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More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.[1] Most belong to the Austronesian language family, with a few Papuan languages
Papuan languages
also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a variant of Malay,[2] which was used in the archipelago, borrowing heavily from local languages of Indonesia
Indonesia
such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabau. The Indonesian language
Indonesian language
is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages, such as Javanese, as their first language.[1] Most books printed in Indonesia
Indonesia
are written in the Indonesian language.[citation needed] Since Indonesia
Indonesia
recognises only a single official language, other languages are not recognised either at the national level or the regional level, thus making Javanese the most widely spoken language without official status, with Sundanese the second in the list (excluding Chinese dialects).

Contents

1 Languages by speakers

1.1 Comparison chart

1.1.1 Indonesian languages

2 Challenges 3 Language
Language
education policy 4 Dutch language 5 Languages by family 6 Sign languages 7 Writing system

7.1 List of writing systems

8 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1) in Languages of Indonesia 9 References 10 External links

Languages by speakers[edit] Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in Indonesia

Several major ethno-linguistic groups of Indonesia

Largest languages in Indonesia[3] (Figures indicate numbers of native speakers except for the national language, Indonesian)

Language Number (millions) Year surveyed Main areas where spoken

Indonesian/Malay 210 2010 throughout Indonesia

Javanese 84.3 2000 (census) throughout Java Island
Java Island
and several provinces in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Kalimantan island.

Sundanese 42.0 2016 West Java, Banten, Jakarta

Madurese 13.6 2000 (census) Madura Island
Madura Island
(East Java)

Minangkabau 5.5 2007 West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, Jakarta

Palembang Malay[4] 3.9 2000 (census) South Sumatra

Minahasa 3.8 2001 North Sulawesi

Buginese 3.5 1991 South Sulawesi

Banjarese 3.5 2000 (census) South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan

Acehnese 3.5 2000 (census) Aceh

Balinese 3.3 2000 (census) Bali
Bali
Island and Lombok
Lombok
Island

Betawi 2.7 1993 Jakarta

Sasak 2.1 1989 Lombok
Lombok
Island (West Nusa Tenggara)

Batak
Batak
Toba 2.0 1991 North Sumatra, Riau, Riau
Riau
Islands, Jakarta

Ambonese Malay 1.9 1987 Maluku

Makassarese 1.6 1989 South Sulawesi

Chinese-Min Nan 1.3 2000 North Sumatra, Riau, Riau
Riau
Islands, West Kalimantan

Batak
Batak
Dairi 1.2 1991 North Sumatra

Batak
Batak
Simalungun 1.2 2000 (census) North Sumatra

Batak
Batak
Mandailing 1.1 2000 (census) North Sumatra

Jambi
Jambi
Malay 1.0 2000 (census) Jambi

Mongondow 0.9 1989 North Sulawesi

Gorontalo 0.9 1989 Gorontalo (province)

Ngaju Dayak 0.9 2003 Central Kalimantan

Nias 0.8 2000 (census) Nias Island, North Sumatra

Batak
Batak
Angkola 0.7 1991 North Sumatra

Manado Malay 0.8 2001 North Sulawesi

North Moluccan Malay 0.7 2001 North Maluku

Chinese-Hakka 0.6 1982 Bangka Belitung, Riau
Riau
Islands and West Kalimantan

Batak
Batak
Karo 0.6 1991 North Sumatra

Uab Meto 0.6 1997 West Timor
West Timor
(East Nusa Tenggara)

Bima 0.5 1989 Sumbawa Island
Sumbawa Island
(West Nusa Tenggara)

Manggarai 0.5 1989 Flores
Flores
Island (East Nusa Tenggara)

Toraja-Sa’dan 0.5 1990 South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi

Komering 0.5 2000 (census) South Sumatra

Tetum 0.4 2004 West Timor
West Timor
(East Nusa Tenggara)

