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A LANDING SHIP, INFANTRY (LSI) or INFANTRY LANDING SHIP was one of a number of types of British Commonwealth vessels used to transport landing craft and troops engaged in amphibious warfare during the Second World War . LSIs were operated by the Royal Navy, British Merchant Navy , Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Indian Navy, and Royal Australian Navy. They transported British Commonwealth and other Allied troops in sea assaults and invasions throughout the war.

Typically, a landing ship, infantry would transport its cargo of infantry from its embarkation port to close to the coast to be invaded. This location (known as a "transport area" in a US Navy task force, or "lowering position" in a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
task force) was approximately 6–11 miles off shore (11 miles was amphibious doctrine for the USN by mid-war, while the RN tended to accept the risks associated with drawing nearer the shore). The troops would then transfer to landing craft, most commonly LCAs , for the journey to the beach. The landing craft would return to the LSI after disembarking their cargo and be hoisted up to embark additional troops.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Design and conversion * 3 Manning the landing ship, infantry * 4 Ship designations * 5 Ships * 6 See also * 7 Notes and citations * 8 References * 9 External links

ORIGINS

In the years immediately before war was declared the Inter-Service Training and Development Centre sought to identify ships suitable to carry Army and Royal Marine formations being employed in amphibious operations. Such ships would not be purpose-built, but would be found within the lists of merchant marine vessels. These ships needed to be fast and have davits capable of lowering the new landing craft assault fully loaded with troops. Glengyle and her sisters, Glenearn, Glenroy, and Breconshire, then abuilding, were determined to be ideal for infantry landing ships. This class of four fast passenger and cargo liners were intended for the Far East trade route. The Admiralty acquired the four Glens shortly after their launchings, and converted them into fast supply ships. By June 1940, Glengyle, Glenearn, and Glenroy were under conversion to LSI(L)s. The Admiralty insisted on keeping Breconshire in a fast cargo configuration, so the ISTDC consulted the Director of Naval Construction
Director of Naval Construction
about suitable requisitioned ships. The Dutch Continental passenger steamers Queen Emma and Princess Beatrix were converted to LSIs. Displacing approximately 3,000 gross registered tons and able to make 22 knots, these vessels could carry as many as 800 troops apiece. These were the original 5 LSIs. More LSIs would be found in the years to come from requisitioning or new construction provided by the United States under Lend-Lease .

DESIGN AND CONVERSION

LSIs were grouped according to their troop capacity and endurance. Initially, all were requisitioned merchant vessels that exchanged carrying lifeboats for landing craft. During April and June 1940, the Glens underwent further conversion into LSIs capable of transporting an embarked force of up to 34 officers and 663 other ranks and carrying 12 LCAs on Welin-McLachan davits and 1 LCM(1) stored in chocks on deck and launched by 30-ton derricks. Glengyle was built by Caledon Shipbuilding "> Four LCAs go ashore from HMCS Prince David off Bernières-sur-Mer, France, 6 June 1944

In Australia in mid-1942, HMAS Manoora was marked for conversion into the Royal Australian Navy's first landing ship, infantry at Garden Island Dockyard . Her armed merchant cruiser armament was removed and replaced with a single 12-pounder gun, six 40 mm Bofors
Bofors
, and eight 20 mm Oerlikons . The Walrus amphibian aircraft was removed, and the ship was modified to carry US manufactured landing craft : 17 LCVPs , and two LCM(3)s . Manoora was initially able to accommodate 850 soldiers, but later modifications increased this to 1,250. The ship was recommissioned on 2 February 1943 with the pennant number C77, and after spending six months on amphibious warfare training in Port Phillip , was deployed to New Guinea.

In the United States, a commercial hull was put in war production by the Maritime Commission ; the C1-S-AY1 subtype of thirteen ships built by Consolidated Steel Corporation, were modified for use as LSI(L)s under lend-lease . These ships were all given two-word names beginning with "Empire", such as SS Empire Spearhead . All were able to accommodate two LCA flotillas; a total of 24 craft. The Empire Broadsword was lost at the Normandy Invasion , to a mine. Empire Javelin was sunk by a U-boat torpedo 28 December 1944. All these ships had davits fitted to accept LCAs and the other appropriate British manufactured landing craft for LSIs.

Normally British converted LSIs were fitted with heavy-duty power-operated davits. Early landing ships were fitted with Welin-McLachlin davits – these being generally in use in the Merchant Navy for standard 99 man lifeboats. As the weight of LCAs increased through the war (eventually approaching 14 tons) heavier davits were required. Later LSIs and those being refitted were provisioned with luffing davits of a crossbeam type. The davits themselves provided a demarcation between the responsibilities of the LSI crew (either Royal Navy
Royal Navy
or Merchant Navy) and the members of the LCA flotilla.

