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Crown lands of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(1526-1804), of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1804–67), and of the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1867–1918)

1348–1918

Flag

Coat of arms

Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(1618)

Capital Prague

Languages Czech, German, Latin

Religion Roman Catholic Hussite Lutheran Anabaptist Jewish

Government Monarchy

King

 •  1346–1378 Charles IV (first)

 •  1916–1918 Charles III (last)

History

 •  Bohemian Crown established 7 April 1348

 •  Inauguration of the    Luxembourg dynasty 7 April 1348

 •  Became main part of    Bohemian Crown lands 5 April 1355

 •  King confirmed Elector 25 December 1356

 •  King Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 16 December 1526

 •  Dissolution of Austro-    Hungarian Empire

31 October 1918

Preceded by Succeeded by

Kingdom of Bohemia

Margraviate of Moravia

Duchies of Silesia

Upper Lusatia

Lower Lusatia

First Czechoslovak Republic

Electorate of Saxony

Kingdom of Prussia

Today part of

 Austria  Czech Republic  Germany  Poland

The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, often called Czech lands
Czech lands
in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe
Central Europe
during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings. The crown lands primarily consisted of the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
according to the Golden Bull of 1356, the Margraviate of Moravia, the Duchies of Silesia, and the Lusatias, as well as other territories throughout its history. The joint rule of Corona regni Bohemiae was legally established by decree of King Charles I issued on 7 April 1348, on the foundation of the original Czech lands
Czech lands
ruled by the Přemyslid dynasty
Přemyslid dynasty
until 1306. By linking the territories, the interconnection of crown lands thus no more belonged to a king or a dynasty but to the Bohemian monarchy itself, symbolically personalized by the Crown of Saint Wenceslas. During the reign of King Ferdinand I from 1526, the lands of the Bohemian Crown became a constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy. Later they passed to the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary. By the Czechoslovak declaration of independence
Czechoslovak declaration of independence
in 1918, the remaining Czech lands
Czech lands
became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic. The Bohemian Crown was neither a personal union nor a federation of equal members. Rather, the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
had a higher status than the other incorporated constituent countries. There were only some common state institutions of the Bohemian Crown and they did not survive the centralization of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
under Queen Maria Theresa in the 18th century. The most important of them was the Bohemian Court Chancellery
Bohemian Court Chancellery
which was united with the Austrian Chancellery in 1749.[1]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Přemyslids 2.2 Luxembourgs 2.3 Jagiellons 2.4 Habsburgs

3 Bohemian territories

3.1 Crown lands 3.2 Other territories

4 Administrative divisions 5 See also 6 References 7 External Links

Name[edit] The Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
(Latin: Corona regni Bohemiae) are called země Koruny české or simply Koruna česká (Crown of Bohemia or Bohemian Crown)[2][3][4] and České země (i.e. Czech lands) in Czech language, the adjective český referring to both "Bohemian" and "Czech". The German term Länder der Böhmischen Krone is likewise shortened to Böhmische Krone or Böhmische Kronländer. Native names include Silesian: Korana Czeskigo Krůlestwa, Lower Sorbian: zemje Českeje krony, and Upper Sorbian: kraje Čěskeje Króny. The denotation Lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas
Crown of Saint Wenceslas
(země Koruny svatováclavské) refers to the Crown of Saint Wenceslas, part of the regalia of the Bohemian monarchs. History[edit] For more detailed histories, see History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1526–1648), History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867), and History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1867–1918). Přemyslids[edit] In the 10th and 11th century the Duchy of Bohemia, together with Moravia
Moravia
(the Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
from 1182 on), and Kłodzko Land were consolidated under the ruling Přemyslid dynasty. Duke Ottokar I of Bohemia
Bohemia
gained the hereditary royal title to the Duchy of Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1198, from the German (anti)−king Philip of Swabia, for his support. Along with the title, Philip also raised the duchy to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
rank. The regality was ultimately confirmed by Philip's nephew the German king Frederick II, later the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(1220−1250), in the Golden Bull of Sicily
Golden Bull of Sicily
issued in 1212. The Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia
Bohemia
acquired the Duchy of Austria
Austria
in 1251, the Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
in 1261, the Egerland
Egerland
in 1266, the Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
with the March of Carniola
March of Carniola
and the Windic March in 1269 as well as the March of Friuli
Friuli
in 1272. His plans to turn Bohemia
Bohemia
into the leading Imperial State
Imperial State
were aborted by his Habsburg rival King Rudolph I of Germany, who seized his acquisitions and finally defeated him in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld.[1] Luxembourgs[edit] In 1306 the House of Luxembourg, began producing Bohemian kings upon the extinction of the Přemyslids. They significantly enlarged the Bohemian lands again, including when King John the Blind vassalized most Polish Piast dukes of Silesia. His suzerainty was acknowledged by the Polish king Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
in the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin. John also achieved the enfeoffment with the Upper Lusatian lands of Bautzen
Bautzen
(1319) and Görlitz
Görlitz
(1329), by the German king Louis IV.