Rejang 0.4 2000 (census) Bengkulu

Muna 0.3 1989 Southeast Sulawesi

Basa Semawa 0.3 1989 Sumbawa Island
Sumbawa Island
(West Nusa Tenggara)

Bangka Malay 0.3 2000 (census) Bangka Island
Bangka Island
(Bangka Belitung)

Osing 0.3 2000 (census) East Java

Gayo 0.3 2000 (census) Aceh

Chinese-Cantonese 0.3 2000 North Sumatera, Riau
Riau
Islands, Jakarta

Tolaki 0.3 1991 Southeast Sulawesi

Lewotobi 0.3 2000 Flores
Flores
Island (East Nusa Tenggara)

Tae’ 0.3 1992 South Sulawesi

Comparison chart[edit] Indonesian languages[edit] Below is a chart of several Indonesian languages. Most of them belong to Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
family. While there have been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as languages and which ones should be classified as dialects, the chart confirms that most have similarities, yet are not mutually comprehensible. These languages are arranged according to the numbers of native speakers.

English one two three four water person house dog coconut day new we (inclusive) what and

Kutainese satu due tige empat ranam urang rumah koyok nyiur hari beru etam apa dengan

Indonesian/ Malay satu dua tiga empat air orang rumah anjing kelapa hari baru kita apa dan

Javanese siji loro têlu[5] papat banyu uwòng[5] omah asu kambìl[5] dinå[5] anyar/énggal[5] adhéwé[5] åpå[5]/anu lan

Sundanese hiji dua tilu opat cai/ci jalma imah anjing kalapa poé anyar urang naon jeung

Madurese settong dhuwa' tello' empa' âên oreng roma pate' nyior are anyar sengko apa ban

Minangkabau cie' duo tigo ampe' aie urang rumah anjiang karambia hari baru awak apo jo

Palembang Malay sikok duo tigo empat banyu wong rumah anjing kelapo siang baru kito apo dan

Buginese seqdi dua tellu eppa je'ne' tau bola asu kaluku esso ma-baru idiq aga na

Banjarese asa dua talu ampat banyu urang rumah hadupan nyiur hari hanyar kita apa wan

Acehnese sa dua lhèë peuët ië ureuëng rumoh asèë u uroë ban geutanyoë peuë ngon

Balinese sa dadua telu patpat yèh anak umah cicing nyuh dina mara iraga apa muah

Betawi atu' dué tigé empat aér orang ruméh anjing kelapé ari baru kité apé amé

Sasak sa/seke' due telu mpat aik dengan bale acong/basong kenyamen/nyioh jelo baru ite ape dait

Batak
Batak
Toba sada dua tolu opat aek halak jabu biang harambiri ari ibbaru hita aha dohot

Ambonese Malay satu dua tiga ampa air orang ruma anjing kalapa hari baru katong apa dan

Makassarese se're rua tallu appa' je'ne' tau balla' kongkong kaluku allo beru ikatte apa na

Batak
Batak
Mandailing sada dua tolu opat aek halak bagas asu arambir ari baru hita aha dohot

Mongondow inta' dua tolu opat tubig intau baloi ungku' cekut singgai mo-bagu kita onda bo

Manado Malay satu dua tiga ampa aer orang ruma anjing kalapa hari baru torang apa deng

Dayak Ngaju ije' due' telu' epat danum uluh huma' asu enyuh andau taheta itah narai en

Lampung say ʁuwa telu ampat way jelema nuwa asu nyiwi ʁani ampai ʁam api jama

Tolaki o'aso o'ruo o'tolu o'omba iwoi toono laika odahu sanggore oleo wuohu inggito ohawo ronga

