Montenegro has one official language, specified in the Constitution of 2007 as Montenegrin. At the 2011 census, 42% of the population declared Serbian to be their native language, while 37% declared it to be Montenegrin. Linguistically, they are the same language (different standardized varieties of Serbo-Croatian), but an incipient Montenegrin standard is in the process of being formulated.
Recognized minority languages are Albanian, Bosnian, and Croatian. As of 2017, Albanian is an official language of the municipalities of Podgorica, Ulcinj, Bar, Pljevlja, Rozaje and Tuzi. Additionally, there are a few hundred Italians in Montenegro, concentrated in the Bay of Kotor (Cattaro).
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages entered into force in Montenegro in June 2006, following the independence of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006. The Constitution of Montenegro from 2007 states that Montenegrin is the official language of country, while Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian and Albanian are languages in official use. The Constitution states that languages in official use are those of groups that form at least 1% of the population of Montenegro, as per the 2003 population census. The Law on National Minorities specifies that the percentage of members of national minorities in total population of the local government should be 15% in order for their language and script to be introduced in official use. Media founded by the Montenegro government are obliged to broadcast news, cultural, educational, sports and entertainment programs in minority languages. Minorities and their members have the right to education in their language in regular and vocational education.
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