Coats of arms of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and the Bohemian Crown on the Tower of Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge
in Prague.

King John's eldest son Charles IV was elected King of the Romans
King of the Romans
in 1346 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia
Bohemia
in the same year. Charles IV created the Bohemian Crown, together with the incorporated provinces in 1348. The Luxembourg dynasty reached its high point, when Charles was crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in 1355.[1] By his Imperial authority he decreed that the united Bohemian lands should endure regardless of dynastic developments, even if the Luxembourgs should die out.[5] In 1367 he purchased Lower Lusatia
Lower Lusatia
from his stepson Margrave Otto V of Brandenburg and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Beside their home County of Luxembourg
County of Luxembourg
itself, the dynasty held further non-contiguous Imperial fiefs in the Low Countries, such as: the Duchy of Brabant
Duchy of Brabant
and Duchy of Limburg, acquired through marriage by Charles' younger half-brother Wenceslaus of Luxembourg in 1355; as well as the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
purchased in 1373. As both the King of Bohemia
Bohemia
and the Margrave of Brandenburg had been designated Prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, the Luxembourgs held two votes in the electoral college, securing the succession of Charles's son Wenceslaus in 1376. With King Wenceslaus, the decline of the Luxembourg dynasty began. He himself was deposed as King of the Romans
King of the Romans
in 1400. The Duchies of Brabant, Limburg (in 1406), and even Luxembourg itself (in 1411) were ceded to the French House of Valois-Burgundy; while the Margraviate of Brandenburg passed to the House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
(in 1415).[5] Nevertheless, the joint rule of the Bohemian Lands outlived the Hussite
Hussite
Wars and the extinction of the Luxembourg male line upon the death of Emperor Sigismund in 1437. Jagiellons[edit] Vladislas II of the Jagiellon dynasty, son of the Polish king Casimir IV, was designated King of Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1471, while the crown lands of Moravia, Silesia, and the Lusatias were occupied by rivaling King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
of Hungary. In 1479 both kings signed the Treaty of Olomouc, whereby the unity of the Bohemian crown lands was officially retained unchanged and the monarchs appointed each other as sole heir. Upon the death of King Matthias in 1490, Vladislas ruled the Bohemian crown lands and the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
in personal union. Habsburgs[edit]

Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
with Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1910)

When Vladislas' only son Louis was killed at the Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács
in 1526 ending the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
rule in Bohemia, a convention of Bohemian nobles elected his brother-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I of Austria, as the new king of the Bohemian crown lands. Together with the Archduchy of Austria
Austria
"hereditary lands" and the Hungarian kingdom, they formed the Habsburg Monarchy, which in the following centuries grew out of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
into a separate European power. Attempts by the Bohemian Protestant Reformation estates to build up an autonomous confederation were dashed at the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, whereafter the administration was centralised at Vienna. Moreover, the Habsburg rulers lost the Lusatias to the Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
in the 1635 Peace of Prague, and also most of Silesia
Silesia
with Kladsko to King Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II of Prussia
in the 1742 Treaty of Breslau.[1] In the Modern era, the remaining crown lands of Bohemia, Moravia
Moravia
and Austrian Silesia
Silesia
became constituent parts of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in 1804, and later the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1867. After World War I
World War I
and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, these became the historic regions usually referred to as the Czech lands
Czech lands
forming the Czech Republic. Austrian Silesia
Silesia
with the Hlučín Region
Hlučín Region
is today known as Czech Silesia, with the exception of eastern Cieszyn Silesia
Silesia
which passed to the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
in 1920.[5] Bohemian territories[edit] Crown lands[edit]

