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More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia . Most belong to the Austronesian language family , with a few Papuan languages also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as _Bahasa Indonesia_), a variant of Malay , which was used in the archipelago, borrowing heavily from local LANGUAGES OF INDONESIA such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabu . The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages , such as Javanese , as their first language. Most books printed in Indonesia are written in the Indonesian language.

Since Indonesia recognises only a single official language, other languages are not recognised either at the national level or the regional level, thus making Javanese the most widely spoken language without official status , with Sundanese the second in the list (excluding Chinese dialects).

CONTENTS

* 1 Languages by speakers

* 1.1 Comparison chart

* 1.1.1 Indonesian languages

* 2 Challenge * 3 Language education policy * 4 Languages by family * 5 Sign languages

* 6 Writing system

* 6.1 List of writing systems

* 7 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1) in Languages of Indonesia * 8 References * 9 External links

LANGUAGES BY SPEAKERS

Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in Indonesia Several major ethno-linguistic groups of Indonesia

LARGEST LANGUAGES IN INDONESIA (Figures indicate numbers of native speakers except for the national language, Indonesian) LANGUAGE NUMBER (MILLIONS) YEAR SURVEYED MAIN AREAS WHERE SPOKEN

Indonesian /Malay 210 2010 throughout Indonesia

Javanese 84.3 2000 (census) Northern Banten , Northern West Java , Yogyakarta , Central Java and East Java

Sundanese 42.0 2016 West Java , Banten , Jakarta

Madurese 13.6 2000 (census) Madura Island ( East Java )

Minangkabau 5.5 2007 West Sumatra , Riau

Musi (Palembang Malay) 3.9 2000 (census) South Sumatra

Manado Malay (Minahasan) 3.8 2001 Minahasa , North Sulawesi

Bugis 3.5 1991 South Sulawesi

Banjarese 3.5 2000 (census) South Kalimantan , East Kalimantan , Central Kalimantan

Acehnese 3.5 2000 (census) Aceh

Balinese 3.3 2000 (census) Bali Island and Lombok Island

Betawi 2.7 1993 Jakarta

Sasak 2.1 1989 Lombok Island ( West Nusa Tenggara )

Batak Toba 2.0 1991 North Sumatra

Ambonese Malay 1.9 1987 Maluku

Makassarese 1.6 1989 South Sulawesi

Batak Dairi 1.2 1991 North Sumatra

Batak Simalungun 1.2 2000 (census) North Sumatra

Batak Mandailing 1.1 2000 (census) North Sumatra

Hokkien Chinese 1.0 2000 North Sumatra , Riau , Riau Islands

Jambi Malay 1.0 2000 (census) Jambi

Mongondow 0.9 1989 North Sulawesi

Gorontalo 0.9 1989 Gorontalo (province)

Ngaju Dayak 0.9 2003 Southern Kalimantan

Nias 0.8 2000 (census) Nias Island , North Sumatra

Batak Angkola 0.7 1991 North Sumatra

North Moluccan Malay 0.7 2001 North Maluku

Min Nan Chinese 0.7 1982 Northern Sumatra, Riau , Riau Islands and West Kalimantan

Hakka Chinese 0.6 1982 Bangka Belitung , Riau Islands and West Kalimantan

Batak Karo 0.6 1991 North Sumatra

Uab Meto 0.6 1997 West Timor ( East Nusa Tenggara )

Bima 0.5 1989 Sumbawa Island ( West Nusa Tenggara )

Manggarai 0.5 1989 Flores Island ( East Nusa Tenggara )

Toraja-Sa’dan 0.5 1990 South Sulawesi , West Sulawesi

Komering 0.5 2000 (census) South Sumatra

Tetum 0.4 2004 West Timor ( East Nusa Tenggara )

Rejang 0.4 2000 (census) Bengkulu

Muna 0.3 1989 Southeast Sulawesi

Basa Semawa 0.3 1989 Sumbawa Island ( West Nusa Tenggara )

Bangka 0.3 2000 (census) Bangka Island ( Bangka Belitung )

Osing 0.3 2000 (census) East Java

Gayo 0.3 2000 (census) Aceh

Cantonese 0.3 2000 North Sumatera , Riau Islands , Jakarta

Tolaki 0.3 1991 Southeast Sulawesi

Lewotobi 0.3 2000 Flores Island ( East Nusa Tenggara )

Tae’ 0.3 1992 South Sulawesi

COMPARISON CHART

Indonesian Languages

Below is a chart of several Indonesian languages. Most of them belong to Austronesian languages family. While there has been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as _language _ and which ones should be classified as _dialect _, the chart confirms that most have similarities, yet are not mutually comprehensible. These languages are arranged according to the numbers of native speakers.