MANNING THE LANDING SHIP, INFANTRY

Some of the LSIs were commissioned into the Royal Navy, received navy crews, and flew the White Ensign , while most retained their civilian crews and flew the Red Ensign . Royal Navy
Royal Navy
LSIs had Royal Navy landing craft flotillas assigned to them until 1943, when a proportion of landing craft flotillas were manned by Royal Marine crews. Merchant Navy LSIs would have Royal Navy
Royal Navy
gunners for the anti-aircraft equipment, and Royal Navy
Royal Navy
officers and ratings operating the ship’s flotilla of landing craft. Generally, these divisions of personnel did not cooperate or share in each other's work responsibilities.

LSIs in Royal Canadian Navy service were crewed by Canadians and, by late 1943 on, were assigned RCN landing craft flotillas. The crews intermingled, lent a hand as needed in one another’s work, and messed together.

SHIP DESIGNATIONS

LSI(S) Landing ship, infantry
Landing ship, infantry
(small)

LSI(M) Landing ship, infantry
Landing ship, infantry
(medium)

LSI(L) Landing ship, infantry
Landing ship, infantry
(large)

LSI(H) Landing ship, infantry
Landing ship, infantry
(hand-hoisting)

SHIPS

* SS Ben-my-Chree – Isle of Man Steam Packet Company passenger ferry. Served at Pointe du Hoc with 2nd US Rangers , 6 June 1944 * TSS Duke of York * SS El Hind – hired as LSI(L) in 1943, destroyed by fire in Bombay docks, April 1944 * HMS Cicero * HMS Empire Battleaxe * SS Empire Broadsword – LSI(L) * HMS Sansovino * SS Empire Javelin – LSI(L) * HMS Empire Spearhead * HMS Glengyle
HMS Glengyle
– LSI(L), 10,000 tons, 700 troops * HMS Glenearn – LSI(L) * HMS Glenroy – LSI(L) * HMS Invicta – LSI(S) * HMAS Kanimbla * SS Karanja – LSI(L), sunk off Algeria, 1942 * SS Llangibby Castle * SS Llanstephan Castle * HMAS Manoora * HMNZS Monowai – formerly an ocean-going passenger ship * Belgian ferry SS Princesse Marie-José * HMS Prince Charles * HMCS Prince David – LSI(M), 500 troops * HMCS Prince Henry – LSI(M) former passenger liner * HMS Prince Leopold – LSI(S), former Belgian cross channel ferry, torpedoed in 1944 by U-621 * HMS Princess Astrid – LSI(S) * HMS Princess Beatrix – LSI(M) * HMS Princess Josephine Charlotte – LSI(S) * HMS Prince Albert * HMS Queen Emma
HMS Queen Emma
– LSI(M) * HMS Rocksand – formerly Cape Argos then Empire Anvil * HMS Royal Scotsman – LSI(H), former passenger ferry operating in the Irish Sea * HMS Royal Ulsterman * HMS Sainfoin – formerly Empire Crossbow * HMS St Helier – LSI(H) former Channel Island ferry * SS Sobieski with LCP(L)s * HMAS Westralia

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to LANDING SHIP, INFANTRY .

* Auxiliary personnel attack ship - US term for a similar ship * Landing craft
Landing craft
assault

NOTES AND CITATIONS

* ^ Maund, p. 9. * ^ Maund, p. 9. * ^ Maund, p. 9 * ^ Fergusson, p. 41 * ^ Maund, p. 66. * ^ Bruce, p. 16. * ^ Bruce, p. 16. * ^ Ladd,1976 p. 78 * ^ Maund, p. 66 * ^ Ladd, 1978, p. 245 * ^ Maund, p. 10. * ^ Bruce, p. 21. * ^ "The Heritage Coast: Landing Craft". theheritagecoast.co.uk. 2003. Retrieved 13 February 2011. * ^ Mason, Geoffrey B. (2010). "HMS Royal Scotsman, LSI(L)". naval-history.net. Retrieved 13 February 2011. * ^ Bastock, Australia's Ships of War, pp. 218–9 * ^ Bastock, Australia's Ships of War, p. 217. * ^ Bastock, Australia's Ships of War, p. 217. * ^ "HMAS Manoora (I)". HMA Ship Histories. Sea Power Centre – Australia. Retrieved 3 April 2011. * ^ Bastock, Australia's Ships of War, p. 217. * ^ Bastock, Australia's Ships of War, pp. 218–9 * ^ Buffetaut, p. 32. * ^ Bruce, p18 * ^ Maund, p.10 * ^ North, p. 25 * ^ Bruce, p. 17. * ^ Bruce, p. 17. * ^ Colledge, J. J. ; Warlow, Ben (2006) . Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8 . OCLC 67375475 . p.126 * ^ "SS EL HIND". clydesite.co.uk. 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. * ^ Groenenberg, Joanne (24 November 2004). "Maritime and Coastguard Agency - Press Releases". mcanet.mcga.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2011.