Nias sara dua tölu öfa idanö niha omo asu banio luo bohou ya'ita hadia ba

Challenges[edit] Main article: List of endangered languages in Indonesia There are 726 languages spoken across the Indonesian archipelago in 2009 (dropped from 742 languages in 2007), the largest multilingual population in the world only after Papua New Guinea. Indonesian Papua, which is adjacent to Papua New Guinea, has the most languages in Indonesia.[6] Based on the EGIDS classification used by Ethnologue (formerly the Summer Institute of Linguistics), 63 languages are dying (shown in red on the bar chart, subdivided into Moribund and Nearly Extinct, or Dormant), which is defined as "The only fluent users (if any) are older than child-bearing age, so it is too late to restore natural intergenerational transmission through the home."[7] Language
Language
education policy[edit] Indonesia's Minister of Education and Culture Muhammad Nuh affirmed in January 2013 that the teaching of local languages as school subjects will be part of the national education curriculum. Nuh stated that much of the public worry about the teaching of local languages being left out of the curriculum is misplaced and that the new curriculum will be conveyed to them.[8] Dutch language[edit] Further information: Dutch language
Dutch language
§ Asia Despite the Dutch presence in Indonesia
Indonesia
for almost 350 years, as the Asian bulk of the Dutch East Indies, the Dutch language
Dutch language
has no official status there[9] and the small minority that can speak the language fluently are either educated members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession,[10] as certain law codes are still only available in Dutch.[11] Languages by family[edit] Several prominent languages spoken in Indonesia
Indonesia
sorted by language family are:

Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
– ( Malayo-Polynesian
Malayo-Polynesian
branch). Most languages spoken in Indonesia
Indonesia
belong to this family, which in return are related to languages spoken in Madagascar, Philippines, New Zealand, Hawaii and various Polynesian countries.

Javanese language, spoken in Yogyakarta, Central Java
Central Java
and East Java. Also found throughout Indonesia
Indonesia
and by migrants in Suriname. Most populous Austronesian language by number of first language speaker. Lampung
Lampung
language, two distinct but closely related languages spoken in Lampung, South Sumatra
South Sumatra
and Banten. Rejang language, spoken in Bengkulu
Bengkulu
province. Malayo-Sumbawan languages:

Malay/Indonesian languages, spoken throughout Indonesia. Also used as national language. Acehnese language, spoken in Aceh, especially coastal part of Sumatra island. Minangkabau language, spoken in West Sumatra. Banjar language, spoken in South, East, and Central Kalimantan. Sundanese language, spoken in West Java, Banten
Banten
and Jakarta. Balinese language, spoken in Bali. Madurese language, spoken in Madura, Bawean
Bawean
and surrounding islands off the coast of Java. Sasak language, spoken in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara.

Barito languages:

Ma'anyan language, related to Malagasy language
Malagasy language
spoken in Madagascar.

Northwest Sumatran languages:

Batak
Batak
languages, seven closely related languages spoken by the Batak people in the highlands of North Sumatra. Nias language, in Nias island
Nias island
off the western coast of North Sumatra. Simeulue
Simeulue
language, in Simeulue
Simeulue
island off the western coast of Aceh. Gayo language, in Gayo highlands in central Aceh.

South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
languages:

Bugis
Bugis
language, spoken by Bugis
Bugis
in central South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
and neighbouring provinces. Makassarese language, spoken by Makassarese in southern end of South Sulawesi. Toraja
Toraja
language, spoken by Toraja
Toraja
people in northern highland of South Sulawesi. Mandar language, spoken in West Sulawesi.

Philippine languages:

Gorontalo language, spoken in Gorontalo province. Mongondow language, spoken in western part of North Sulawesi. Minahasan languages, spoken in eastern part of North Sulawesi. Sangihe languages, spoken in northern islands part of North Sulawesi.

Enggano language
Enggano language
of Sumatra
Sumatra
is unclassified

West Papuan languages, indigenous languages family found only in eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
(northern Maluku and western Papua). Not closely related with other language families. Distinct from surrounding Austronesian languages.

Ternate
Ternate
language, spoken in Ternate
Ternate
and northern Halmahera. Tidore
Tidore
language, spoken in Tidore
Tidore
and western Halmahera, closely related with above Ternate
Ternate
language.