ENGLISH ONE TWO THREE FOUR WATER PERSON HOUSE DOG COCONUT DAY NEW WE (INCLUSIVE) WHAT AND

KUTAINESE satu due tige empat ranam urang rumah koyok nyiur hari beru etam apa dengan

INDONESIAN / MALAY satu dua tiga empat air orang rumah anjing kelapa hari baru kita apa dan

JAVANESE siji loro têlu papat banyu uwòng omah asu kambìl dinå anyar/énggal adhéwé åpå /anu lan

SUNDANESE hiji dua tilu opat cai/ci jalma imah anjing kalapa poé anyar urang naon jeung

MADURESE settong dhuwa' tello' empa' âên oreng roma pate' nyior are anyar sengko apa ban

MINANGKABAU cie' duo tigo ampe' aie urang rumah anjiang karambia hari baru awak apo jo

PALEMBANG MALAY sikok duo tigo empat banyu wong rumah anjing kelapo siang baru kito apo dan

BUGINESE seqdi dua tellu eppa je'ne' tau bola asu kaluku esso ma-baru idiq aga na

BANJARESE asa dua talu ampat banyu urang rumah hadupan nyiur hari hanyar kita apa wan

ACEHNESE sa dua lhèë peuët ië ureuëng rumoh asèë u uroë ban geutanyoë peuë ngon

BALINESE sa dadua telu patpat yèh anak umah cicing nyuh dina mara iraga apa muah

BETAWI atu' due tige empat aer orang rumeh anjing kelape ari baru kite ape ame

SASAK sa/seke' due telu mpat aik dengan bale acong/basong kenyamen/nyioh jelo baru ite ape dait

BATAK TOBA sada dua tolu opat aek halak jabu biang harambiri ari ibbaru hita aha dohot

AMBONESE MALAY satu dua tiga ampa air orang ruma anjing kalapa hari baru katong apa dan

MAKASSARESE se're rua tallu appa' je'ne' tau balla' kongkong kaluku allo beru ikatte apa na

BATAK MANDAILING sada dua tolu opat aek halak bagas asu arambir ari baru hita aha dohot

MONGONDOW inta' dua tolu opat tubig intau baloi ungku' cekut singgai mo-bagu kita onda bo

MANADO MALAY satu dua tiga ampa aer orang ruma anjing kalapa hari baru torang apa deng

DAYAK NGAJU ije' due' telu' epat danum uluh huma' asu enyuh andau taheta itah narai en

LAMPUNG say ʁuwa telu ampat way jelema nuwa asu nyiwi ʁani ampai ʁam api jama

TOLAKI o'aso o'ruo o'tolu o'omba iwoi toono laika odahu sanggore oleo wuohu inggito ohawo ronga

NIAS sara dua tölu öfa idanö niha omo asu banio luo bohou ya'ita hadia ba

CHALLENGE

Main article: List of endangered languages in Indonesia

There are 726 languages spoken across the Indonesian archipelago in 2009 (dropped from 742 languages in 2007), the largest multilingual population in the world only after Papua New Guinea . Indonesian Papua, which is adjacent to Papua New Guinea, has the most languages in Indonesia. Based on the EGIDS classification used by Ethnologue (formerly the Summer Institute of Linguistics ), 63 languages are dying (shown in red on the bar chart, subdivided into Moribund and Nearly Extinct, or Dormant), which is defined as "The only fluent users (if any) are older than child-bearing age, so it is too late to restore natural intergenerational transmission through the home."

LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY

Indonesia's Minister of Education and Culture Muhammad Nuh affirmed in January 2013 that the teaching of local languages as school subjects will be part of the national education curriculum. Nuh stated that much of the public worry about the teaching of local languages being left out of the curriculum is misplaced and that the new curriculum will be conveyed to them.

LANGUAGES BY FAMILY

Several prominent languages spoken in Indonesia sorted by language family are:

* AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES – ( Malayo-Polynesian branch). Most languages spoken in Indonesia belong to this family, which in return are related to languages spoken in Madagascar , Philippines , New Zealand , Hawaii and various Polynesian countries.

* Javanese language , spoken in Yogyakarta , Central Java and East Java . Also found throughout Indonesia and by migrants in Suriname . Most populous Austronesian language by number of first language speaker. * Lampung language , two distinct but closely related languages spoken in Lampung , South Sumatra and Banten . * Rejang language , spoken in Bengkulu province.

* Malayo-Sumbawan languages :

* Malay /Indonesian languages, spoken throughout Indonesia. Also used as national language. * Acehnese language , spoken in Aceh , especially coastal part of Sumatra island. * Minangkabau language , spoken in West Sumatra . * Banjar language , spoken in South , East , and Central Kalimantan . * Sundanese language , spoken in West Java , Banten and Jakarta . * Balinese language , spoken in Bali . * Madurese language , spoken in Madura , Bawean and surrounding islands off the coast of Java . * Sasak language , spoken in Lombok , West Nusa Tenggara .

