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Lampung
Lampung
is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra
Sumatra
and borders the provinces of Bengkulu
Bengkulu
and South Sumatra
Sumatra
which lie to the north. Lampung
Lampung
is the original home of the Lampung
Lampung
people, who speak their own language and have their own script. Its capital is Bandar Lampung. The province had a population of 7,596,115 at the 2010 census;[1] the latest official estimate (as of January 2014) is 7,972,246. Three-quarters of the current population of Lampung
Lampung
is descended from migrants from Java, Madura, and Bali. These migrants came on their initiative, in search of more land than was available on the more densely populated islands, and as part of the national government's transmigration program, for which Lampung
Lampung
was one of the earliest and most significant transmigration destinations. Lampung
Lampung
is commonly known for its geological instability in terms of earthquakes and volcanoes. On 10 May 2005, an earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale struck the province. The historical volcano blast of Krakatau
Krakatau
which occurred in 1883, had disastrous consequences.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1971 2,777,008 —    

1980 4,624,785 +66.5%

1990 6,017,573 +30.1%

1995 6,657,759 +10.6%

2000 6,741,439 +1.3%

2010 7,596,115 +12.7%

2014 7,972,246 +5.0%

Source: Badan Pusat Statistik
Badan Pusat Statistik
2010

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Administrative divisions 4 Agriculture 5 Textiles 6 Tourism 7 Demographics 8 Transport

8.1 Land 8.2 Sea 8.3 Air 8.4 Rail

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] In the 7th century, word spread in China about a region located in the far south (Namphang) about a kingdom called "Tolang Pohwang". "To" meaning 'people' in Lampungese while "Lang Pohwang" the then-popular name for the region in what is now Lampung. There is strong evidence that Lampung
Lampung
was part of the kingdom of Srivijaya, with its regional capital in Jambi
Jambi
and controlling most parts of Southeast Asia including Lampung, continuing up until the 11th century. The Srivijayans came to Lampung
Lampung
to seek gold and amber; two things the province was known for far and wide in the past. This fact is undergirded by unearthed evidentiary relics, with the discovery of Palas Pasemah inscriptions and the Batu Bedil inscriptions in the Tenggamus region tracing back to Srivijayan times and civilization. Other, smaller kingdoms like Tulang Bawang (name still extant as a regency in the province) and Skala Brak also existed during 7 to 8 centuries CE. The former was centered around the Tulang Bawang River, hence the name. The entry of the Banten Sultanate
Banten Sultanate
in Lampung
Lampung
at the 16th century marked the beginning of the spread of Islam
Islam
in the region. Since the past, Lampung
Lampung
is known for pepper which at that time were much in demand. At that time the Dutch began pressing for control of the region. The control of pepper production exercised by the Banten Sultanate
Banten Sultanate
has made Lampung
Lampung
as one of the greatest and most prosperous harbor in the archipelago. Similarly pepper plants that also attract foreign immigrants from Europe as trading companies of the Dutch East India Company. The trading company in the late 17th century to build a processing plant in Menggala. But the efforts finally Dutch managed to control 1856. The colonial government for the first time introduced the transmigration program to residents on the island of Java, which involved the migration of people from Java
Java
to Lampung. The transmigration program was quite well received and many residents of the island of Java
Java
origin who moved to the transmigration sites located in the eastern region of Lampung. The transmigration program is then increased again at the time of independence in the 1960s and 1970s. A native of the island of Java
Java
have brought along their culture device to Lampung
Lampung
like gamelan and wayang. People on the island of Bali
Bali
then also came to Lampung
Lampung
to follow this transmigration program. The presence of migrants from other regions in Lampung
Lampung
has made this region as an area with diverse cultures (multi-cultural). Ethnic diversity that there would be a tourist attraction especially in various districts scattered potential of nature tourism, cultural tourism. The existence of art studios and culture as a preserver of art and culture. The area was part of the Banten Sultanate
Banten Sultanate
until it was annexed by the Dutch in 1752 and then became known as Residentie Lampoengse Districten.[3] It was part of the Dutch East Indies. Geography[edit] Lampung
Lampung
Province has an area of 35,376.50 km2 (13,658.94 sq mi) and lies between the latitudes of 105°45'-103°48 'E and 3°45'-6°45'S. The province borders the Sunda Strait to the southeast and the Java Sea
Java Sea
to the east. There are islands located within Lampung
Lampung
Province, which are mostly located in the Bay of Lampung, among them Daro, Legundi, Tegal, Sebuku, Ketagian, Sebesi, Poahawang, Krakatoa, Putus, and Tabuan. There is also Pisang Island at the entrance to the regency of West Lampung. Lampung's natural terrain varies depending on region. Along the coast in the west and the south is an area of rolling hills connected to the Bukit Barisan range, running throughout Sumatra
Sumatra
from north to south. In the center of the province is mostly lowland. Close to the coast in the east, along the shores of the Java
Java
Sea, further north, is the great waters. The mountains that are situated in Lampung
Lampung
by height include:

Mount Pesagi (2,262 m [7,421 ft]) in Liwa, West Lampung Mount Seminung (1,881 m [6,171 ft]) in Sukau, West Lampung Mount Tebak (2,115 m [6,939 ft]) in Sumberjaya, West Lampung Mount Rindingan (1,506 m [4,941 ft]) on the island stage, Tanggamus Mount Pesawaran (1,662 m [5,453 ft]) in Kedondong, Pesawaran Mount Betung (1,240 m [4,070 ft]) in Teluk Betung, Bandar Lampung Mount Rajabasa (1,261 m [4,137 ft]) at the Trump, South Lampung Mount Tanggamus (2,156 m [7,073 ft]) in Kotaagung, Tanggamus Mount Krakatau
Krakatau
in the Sunda Strait, South Lampung Mount Sekincau Liwa, West Lampung Mount Ratai in Padang Cermin, Pesawaran

The rivers that flow in Lampung
Lampung
by length and catchment area (CA) are:

Way Sekampung, length 265 km (165 mi), CA 4,795.52 km2 (1,851.56 sq mi) Way Semaka, length of 90 km (56 mi), CA 985 km2 (380 sq mi) Way Seputih, length 190 km (120 mi), CA 7,149.26 km2 (2,760.34 sq mi) Way Jepara, 50 km (31 mi), CA 1,285 km2 (496 sq mi) Way Tulangbawang, length 136 km (85 mi), CA 1,285 km2 (496 sq mi) Way Mesuji, length 220 km (140 mi), CA 2,053 km2 (793 sq mi) Way Sekampung, flowing in the district Tanggamus, Pringsewu, Pesawaran and South Lampung. Many tributaries, but no longer than 100 km (62 mi). There is only one long river 51 km (32 mi) to CA 106.97 km2 (41.30 sq mi) is in the Trump Way Ketibung. Way Putih flows in Central Lampung
Lampung
regency with tributaries that are longer than 50 km (31 mi) are: Way Terusan, 175 km (109 mi) long, CA 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) Way Pengubuan, length 165 km (103 mi), CA 1,143.78 km2 (441.62 sq mi) Way Pegadungan, a length of 80 km (50 mi), CA 975 km2 (376 sq mi) Way Raman, length 55 km (34 mi), CA 200 km2 (77 sq mi) Way Tulangbawang flows in the district Tulangbawang with creeks more than 50 km (31 mi) in length, of which: Way Kanan, length 51 km (32 mi), CA 1,197 km2 (462 sq mi) Way Rarem, length 53.50 km (33.24 mi), CA 870 km2 (340 sq mi) Way Umpu, a length of 100 km (62 mi), CA 1,179 km2 (455 sq mi) Way Tahmy, a length of 60 km (37 mi), CA 550 km2 (210 sq mi) Way Besay also supplies a length of 113 km (70 mi), CA 879 km2 (339 sq mi) Way Giham, a length of 80 km (50 mi), CA 506.25 km2 (195.46 sq mi) Way Mesuji flowing on the border of the provinces of Lampung
Lampung
and South Sumatra
Sumatra
to the north has a tributary named Crocodile River, along the 70 km (43 mi) by CA 347.5 km2 (134.2 sq mi).