Trans– New Guinea
New Guinea
languages, indigenous languages family found in eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
(Papua, Flores, Timor
Timor
islands) and New Guinea. Consisting hundreds of languages, including languages of the Asmat and Dani people. Mairasi languages (4) East Cenderawasih (Geelvink Bay) languages (10) Lakes Plain languages (19; upper Mamberamo River) Tor–Kwerba languages (17) Nimboran languages (5) Skou languages (Skou) Border languages (15) Senagi languages (2) Pauwasi languages

There are many additional small families and isolates among the Papuan languages. Sign languages[edit]

Indonesian Sign Language

Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sign Language Jakarta
Jakarta
Sign Language

Kata Kolok

Writing system[edit] Like most writing systems in human history, Indonesia's are not rendered in native-invented systems, but devised by speakers of Tamil, Arabic, and Latin. Malay, for example, has a long history as a written language and has been rendered in Brahmic, Arabic, and Latin
Latin
scripts. Javanese has been written in the Pallava
Pallava
script of South India, as well as their derivative (known as Kawi and Javanese), in an Arabic alphabet called pegon that incorporates Javanese sounds, and in the Latin
Latin
script. Chinese characters have never been used to write Indonesian languages, although Indonesian place-names, personal names, and names of trade goods appear in reports and histories written for China's imperial courts.[12] List of writing systems[edit]

Latin
Latin
– The official writing system of Indonesian; most Indonesian languages now adopt Latin
Latin
script. Kaganga – Historically used to write Rejangese, an Austronesian language from Bengkulu. Rencong – A Brahmic-based script, formerly used by Malays before the arrival of Islam, which introduced the Jawi script. Sundanese – A Brahmic-based script, use by Sundanese to write Sundanese language, although Sundanese also have a standard Latin orthography. Jawi/Pegon – An Arabic-based script, once widely used throughout Indonesia, now in decline but still use by Malays, Minangkabau, Banjarese, Acehnese and Javanese (which has its own form of Arabic known as Pegon.) Javanese – A Brahmic-based script use by the Javanese and related peoples, today the script is in rapid decline and largely supplanted by Latin. Kawi script
Kawi script
– The oldest known Brahmic writing system in Indonesia and the ancestor to all Brahmic based writing systems in Insular Southeast Asia. Balinese – A Brahmic-based script use by the Balinese people to write Balinese, it is closely related to Javanese script. Rejang – A Brahmic-based script use by the Rejang people of Bengkulu, Sumatra. It is closely related to Kerinci, Lampung
Lampung
and Rencong script. Kerinci (Kaganga) – A Brahmic-based script use by the Kerincis to write their language. Batak
Batak
– A Brahmic-based script, use by the Batak
Batak
people of North Sumatra. Lontara – A Brahmic-based script, use by the Buginese in Sulawesi. Lampungese – A Brahmic-based script, still use by Lampung
Lampung
people to write Lampung
Lampung
language, although they are in rapid decline. Lampung script is closely related to Rencong, Kerinci and Rejang script.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1) in Languages of Indonesia[edit] English translation:

(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)

Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)

“ Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan. ”

Javanese (Basa Jawa)

“ Sabên manungsa kalairake mardika lan darbe martabat lan hak-hak kang pada. Kabeh pinaringan akal lan kalbu sarta kaajab anggone pasrawungan mêmitran siji lan liyane tansah ngugemi jiwa paseduluran. ”

Malay (Bahasa Melayu)

“ Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan. ”

Minangkabau (Baso Minangkabau)

“ Sadonyo manusia dilahiakan mardeka dan punyo martabat sarato hak-hak nan samo. Mareka dikaruniai aka jo hati nurani, supayo satu samo lain bagaul sarupo urang badunsanak. ”

Buginese (Basa Ugi)