Crown land Type Map Capital or important city Ethnic group Religion Notes

Bohemia Kingdom

Prague Bohemians (Czechs) Germans Roman Catholic Hussite
Hussite
(15th-17th centuries) Anabaptist
Anabaptist
(15th-17th centuries) Lutheran Royal dignity first bestowed upon Vratislaus II of Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1085, hereditary since 1198 under King Ottokar I; Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, confirmed by the Golden Bull of 1356. Included the Imperial domain of Egerland
Egerland
(Chebsko), obtained by King Wenceslaus II between 1291–1305, definitely given in pawn to Bohemia
Bohemia
by King Louis IV in 1322 and subsequently ruled in personal union with Bohemia proper; as well as the County of Kladsko, established in 1459 and conquered by the Prussian king Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
in 1742.

Moravia Margraviate

Olomouc, Brno Moravians Germans Roman Catholic Hussite
Hussite
(15th-17th centuries) Anabaptist
Anabaptist
(15th-17th centuries) Lutheran Principalities of Olomouc, Brno
Brno
and Znojmo, acquired by Přemyslid and Slavník Bohemian rulers after the 955 Battle of Lechfeld, lost in 999 to Poland
Poland
and reconquered by Duke Bretislaus I in 1035. Elevated to a margraviate by the Přemyslid dukes in 1182, Bohemian fief from 1197.

Silesia Duchies

Wrocław Germans Moravians Poles Roman Catholic Lutheran Many various duchies, acquired by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin between King John of Bohemia
Bohemia
and King Casimir III of Poland. The Habsburg queen Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
lost Silesia
Silesia
in 1742 to the Prussian king Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
by the Treaty of Breslau, with the exception of its South-East part which became called Austrian Silesia
Silesia
(later Czech Silesia). Today divided between Poland, the Czech Republic, and Germany.

Upper Lusatia Margraviate

Bautzen, Görlitz Germans Sorbs Roman Catholic Lutheran Former Milceni
Milceni
lands of Meissen, finally incorporated by King John of Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1319 (Bautzen) and 1329 (Görlitz). The Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg lost the Lusatias to the Electorate of Saxony with the 1635 Peace of Prague. Formally part of the Crown of Bohemia until 1815, today divided between Germany
Germany
and Poland.

Lower Lusatia Margraviate

Lübben Germans Sorbs Lutheran Former March of Lusatia, acquired by Emperor Charles IV from Margrave Otto V of Brandenburg in 1367. The Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg lost the Lusatias to the Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
with the 1635 Peace of Prague. Formally part of the Crown of Bohemia
Bohemia
between until 1815, today divided between Germany
Germany
and Poland.

Other territories[edit]

Margraviate of Brandenburg

The Brandenburg Electorate, acquired by Charles IV from Margrave Otto V in 1373. Charles' son Sigismund lost Brandenburg in 1415 to Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg. The adjacent northern part of the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
("Bohemian Palatinate") at Sulzbach, incorporated by Charles IV in 1355. Charles' son Wenceslaus lost the area in 1401 to the Electorate of the Palatinate under King Ruprecht of Germany. Egerland

Administrative divisions[edit]

Coat of arms of the Bohemian crown lands (until 1635), clockwise from left above: (checked) Eagle of Moravia, Eagle of Lower Silesia, Ox of Lower Lusatia, Eagle of Upper Silesia, Wall of Upper Lusatia, en surtout Bohemian Lion, upon Crown of Saint Wenceslas, garlanded by lime. Drawn by Hugo Gerard Ströhl
Hugo Gerard Ströhl
(1851–1919)