Great forests in the lowlands can be said to have been exhausted appropriated for development of agriculture, to the migrants who are constantly entering this area. Timber forest products are exported abroad. The forests are still there, where the land can be said not many open lies mostly in the west, in the area of Bukit Barisan Selatan. Some cities in the provinces of Lampung
Lampung
height of 50 m over sea level is: Tandjungkarang (96 m [315 ft]), Kedaton (100 m [330 ft]), Metro (53 m [174 ft]), Gisting (480 m [1,570 ft]), State Sakti (100 m [330 ft]), Pringsewu (50 m [160 ft]), Pekalongan (50 m [160 ft]), Batang (65 m [213 ft]), Punggur (50 m [160 ft]), Padang Queen (56 m [184 ft]), Wonosobo (50 m [160 ft]), Kedondong (80 m [260 ft]), Sidomulyo (75 m [246 ft]), Kasui (200 m [660 ft]), Sri Menanti (320 m [1,050 ft] and Liwa (850 m [2,790 ft]. Administrative divisions[edit] Lampung
Lampung
Province is subdivided into twelve regencies (kabupaten) and two autonomous cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and at the most recent (January 2014) estimates. A thirteenth regency – West Pesisir Regency
West Pesisir Regency
– was formed on 25 October 2012 from part of West Lampung
Lampung
Regency, but no separate statistics are yet available.

Name Area (km2) Population Census 2010 Population Estimate 2014 Capital HDI 2014 Estimates

Bandar Lampung
Bandar Lampung
City 118.50 879,651 923,970 Bandar Lampung 0.743 (High)

Metro City 68.74 145,346 152,428 Metro 0.749 (High)

Central Lampung
Lampung
Regency ( Lampung
Lampung
Tengah) 4,789.80 1,170,048 1,226,702 Gunung Sugih 0.670 (Medium)

East Lampung
Lampung
Regency ( Lampung
Lampung
Timur) 5,325.03 950,574 997,147 Sukadana 0.664 (Medium)

Mesuji Regency 432.60 187,286 196,369 Mesuji 0.587 (Low)

North Lampung
Lampung
Regency ( Lampung
Lampung
Utara) 2,725.63 583,925 612,218 Kotabumi 0.648 (Medium)

Pesawaran Regency 2,243.51 397,294 417,921 Gedong Tataan 0.617 (Medium)

Pringsewu Regency 625.00 364,825 382,841 Pringsewu 0.665 (Medium)

South Lampung
Lampung
Regency ( Lampung
Lampung
Selatan) 2,109.74 909,989 956,126 Kalianda 0.637 (Medium)

Tanggamus Regency 3,356.61 534,595 562,274 Kota Agung 0.626 (Medium)

Tulang Bawang Regency 6,851.32 397,079 416,934 Menggala 0.658 (Medium)

Way Kanan Regency 3,921.63 406,735 425,544 Blambangan Umpu 0.643 (Medium)

West Lampung
Lampung
Regency ( Lampung
Lampung
Barat) 4,950.40 418,560 439,076 Liwa 0.635 (Medium)

West Pesisir Regency (Pesisir Barat) * * * Krui 0.597 (Low)

West Tulang Bawang Regency (Tulang Bawang Barat) 1,201.00 250,208 262,696 Panaragan Jaya 0.624 (Medium)

Total Province 34,623.80 7,596,115 7,972,246 Bandar Lampung 0.664 (Medium)

Note

* – The area and population for West Pesisir Regency
West Pesisir Regency
are included in the figures for West Lampung
Lampung
Residency given above. Agriculture[edit] Some of the major crop in the country includes robusta coffee beans, cocoa beans, coconuts and cloves. This has resulted in a thriving agricultural sector with companies like Nestlé
Nestlé
procuring coffee beans from the region. This agriculture has included illegal growing in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park.[4] In addition, nata de coco is also manufactured in the region by domestic companies like Wong Coco. Textiles[edit]

A couple from Lampung
Lampung
in traditional outfit during the colonial period.