“ Sininna rupa tau ri jajiangngi rilinoe nappunnai manengngi riasengnge alebbireng . Nappunai riasengnge akkaleng, nappunai riasengnge ati marennni na sibole bolena pada sipakatau pada massalasureng. ”

Balinese (Basa Bali)

“ Sami manusane sane nyruwadi wantah merdeka tur maduwe kautamaan lan hak-hak sane pateh. Sami kalugrain papineh lan idep tur mangdane pada masawitra melarapan semangat pakulawargaan. ”

Sundanese (Basa Sunda)

“ Sakumna jalma gubrag ka alam dunya teh sifatna merdika jeung boga martabat katut hak-hak anu sarua. Maranehna dibere akal jeung hate nurani, campur-gaul jeung sasamana aya dina sumanget duduluran. ”

Madurese (Basa Madura)

“ Sadajana oreng lahir mardika e sarenge drajat klaban hak-hak se dha-padha. Sadajana eparenge akal sareng nurani ban kodu areng-sareng akanca kadi taretan. ”

Musi (Baso Pelembang)

“ Galo-galo uwong dari lahirnyo bebas, samorato martabat jugo hak-haknyo. Wong dienjuk utak samo raso ati, kendaknyo tu begaul sesamo manusio pecak wong sedulur. ”

Acehnese (Bahsa Acèh)

“ Bandum ureuëng lahé deungon meurdéhka, dan deungon martabat dan hak njang saban. Ngon akai geuseumiké, ngon haté geumeurasa, bandum geutanjoë lagèë sjèëdara. ”

Tetum (Lia-Tetun)

“ Ema hotu hotu moris hanesan ho dignidade ho direitu. Sira hotu iha hanoin, konsiensia n'e duni tenki hare malu hanesan espiritu maun-alin. ”

Dawan (Uab Metô)

“ Atoni ma bife ok-okê mahonis kamafutû ma nmuî upan ma hak namnés. Sin napein tenab ma nekmeü ma sin musti nabai es nok es onlê olif-tataf. ”

“ Kanan mansian mahonis merdeka ma nok upan ma hak papmesê. Sin naheun nok tenab ma nekmeû ma sin es nok es musti nfain onlê olif-tataf. ”

Banjar (Bahasa Banjar)

“ Sabarataan manusia diranakakan bibas mardika wan ba'isi martabat lawan jua ba'isi hak-hak nang sama. Bubuhannya sabarataan dibari'i akal wan jua pangrasa hati nurani, supaya samunyaan urang antara sa'ikung lawan sa'ikung bapatutan nangkaya urang badangsanakan. ”

Lampung
Lampung
(Bahasa Lampung)

“ Unyin Jelema dilaheʁko merdeka jama wat pi'il ʁik hak sai gokgoh. Tiyan dikaruniako akal jama hati nurani maʁai unggal tiyan dapok nengah nyampoʁ dilom semangat muaʁiyan. ”

Rejangese (Baso Jang)

“ Manusio kutə yo lahia mərdeka ngən punyo hak dik samo. Manusio nəlie Tuhan aka ngən atie, kərno o kəlak nə itə bəkuat do dik luyən nak ləm raso səpasuak. ”

Bengkulu
Bengkulu
Malay (Bahaso Melayu Bengkulu)

“ Segalo orang dilahirkan merdeka kek punyo martabat kek hak-hak yang samo. Tobonyo dikasi akal kek hati nurani supayo bekawan dalam raso cak orang besanak. ”

References[edit]

^ a b Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition". SIL International. Retrieved 17 November 2009.  ^ Sneddon, James (2003). The Indonesian Language: Its history and role in modern society. Sydney: University of South Wales Press Ltd.  ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ID ^ Muhadjir. 2000. Bahasa Betawi:sejarah dan perkembangannya. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 13. ^ a b c d e f g Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013 ^ "90 Persen Bahasa Ibu di Dunia Terancam Punah". 27 June 2012.  ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/country/ID/status ^ http://m.antaranews.com/berita/351761/pelajaran-bahasa-daerah-tetap-ada ^ Baker (1998), p.202. ^ Ammon (2005), p.2017. ^ Booij (1999), p.2 ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 

