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Urdu
Urdu
 • Limbu
Limbu
 • Maithili  • Nepalbhasa  • Angika  • Tharu  • Hindi  • Gurung  • Tamang  • Magar  • Sherpa  • Dzongkha
Dzongkha
 • Kiranti  • Sunuwar
Sunuwar
 • Rajbanshi  • Bhojpuri

Sign languages Nepali Sign Language  • Jhankot Sign Language  • Jumla Sign Language  • Ghandruk Sign Language

The 2011 National census lists 123 Nepalese languages spoken as a mother tongue (first language) in Nepal.[2] Most belong to the Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan language families. The official language of Nepal
Nepal
is Nepali, formerly called Khaskura then Gorkhali. According to the 2011 national census, the percentage of Nepali speaking people is about 44.6%.[3][dead link] Maithili is the second largest Nepalese language and according to 2011 Census, the percentage of Maithil
Maithil
people is 11.57%.[4][dead link] Most of their languages are written using the Devanagari
Devanagari
script including their indigenous languages.

Contents

1 Classification 2 Constitution 3 Languages in Nepal
Nepal
by numbers of native speakers 4 References

Classification[edit] Three quarters of the 123 languages native to Nepal
Nepal
belong to the Tibeto-Burman language family; this includes Nepalbhasa (Newa) (the original language of Kathmandu), the Limbu, Tamang, Magar, Gurung and various sunuwar, Rai languages. However, the official and numerically most important language, Nepali, belongs to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the Indo-European family, so that Indic languages constitute 79% of the population to Tibeto-Burman's 18%, even though most languages of both families are spoken by small numbers of people. The small declining number of Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are represented by Kurux, and the Munda languages
Munda languages
of the Austroasiatic family
Austroasiatic family
by Santali and Mundari. The indigenous languages of Nepal
Nepal
that predated the influx of Indic, Tibeto-Burman, and other families barely survive in the Kusunda language, which is nearly extinct today. Nepal
Nepal
also has at several indigenous village sign languages, Jhankot Sign Language, Jumla Sign Language, and Ghandruk Sign Language, in addition to the Nepali Sign Language designed for national use. Constitution[edit] Part 1 of the Constitution of Nepal
Nepal
2015 (2072 B.S.) contains these provisions about the languages of Nepal:[5]

Article 6: All native languages spoken in Nepal
Nepal
are National languages of Nepal. Article 7a: Nepali language
Nepali language
in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is used for Nepal government work. (Indigenous languages also are to be written using Devanagari.) Article 7b: Beside Nepali language, the Provinces can choose one or more other languages spoken by majority population of that province for government work.

Languages in Nepal
Nepal
by numbers of native speakers[edit] (Their percents are assumed to add to 100.)

Language Native Speaker Count Percentage (%)