* Barito languages :

* Ma\'anyan language , related to Malagasy language spoken in Madagascar.

* Northwest Sumatran languages :

* Batak languages , seven closely related languages spoken by the Batak people in the highlands of North Sumatra . * Nias language , in Nias island off the western coast of North Sumatra . * Simeulue language , in Simeulue island off the western coast of Aceh . * Gayo language , in Gayo highlands in central Aceh .

* South Sulawesi languages :

* Bugis language , spoken by Bugis in central South Sulawesi and neighbouring provinces. * Makassarese language , spoken by Makassarese in southern end of South Sulawesi . * Toraja language , spoken by Toraja people in northern highland of South Sulawesi . * Mandar language , spoken in West Sulawesi .

* Philippine languages :

* Gorontalo language , spoken in Gorontalo province. * Mongondow language , spoken in western part of North Sulawesi . * Minahasan languages , spoken in eastern part of North Sulawesi . * Sangihe languages , spoken in northern islands part of North Sulawesi .

* Enggano language of Sumatra is unclassified

* WEST PAPUAN LANGUAGES , indigenous languages family found only in eastern Indonesia (northern Maluku and western Papua ). Not closely related with other language families. Distinct from surrounding Austronesian languages.

* Ternate language , spoken in Ternate and northern Halmahera . * Tidore language , spoken in Tidore and western Halmahera , closely related with above Ternate language.

* TRANS–NEW GUINEA LANGUAGES , indigenous languages family found in eastern Indonesia (Papua , Flores , Timor islands) and New Guinea . Consisting hundreds of languages, including languages of the Asmat and Dani people . * Mairasi languages (4) * East Cenderawasih (Geelvink Bay) languages (10) * Lakes Plain languages (19; upper Mamberamo River ) * Tor–Kwerba languages (17) * Nimboran languages (5) * Skou languages (Skou ) * Border languages (15) * Senagi languages (2) * Pauwasi languages

There are many additional small families and isolates among the Papuan languages .

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Indonesian Sign Language

* Yogyakarta Sign Language * Jakarta Sign Language

* Kata Kolok

WRITING SYSTEM

Like most writing systems in human history, Indonesia's are not rendered in native-invented systems, but devised by speakers of Tamil , Arabic , and Latin . Malay , for example, has a long history as a written language and has been rendered in Brahmic , Arabic , and Latin scripts. Javanese has been written in the Pallava script of South India, as well as their derivative (known as Kawi and Javanese ), in an Arabic alphabet called _pegon _ that incorporates Javanese sounds, and in the Latin script.

Chinese characters have never been used to write Indonesian languages, although Indonesian place-names, personal names, and names of trade goods appear in reports and histories written for China 's imperial courts.

LIST OF WRITING SYSTEMS

* Latin – The official writing system of Indonesian ; most Indonesian languages now adopt Latin script. * Kaganga – Historically used to write Rejangese , an Austronesian language from Bengkulu. * Rencong – A Brahmic-based script, formerly used by Malays before the arrival of Islam, which introduced the Jawi script. * Sundanese – A Brahmic-based script, use by Sundanese to write Sundanese language, although Sundanese also have a standard Latin orthography. * Jawi/Pegon – An Arabic-based script, once widely used throughout Indonesia, now in decline but still use by Malays, Minangkabau , Banjarese , Acehnese and Javanese (which has its own form of Arabic known as Pegon .) * Javanese – A Brahmic-based script use by the Javanese and related peoples, today the script is in rapid decline and largely supplanted by Latin. * Kawi script – The oldest known Brahmic writing system in Indonesia and the ancestor to all Brahmic based writing systems in Insular Southeast Asia. * Balinese – A Brahmic-based script use by the Balinese people to write Balinese, it is closely related to Javanese script. * Rejang – A Brahmic-based script use by the Rejang people of Bengkulu , Sumatra . It is closely related to Kerinci, Lampung and Rencong script. * Kerinci (Kaganga) – A Brahmic-based script use by the Kerincis to write their language . * Batak – A Brahmic-based script, use by the Batak people of North Sumatra . * Lontara – A Brahmic-based script, use by the Buginese in Sulawesi . * Lampungese – A Brahmic-based script, still use by Lampung people to write Lampung language, although they are in rapid decline. Lampung script is closely related to Rencong, Kerinci and Rejang script.