REFERENCES

* Bruce, Colin J. Invaders, Chatham Publishing, London, 1999. ISBN 1-84067-533-0 * Bastock, John. Australia's Ships of War Sydney : Angus and Robertson Publishers, 1975. ISBN 0207129274 * Buffetaut, Yves. D-Day Ships, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1994. ISBN 1-55750-152-1 * Fergusson, Bernard. The Watery Maze; The Story of Combined Operations, Holt, New York, 1961. * Ladd, JD. Assault From the Sea: 1939–1945, Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York, 1976. ISBN 0-88254-392-X * Ladd, James D. Commandos and Rangers of World War 2, Macdonalds and Jane's, London, 1978. ISBN 0-356-08432-9 . * Ladd, JD. Royal Marine Commando, Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., London, 1982. ISBN 0-600-34203-4 * Lavery, Brian. Assault Landing Craft, Seaforth Publishing, Barnsley, UK, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84832-050-5 * Lund, Paul, and Ludlam, Harry. War of the Landing Craft, New English Library, London 1976. ISBN 0-450-03039-3 * Maund, LEH. Assault From the Sea, Methuen ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Naval ships and warships in the Late Modern period

* Naval ship classes in service

* submarine * auxiliary

* Operational zones

* Blue-water navy
Blue-water navy
* Brown-water navy * Green-water navy

* Gun placement

* Broadside * Central battery/casemate * Turretes

AIRCRAFT CARRIERS

* Aircraft cruiser * Amphibious assault ship * Anti-submarine warfare carrier
Anti-submarine warfare carrier
* Balloon carrier
Balloon carrier
* CAM ship * Escort carrier * Fighter catapult ship * Fleet carrier
Fleet carrier
* Helicopter carrier * Light aircraft carrier * Merchant aircraft carrier * Seaplane tender
Seaplane tender
* Submarine aircraft carrier * Supercarrier
Supercarrier

BATTLESHIPS

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Coastal defence ship
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Pre-dreadnought battleship
* Super-dreadnought ( Standard-type battleship ) * Treaty battleship

CRUISERS

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Battlecruiser
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Heavy cruiser

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Torpedo cruiser
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ESCORT

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Frigate
* Guided missile destroyer
Guided missile destroyer
* Kaibōkan * Sloop

TRANSPORT

* Amphibious transport dock * Amphibious warfare ship * Attack transport * Dock landing ship
Dock landing ship
* Landing craft
Landing craft
* Landing craft
Landing craft
carrier * Landing Craft Support * Landing Ship Heavy * Landing ship, infantry * Landing Ship Medium * Landing Ship, Tank
Landing Ship, Tank
* Landing Ship Vehicle
Landing Ship Vehicle
* Troopship

PATROL CRAFT

* Armed boarding steamer * Armed yacht
Armed yacht
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Corvette
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Gunboat
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Harbour Defence Motor Launch
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Submarine chaser
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FAST ATTACK CRAFT

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MINE WARFARE

* Danlayer
Danlayer
* Destroyer minesweeper * Mine countermeasures vessel * Mine planter * Minehunter * Minelayer
Minelayer
* Minesweeper

COMMAND AND SUPPORT

* Amenities ship * Ammunition ship * Auxiliary repair dock * Auxiliary ship
Auxiliary ship
* Collier * Combat stores ship * Command ship * Crane vessel * Depot ship * Destroyer tender * Dispatch boat * Fast combat support ship * General stores issue ship * Hospital ship * Naval tugboat * Net laying ship * Repair ship * Replenishment oiler * Submarine tender

SUBMARINES

* Attack submarine * Ballistic missile submarine * Coastal submarine * Cruise missile submarine * Cruiser submarine

* Deep-submergence vehicle
Deep-submergence vehicle

* DSRV

* Fleet submarine * Midget submarine * U-boat

MISCELLANEOUS

* Arsenal ship * Barracks ship * Breastwork monitor * Capital ship * Flagship
Flagship
* Guard ship * Littoral combat ship * Monitor * River monitor
River monitor
* Training ship
Training ship

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