Kraje of Kingdom of Bohemia

Bechyně
Bechyně
(German: Beching) Boleslav (German: Jung-Bunzlau) Čáslav
Čáslav
(German: Tschaslau) Chrudim Hradec Králové
Hradec Králové
(German: Königgrätz) Kladsko (German: Glatz) Kouřim
Kouřim
at Prague
Prague
(German: Prag) Litoměřice
Litoměřice
(German: Leitmeritz) Loket (German: Elbogen) Vltava
Vltava
(German: Moldau) Plzeň
Plzeň
(German: Pilsen) Podbrdsko at Beroun
Beroun
(German: Beraun) Prácheň at Písek Rakovník
Rakovník
(German: Rakonitz) Slaný
Slaný
(German: Schlan) Žatec
Žatec
(German: Saaz)

Kraje of Margraviate of Moravia   

Brno
Brno
(German: Brünn) Hradiště (German: Ungarisch Hradisch) Jihlava
Jihlava
(German: Iglau) Olomouc
Olomouc
(German: Olmütz) Přerov
Přerov
(German: Prerau) Znojmo
Znojmo
(German: Znaim)

Duchies of Silesia   

Brzeg (German: Brieg) Bytom (German: Beuthen) Cieszyn (German: Teschen) Głogów (German: Glogau) Jawor (German: Jauer) Legnica (German: Liegnitz) Nysa (German: Neiße) Oleśnica (German: Oels) Opava (German: Troppau) Opole (German: Oppeln) Pszczyna (German: Pless) Racibórz (German: Ratibor) Ścinawa
Ścinawa
(German: Steinau) Świdnica
Świdnica
(German: Schweidnitz) Wrocław
Wrocław
(German: Breslau) Żagań (German: Sagan) Ziębice (German: Münsterberg)

Margraviate of Lusatia

Upper Lusatia
Upper Lusatia
at Bautzen Lower Lusatia
Lower Lusatia
at Lübben

See also[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of the Czech lands

Early history

Unetice culture Boii
Boii
(Gauls, Celts) Marcomanni
Marcomanni
(Germanic peoples) Migration Period
Migration Period
(West Slavs) Samo's Empire

Middle Ages

Great Moravia Duchy of Bohemia Bohemian Crown (Holy Roman Empire) Czech lands
Czech lands
in the High Middle Ages Bohemian Reformation Hussite
Hussite
Wars

Early modern period

Habsburg Monarchy Czech lands
Czech lands
1526–1648 Thirty Years War Austrian Empire Czech lands
Czech lands
1648–1867 Austria-Hungary Czech lands
Czech lands
1867–1918 World War I

Czechoslovakia

First Czechoslovak Republic German Occupation World War II Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Soviet Occupation Velvet Revolution Czech and Slovak Federative Republic

Czech Republic

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia European Union

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
portal

v t e

Czech lands History of the Czech lands List of rulers of Bohemia Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen Crown of the Kingdom of Poland Crown of Aragon Crown of Castille

v t e

Crown lands

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Bohemia Moravia Silesia Upper Lusatia Lower Lusatia

Lands of the German Crown

Duchy of Saxony Lower Lorraine Upper Lorraine Duchy of Franconia Duchy of Swabia Duchy of Bavaria

Lands of the Hungarian Crown

Hungary proper Transylvania Croatia

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

Greater Poland Lesser Poland Royal Prussia

References[edit]

^ a b c d Geschichte der tschechischen öffentlichen Verwaltung Karel Schelle, Ilona Schelleová, GRIN Verlag, 2011 (in German and Czech) ^ "The Archives of the Crown of Bohemia". National Archive of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Národní archiv ČR). Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ Teich, Mikuláš (editor) (1998). Bohemia
Bohemia
in history (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-521-43155-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ " Silesia
Silesia
– Pearl in the Crown of Bohemia". National Gallery in Prague
Prague
(Národní galerie v Praze). Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ a b c Prinz, Friedrich (1993). Deutsche Geschichte in Osten Europas: Böhmen und Mähren (in German). Berlin: Wolf Jobst Siedler Verlag GmbH. p. 381. ISBN 3-88680-200-0. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 

External Links[edit]

"Bohemia", BBC Radio 4 discussion with Norman Davies, Karin Friedrich and Robert Pynsent (In Our Time, Apr. 11, 2002)

Coordinates: 50°05′00″N 14°25′00″E / 50.0833°N 14.4167°E

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