospel
Gospel
according to Luke: introduction, translation, and notes, Volume 28, Part 1 by Joseph A. Fitzmyer 1995 ISBN 0385005156 p. 1378 ^ The Companion to the Book of Common Worship by Peter C. Bower 2003 ISBN 0664502326 pp. 115–16 ^ Liturgical year: the worship of God Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 1992 ISBN 978-0664253509 p. 37 ^ Humanists and Reformers: A History of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Reformation by Bard Thompson 1996 ISBN 978-0802863485 pp. 493–94 ^ The Orthodox Church by John Anthony McGuckin 2010 ISBN 978-1444337310 pp. 293, 297 ^ The church according to the New Testament
New Testament
by Daniel J. Harrington 2001 ISBN 1580511112 p. 49 ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0805494448 p. 182 ^ "Lord's Supper, The" in New Bible Dictionary, 3rd edition; IVP, 1996; p. 697 ^ Craig Blomberg (1997), Jesus
Jesus
and the Gospels, Apollos, p. 333  ^ (Brown et al. 626) ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 ISBN 9053565035 p. 792 ^ Peter: apostle for the whole church by Pheme Perkins 2000 ISBN 0567087433 p. 85 ^ The Gospel
Gospel
according to Matthew, Volume 1 by Johann Peter Lange 1865 Published by Charles Scribner Co, NY p. 499 ^ a b "Was the Last Supper
Last Supper
24 hours earlier? Scientist claims historic meal was TWO days before Jesus’ crucifixion", Daily Mail Reporter, April 18, 2011. Daily Mail website. Retrieved 10 Feb. 2017. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "John" pp. 302–10 ^ Encountering John: The Gospel
Gospel
in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective by Andreas J. Kostenberger 2002 ISBN 0801026032 pp. 149–51 ^ a b 1, 2, and 3 John by Robert W. Yarbrough 2008 ISBN 0801026873 Baker Academic Press p. 215 ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus
Jesus
Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. ^ a b The Gospel
Gospel
according to John by Herman Ridderbos 1997 ISBN 978-0802804532 The Farewell Prayer: pp. 546–76 ^ Jesus
Jesus
& the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0830826998 pp. 19–21 ^ Paul's early period: chronology, mission strategy, theology by Rainer Riesner
Rainer Riesner
1997 ISBN 978-0802841667 pp. 19–27 (p. 27 has a table of various scholarly estimates) ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0805443653 pp. 77–79 ^ Colin J. Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper
Last Supper
Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0521732000, pp. 62–63 [1] ^ Humphreys 2011, p. 72 and p.189 ^ Pratt, J. P. (3 September 1991). "Newton's Date for the Crucifixion". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 32 (3): 301. Bibcode:1991QJRAS..32..301P.  ^ "Judaism and Christianity
Christianity
in the first century". google.com.  ^ Pope Benedict XVI (2011). "The Dating of the Last Supper". Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth. Catholic Truth Society and Ignatius Press. pp. 106–15. ISBN 978-1586175009.  ^ Humphreys 2011, pp. 164, 168 ^ Staff Reporter (18 April 2011). " Last Supper
Last Supper
was on Wednesday, not Thursday, challenges Cambridge professor Colin Humphreys". International Business Times. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Telford, William R. (2015). "Review of The Mystery of the Last Supper: Reconstructing the Final Days of Jesus". The Journal of Theological Studies. 66 (1): 371–76. doi:10.1093/jts/flv005. Retrieved 29 April 2016.  ^ Bargil Pixner, The Church of the Apostles
Apostles
found on Mount Zion, Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Review 16.3 May/June 1990 [2] ^ a b c Reading John with St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
by Michael Dauphinais, Matthew Levering 2005[ISBN missing] p. xix ^ a b A–Z of Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
by Joseph Peter Wawrykow 2005 ISBN 0334040124 pp. 124–25 ^ The ethics of Aquinas by Stephen J. Pope 2002 ISBN 0878408886 p. 22 ^ The Westminster handbook to Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
by Joseph Peter Wawrykow 2005 ISBN 978-0664224691 p. 124 ^ Reformed worship by Howard L. Rice, James C. Huffstutler 2001 ISBN 0664501478 pp. 66–68 ^ a b c Calvin's Passion for the Church and the Holy Spirit by David S. Chen 2008 ISBN 978-1606473467 pp. 62–68 ^ Agape
Agape
is one of the four main Greek words for love (The Four Loves by C. S. Lewis). It refers to the idealised or high-level unconditional love rather than lust, friendship, or affection (as in parental affection). Though Christians interpret Agape
Agape
as meaning a divine form of love beyond human forms, in modern Greek the term is used in the sense of "I love you" (romantic love). ^ Brown et al. p. 626 ^ Liturgical year: the worship of God. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). 1992. p. 37. ISBN 978-0664253509.  ^ Christology
Christology
in dialogue with Muslims by Ivor Mark Beaumont 2005 ISBN 1870345460 p. 145 ^ Khalife, Maan (2012). " Last Supper
Last Supper
of Jesus
Jesus
According to Islam".  ^ a b Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus
Jesus
Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Mark," pp. 51–161 ^ Sanders. The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin Books. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0140144994.  ^ Vermes, Geza. The authentic gospel of Jesus. London, Penguin Books. 2004. ^ Ehrman, Bart D.. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0060738174 ^ The Martyr, Justin. "The First Apology".  ^ of Lyons, Irenaeus. "Against Heresies".  ^ of Alexandria, Clement. "The Paedagogus (Book I)".  ^ of Antioch, Ignatius. "The Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans".  ^ of Antioch, Ignatius. "The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians".  ^ of Antioch, Ignatius. "The Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans".  ^ Tertullian. "On the Resurrection of the Flesh".  ^ Augustine. "Exposition on Psalm 33 (mistakenly labelled 34)".  ^ "First Council of Nicæa (A.D. 325)".  ^ "Council of Ephesus (A.D. 431)".  ^ Vested angels: eucharistic allusions in early Netherlandish paintings by Maurice B. McNamee 1998 ISBN 978-9042900073 pp. 22–32 ^ Gospel
Gospel
figures in art by Stefano Zuffi 2003 ISBN 978-0892367276 p. 252 ^ Experiencing art around us by Thomas Buser 2005 ISBN 978-0534641146 pp. 382–83 ^ Tintoretto: Tradition and Identity by Tom Nichols 2004 ISBN 1861891202 p. 234 ^ The mathematics of harmony by Alexey Stakhov, Scott Olsen 2009 ISBN 978-9812775825 pp. 177–78

References[edit]

Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
Doubleday 1997 ISBN 0385247672 Brown, Raymond E. et al. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary Prentice Hall 1990 ISBN 0136149340 Bultmann, Rudolf The Gospel
Gospel
of John Blackwell 1971 Kilgallen, John J. A Brief Commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark Paulist Press 1989 ISBN 0809130599 Linders, Barnabas The Gospel
Gospel
of John Marshall Morgan and Scott 1972

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Last Supper.

 Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "The Last Supper". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  "Last Supper" on Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

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