External links[edit]

Graph of Indonesian ethnolinguistics Linguistic maps of Indonesia How many people speak Indonesian?

v t e

Languages of Indonesia

Sunda- Sulawesi
Sulawesi
languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Indonesian

Bahasa Binan Slang

Malay

Anambas/Natuna Bangka Bengkulu Berau Jambi Jaring Halus Kutai Larantuka Palembang Pontianak

Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Banjarese Col Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kaur Kendayan Keninjal Kerinci Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Minangkabau Mualang Pekal Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese

Baduy Bantenese

Javanese

Javanese

Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese

Celebic

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

Lampungic

Komering Lampung

Northwest Sumatran

Batak

Alas Batak
Batak
Angkola Batak
Batak
Dairi Batak
Batak
Karo Batak
Batak
Mandailing Batak
Batak
Simalungun Batak
Batak
Toba

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Bornean languages

Barito

Ampanang Bajaw Bakumpai Deyah Kohin Lawangan Ma'anyan Malang Ngaju Ot Danum Ot Siang Tunjung Witu Pakau

Kayan–Murik

Aoheng Aput Bahau Hovongan Kayan Krio Modang Punan Merah Segai

Land Dayak

Bakati’ Biatah Bukar Sadong Jangkang Kembayan Laraʼ Nyadu’ Rejangese Ribun Sanggau Sara Semandang Tringgus

North Bornean

Bah-Biau Basap Bukat Bukitan Kelabit Kenyah

Mainstream

Lengilu Lun Bawang Murut

Okolod Selungai Sembakung Tagol

Punan Merap Punan Tubu Sa'ban Sajau Tidung

Burusu Kalabakan Nonukan

Philippine languages

Central Philippine

Tausug

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bintauna Bolango Buol Gorontaloan Kaidipang Lolak Mongondow Ponosakan Suwawa

Minahasan

Tombulu Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan

Sangiric

Bantik Ratahan Sangirese Talaud

Central-Eastern languages

Aru

Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola-Kompane Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir

Central Maluku

Alune Amahai Ambelau Asilulu Banda Bati Benggoi Boano Bobot Buru Geser Haruku Hitu Hoti Huaulu Hulung Kaibobo Kamarian Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Liana-Seti Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Loun Luhu Mangole Manipa Manusela Masiwang Naka'ela Nuaulu Nusa Laut Paulohi Salas Saleman Saparua Seit-Kaitetu Sepa-Teluti Sula Taliabo Teor-Kur Tulehu Watubela Wemale Yalahatan

Flores–Lembata

Adonara Alorese Ile Ape Kedang Lamaholot Lamalera Lamatuka Levuka Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Sika South Lembata West Lembata

Halmahera- Cenderawasih

Ambai Ansus Arguni Bedoanas Biak Busami Dusner Erokwanas Irarutu Iresim Kuri Kurudu Munggui Marau Meoswar Mor Pom Papuma Roon Serui-Laut Tandia Wabo Waropen Wandamen Woi Yaur Yeretuar

Kei-Tanimbar

Fordata Kei Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Yamdena

Selaru

Selaru Seluwasan

Sumba–Flores

Anakalangu Baliledo Bima Dhao Ende-Li'o-Ke'o-Nage Gaura Hawu Kambera Kodi Komodo Lamboya Mamboru Manggarai Ngadha Palu'e Pondok Rajong Rembong Riung Rongga So'a Kepo' Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa

Timor–Babar

Tetum Uab Meto Amarasi Baikeno Bekais Bilba Dai Dawera-Daweloor Dela-Oenale Dengka East Damar Emplawas Helong Imroing Kisar Leti Lole Luang Masela Nila North Babar Ringgou Romang Serili Serua Southeast Babar Tela'a Termanu Te'un Tii West Damar Wetar