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (ARTICLE 1) IN LANGUAGES OF INDONESIA

English translation:

(_All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood._)

* _INDONESIAN_ (_Bahasa Indonesia_)

“ _Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan._ ”

* Javanese (_Basa Jawa_)

“ _Sabên manungsa kalairake mardika lan darbe martabat lan hak-hak kang pada. Kabeh pinaringan akal lan kalbu sarta kaajab anggone pasrawungan mêmitran siji lan liyane tansah ngugemi jiwa paseduluran_ ”

* Malay (_Bahasa Melayu_)

“ _Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan._ ”

* Minangkabau (_Baso Minangkabau_)

“ _Sadonyo manusia dilahiakan mardeka dan punyo martabat sarato hak-hak nan samo. Mareka dikaruniai aka jo hati nurani, supayo satu samo lain bagaul sarupo urang badunsanak._ ”

* Buginese (_Basa Ugi_)

“ _Sininna rupa tau ri jajiangngi rilinoe nappunnai manengngi riasengnge alebbireng . Nappunai riasengnge akkaleng, nappunai riasengnge ati marennni na sibole bolena pada sipakatau pada massalasureng._ ”

* Balinese (_Basa Bali_)

“ _Sami manusane sane nyruwadi wantah merdeka tur maduwe kautamaan lan hak-hak sane pateh. Sami kalugrain papineh lan idep tur mangdane pada masawitra melarapan semangat pakulawargaan._ ”

* Sundanese (_Basa Sunda_)

“ _Sakumna jalma gubrag ka alam dunya teh sifatna merdika jeung boga martabat katut hak-hak anu sarua. Maranehna dibere akal jeung hate nurani, campur-gaul jeung sasamana aya dina sumanget duduluran._ ”

* Madurese (_Basa Madura_)

“ _Sadajana oreng lahir mardika e sarenge drajat klaban hak-hak se dha-padha. Sadajana eparenge akal sareng nurani ban kodu areng-sareng akanca kadi taretan._ ”

* Musi (_Baso Pelembang_)

“ _Galo-galo uwong dari lahirnyo bebas, samorato martabat jugo hak-haknyo. Wong dienjuk utak samo raso ati, kendaknyo tu begaul sesamo manusio pecak wong sedulur._ ”

* Acehnese (_Bahsa Acèh_)

“ _Bandum ureuëng lahé deungon meurdéhka, dan deungon martabat dan hak njang saban. Ngon akai geuseumiké, ngon haté geumeurasa, bandum geutanjoë lagèë sjèëdara._ ”

* Tetum (_Lia-Tetun_)

“ _Ema hotu hotu moris hanesan ho dignidade ho direitu. Sira hotu iha hanoin, konsiensia n'e duni tenki hare malu hanesan espiritu maun-alin._ ”

* Dawan (_Uab Metô_)

“ _Atoni ma bife ok-okê mahonis kamafutû ma nmuî upan ma hak namnés. Sin napein tenab ma nekmeü ma sin musti nabai es nok es onlê olif-tataf._ ”

“ _Kanan mansian mahonis merdeka ma nok upan ma hak papmesê. Sin naheun nok tenab ma nekmeû ma sin es nok es musti nfain onlê olif-tataf._ ”

* Banjar (_Bahasa Banjar_)

“ _Sabarataan manusia diranakakan bibas mardika wan ba'isi martabat lawan jua ba'isi hak-hak nang sama. Bubuhannya sabarataan dibari'i akal wan jua pangrasa hati nurani, supaya samunyaan urang antara sa'ikung lawan sa'ikung bapatutan nangkaya urang badangsanakan._ ”

* Lampung (_Bahasa Lampung_)

“ _Unyin Jelema dilaheʁko merdeka jama wat pi'il ʁik hak sai gokgoh. Tiyan dikaruniako akal jama hati nurani maʁai unggal tiyan dapok nengah nyampoʁ dilom semangat muaʁiyan._ ”

* Rejangese (_Baso Jang_)

“ _Manusio kutə yo lahia mərdeka ngən punyo hak dik samo. Manusio nəlie Tuhan aka ngən atie, kərno o kəlak nə itə bəkuat do dik luyən nak ləm raso səpasuak_ ”

* Bengkulu Malay (_Bahaso Melayu Bengkulu_)

“ _Segalo orang dilahirkan merdeka kek punyo martabat kek hak-hak yang samo. Tobonyo dikasi akal kek hati nurani supayo bekawan dalam raso cak orang besanak_ ”

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition.". SIL International. Retrieved 17 November 2009. * ^ Sneddon, James (2003). _The Indonesian Language: Its history and role in modern society_. Sydney: University of South Wales Press Ltd. * ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ID * ^ Muhadjir. 2000. _Bahasa Betawi:sejarah dan perkembangannya_. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 13. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013 * ^ "90 Persen Bahasa Ibu di Dunia Terancam Punah". 27 June 2012. * ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/country/ID/status * ^ http://m.antaranews.com/berita/351761/pelajaran-bahasa-daerah-tetap-ada * ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). _Indonesia: Peoples and Histories_. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-300-10518-5 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Graph of Indonesian ethnolinguistics * Linguistic maps of Indonesia * How many people speak Indonesian?

* v * t * e

Languages of

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