Nepali 11,826,953 44.63926934

Maithili 3,092,530 11.67234533

Bhojpuri 1,584,958 5.982214274

Tharu 1,529,875 5.774310778

Tamang 1,353,311 5.10789332

Nepalbhasa (Newa) 846,557 3.195217393

Bajjika 793,416 2.994643719

Magar 788,530 2.976202159

Dotyali 787,827 2.973548778

Urdu 691,546 2.610148882

Awadhi 501,752 1.89379654

Limbu 343,603 1.296884063

Gurung 325,622 1.229017158

Baitadeli 272,524 1.028605782

Rai 159,114 0.600554741

Aachami 142,787 0.53893064

Bantaba 132,583 0.500416992

Rajbanshi 122,214 0.461280574

Sherpa 114,830 0.433410642

Chamling 76,800 0.289871439

Bajhangi 67,581 0.255075543

Santhali 49,858 0.188182425

Chepang 48,476 0.182966248

Sunuwar 37,898 0.143040987

Language Not Known 47,718 0.180105278

Danuwar 45,821 0.172945302

Magahi 35,614 0.134420331

Uraue 33,651 0.127011247

Kulung 33,170 0.125195776

Kham 27,113 0.102334431

Rajasthani 25,394 0.095846293

Maghi 24,422 0.092177608

Thami 23,151 0.087380387

Bhujel 21,715 0.081960395

Other language 21,173 0.079914687

Bengali 21,061 0.079491958

Thulung 20,659 0.077974662

Yakhka 19,558 0.073819083

Dhimal 19,300 0.072845297

Tajpuriya 18,811 0.070999631

Angika 18,555 0.070033393

Sangpang 18,270 0.068957698

Khaling 14,467 0.054603777

Bambule 13,470 0.050840733

Kumal 12,222 0.046130322

Darau 11,677 0.044073292

Bahing 11,658 0.044001579

Bajureli 10,704 0.040400832

Hyomlo 10,176 0.038407966

Nachiring 10,041 0.037898426

Thmpu 9,208 0.034754378

Bote 8,766 0.033086107

Ghale 8,092 0.030542183

Dumi 7,638 0.02882862

Lepcha 7,499 0.028303983

Puma 6,686 0.025235422

Dumangli 6,260 0.023627542

Darchuleli 5,928 0.022374452

AathPahariya 5,530 0.020872253

Thakali 5,242 0.019785235

Jireli 4,829 0.018226422

Mobahang 4,650 0.01755081

Sanketik 4,476 0.01689407

Tibbati 4,445 0.016777064

Meche 4,375 0.016512859

Chhantyal 4,283 0.016165617

Raji 3,758 0.014184074

Lohorung 3,716 0.01402555

Chintal 3,712 0.014014646

Gangai 3,612 0.013633016

Pahari 3,458 0.013051763

Dailekhi 3,102 0.011708089

Lhopaa 3,029 0.01143256

Dura 2,156 0.008137537

Koche 2,080 0.007850685

Chiling 2,046 0.007722356

English 2,032 0.007669515

Jerojerung 1,763 0.00665421

Khas 1,747 0.00659382

Sanskrit 1,669 0.00629942

Total 26,494,504 100

References[edit]

^ According to Interim Constitution, Nepali is only the official language (article 5, point 2). Other languages spoken as the mother tongue in Nepal
Nepal
are national languages (article 5, point 1). According to article 5, point 3, all languages are accepted as official languages at the regional level. This part of the article is about native names and not about official language.[clarification needed]Nepal_Interim_Constitution2007 ^ Official Summary of Census (2011), Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal
Nepal
Archived 2012-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Major highlights" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. 2013. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Major highlights" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics , NepalI, Maithili and other Nepalese languages. 2013. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ Nepali Constitution 2015 Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. PDF

v t e

Languages of Nepal

Official language

Nepali

Indigenous languages

Sino-Tibetan

Kiranti

Bahing Bantawa Belhare Chamling Limbu Sampang Sunwar Thulung Vayu Waling Yakkha

Magaric

Bhujel Chepang Dura Kham Magar

Tamangic

Chantyal Gurung Manang Tamang

Tibetic

Jirel Kyirong-Kagate Mugomt Naapa Sherpa Sikkimese Yolmo

Other

Baram Dhimal Kaike Lepcha Newar Raji Raute Thangmi

Indo-Aryan

Angika Awadhi Bhojpuri Danwar Doteli Jumli Maithili Rangpuri Tharu Marwari

Other

Ghandruk Sign Language Jhankot Sign Language Jumla Sign Language Kusunda Majhwar Mundari Nepali Sign Language

v t e

Major languages of South Asia

Main articles

Languages of India

list by number of speakers scheduled

Languages of Pakistan Languages of Bangladesh Languages of Bhutan Languages of the Maldives Languages of Nepal Languages of Sri Lanka

Contemporary languages

Austronesian

Sri Lankan Creole Malay

Dravidian

Brahui Jeseri Kannada Malayalam Tamil Telugu Tulu

Indo-Aryan

Angika Assamese Bhojpuri Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Dhivehi Dogri Gujarati Hindi Hindko Kashmiri Konkani Kumaoni Magahi Mahal Maithili Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Saraiki Sindhi Sinhala Sylheti Rajasthani language Urdu

Iranian

Balochi Pashto Wakhi

Isolates

Great Andamanese Burushaski Nihali Kusunda

Mon–Khmer

Khasi Nicobarese

Munda

Ho Korku Mundari Santali Sora

Ongan

Önge Jarawa

Tibeto-Burman

Ao Bodo Dzongkha Garo Meithei Mizo Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa Sikkimese Tenyidie Tibetan Tripuri

European influence

English

Indian English Pakistani English Sri Lankan English

French Portuguese

Scripts

Historical

Indus (Undeciphered) Brahmi (Abugida) Kharosthi

Brahmic

Devanagari Bengali Gujarati Gurmukhī Malayalam Kannada Odia Ranjana Sinhala Tamil Telugu

European

Latin alphabet

Arabic

Arwi Nastaʿlīq Shahmukhi Arabi Malayalam

Language activism

Hela Havula Bengali Language Movement Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival Pure Tamil movement Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa movement Punjabi Language Move

.