Western Oceanic

Anus Bonggo Kayupulau Liki Masimasi Ormu Podena Kaptiau Sobei Tarpia Tobati Wakde Yamna

Other

Kowiai

Papuan languages

Abui Abun Adang Aghu Airoran Asmat Auye Ayamaru Bagusa Baham Baropasi Bauzi Bayono-Awbono Berik Betaf Bimin Blagar Bonerif Bunak Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai Citak Dabe Dao Demisa Demta Dineor Ekari Faiwol Galela Gamkonora Grand Valley Dani Hattam Hupla Iha Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaera Kafoa Kalabra Kamang Kamberau Kamoro Kanum Karas Karon Dori Kauwera Kehu Keijar Klon Kofei Kombai Kombai–Wanggom Komyandaret Koneraw Kopka Kopkaka Korowai Kui Kula Kuwani Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerba Kwesten Kwinsu Loloda Maklew Mander Mandobo Mantion Mawes Meax Meninggo Mian Modole Moi Mombum Momina Momuna Moni Moraid Mpur Muyu Nafri Nakai Nduga Nedebang Ngalum Nggem Ninggerum Nisa-Anasi Oksapmin Orya Pagu Pisa Retta Sahu Samarokena Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Sawila Seget Sempan Sentani Setaman Shiaxa Silimo Skou Suganga Tabaru Tabla Tangko Tause Tefaro Tehit Teiwa Telefol Ternate Tidore Tifal Tobelo Trimuris Tsaukambo Tunggare Urapmin Vitou Waioli Walak Wambon Wano Wares Wersing West Makian Western Dani Western Pantar Wolani Woria Yali Yawa Yelmek Yonggom

Other languages

Creoles and Pidgins

Malay-based creoles

Ambonese Malay Baba Malay Bandanese Malay Bacanese Malay Balinese Malay Betawi Gorap Kupang Malay Manado Malay Makassar
Makassar
Malay North Moluccan Malay Papuan Malay

Other creoles and pidgins

Javindo Petjo Mardijker Pidgin Iha Pidgin Onin Portugis Bidau Creole Portuguese

Sinitic languages

Cantonese Fuzhounese Hainanese Hakka Hokkien

Medan Riau

Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Teochew

Afro-Asiatic languages

Modern Standard Arabic

Dravidian languages

Tamil

Germanic languages

English Dutch (historical)

Sign languages

Indonesian Sign Language Kata Kolok

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Indonesia articles

History

Timeline Hinduism-Buddhism era Spread of Islam VOC era (1603–1800) Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(1800–1942) Japanese occupation (1942–45) National Revolution (1945–49) Liberal democracy era (1950–57) Guided Democracy (1957–65) Transitional period (1965–66) New Order (1966–98) Reformasi (since 1998)

Geography

Cities Deforestation Earthquakes Environmental issues Geology Islands Lakes Mountains National parks Natural history

Fauna Flora

Rivers Volcanoes

Politics

Administrative divisions

Provinces

Cabinet Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights Law

enforcement

Military

History

Pancasila People's Consultative Assembly Police Political parties President

Economy

Agriculture Aviation Banks Energy History Palm oil production Science and technology Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport Water supply and sanitation

Culture

Architecture Art Batik Cinema Cuisine Dance Ikat Heroes Legends Literature Martial arts Media Music Properties Public holidays Sport Video gaming

Demographics

Education Ethnic groups Health Languages

Indonesian

Nusantara Religion Women

Symbols

Anthem Costume Emblem Faunal emblems

Asian arowana Javan hawk-eagle Komodo dragon

Flag Floral emblems

Common jasmine Moon orchid Giant padma

Garuda Motto Personification Songs Tree

Outline Index

Book Category Portal Gallery Atlas

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Languages of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor
Timor
(Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau

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Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau

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