Up until the 1920s, Lampung
Lampung
had a rich and varied weaving tradition. Lampung
Lampung
weaving used a supplementary weft technique which enabled coloured silk or cotton threads to be superimposed on a plainer cotton background. The most prominent Lampung
Lampung
textile was the Palepai, ownership of which was restricted to the Lampung
Lampung
aristocracy of the Kalianda Bay area.[5] There were two types of smaller cloths, known as tatibin and tampan, which could be owned and used by all levels of Lampungese society. Weaving
Weaving
technologies were spread throughout Lampung. High quality weavings were produced by the Paminggir, Krui, Abung and Pesisir peoples. Production was particularly prolific among the people of the Kalianda Bay area in the south and the Krui aristocracy in the north. Lampung
Lampung
textiles, Palepai, tatebin and tampan were called 'ship cloths' because ships are a common motif.[6] The ship motif represents the transition from one realm of life to the next, for instances from boyhood to manhood or from being single to married and also represents the final transition to the afterlife.[5] Traditionally, Lampung
Lampung
textiles were used as part of religious ceremonies such as weddings and circumcisions. For instance, the Palepai cloths were used as long ceremonial wall-hangings behind the bridal party in aristocratic marriages. The smaller, more humble tampan cloths were exchanged between families at the time of weddings. Production of many fine cloths blossomed in the late nineteenth century as Lampung
Lampung
grew rich on pepper production, but the devastating eruption of Krakatoa
Krakatoa
in 1883 destroyed many weaving villages in the Kalianda area.[7] By the 1920s the increasing importance of Islam
Islam
and the collapse of the pepper trade brought production to a halt[8] Today Lampung
Lampung
textiles are highly prized by collectors. Tourism[edit] Although tourism is not Lampung
Lampung
Province's main income, the administration will attempt to boost tourism by organising a tourism event, Flamboyant Tanjung Setia, to draw tourists to Tanjung Setia Beach which has natural panoramic view and challenging waves for surfing. Another tourist attraction is the Way Kambas National Park, which is popular with local tourists. In 2010, there were 400,000 tourists who visited Lampung
Lampung
Province, including 10,000 foreign tourists who mainly came from Australia and New Zealand.[9] Way Kambas National Park
Way Kambas National Park
is a national park and elephant sanctuary located in Lampung, precisely in the district of Labuhan Ratu, East Lampung, Indonesia. In addition to Way Kambas, another elephant school (Elephant Training Centre) can also be found in Minas, Riau. The number of Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) living in the region is decreasing. Way Kambas National Park
Way Kambas National Park
was established in 1985 as the first elephant school in Indonesia
Indonesia
and is expected to become a center for elephant conservation in taming, training, breeding and conservation. Until now, this PKG has trained about 300 elephants that have been deployed to other parts of the country. In recent years, the province has been largely popular for snorkelling and diving. Many domestic tourists as well as international ones from various diving communities had been visiting the different spots the province offers, such as Pantai Ringgung, Pulau Tegal, Pulau Pahawang, Pulau Kelagian, Pulau Balak, Pulau Mahitam, and Tanjung Putus. Demographics[edit] Lampung
Lampung
is a multi-ethnic province with 3 major ethnic groups, namely Javanese, Lampungese and Sundanese, where Lampungese are the native ethnicity in the province. The pluralistic society of Lampung
Lampung
uses various languages, including Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, Minangkabau and Lampung.

Religion in Lampung
Lampung
(2010 census)[10]

religion

percent

Islam

95.48%

Protestantism

1.51%

Hinduism

1.49%

Roman Catholicism

0.91%

Buddhism

0.32%

Not Asked

0.22%

Not Stated

0.05%

Others

0.01%

Confucianism

0.01%

Transport[edit] Land[edit] Up to now there is no highway in the province of Lampung, but the Bakauheni-Bandar Lampung-Terbanggi Besar tollway is currently being built which have begun the construction process since 30 April 2015, from Bakauheni in South Lampung
Lampung
to Terbanggi Besar in Central Lampung along the 139 kilometer which is planned fully operational in 2019.[11] The regional toll roads Bakauheni-Terbanggi Besar is expected to be completed in four years with funding from the private sector, government, private and government combined. As for the cost of this development, is predicted to reach Rp 53 trillion, including land acquisition and construction of approximately Rp30 trillion.[12] Lampung
Lampung
has a bus terminal is Terminal Rajabasa which is one of the biggest and busiest in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Lampung, besides there Talbot terminal that is in Bandar Lampung. Rajabasa airport s terminal at close range, intermediate, and far (AKAP) which has bus routes to cities in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Java. Although Terminal Rajabasa has been renovated, but the eerie impression had not fully disappeared. Some passengers are still reluctant to enter the terminal area. In addition to these two terminals, there are plenty of bus terminals located throughout the capital district in Lampung. Sea[edit] In this province there are the Port of Panjang which is an import-export harbor and also the Port Srengsem which served the traffic coal distribution from South Sumatra
Sumatra
to Java. About 92 kilometres (57 mi) south of Bandar Lampung, there is Bakauheni , which is a port city in the province of Lampung, precisely at the southern tip of Sumatra. Located at the southern end of the Trans-Sumatran Highway, the Bakauheni port connects Sumatra
Sumatra
with the Port of Merak in Java
Java
via sea transportation. Air[edit] Radin Inten II Airport
Radin Inten II Airport
is currently the only airport in the province. It serves flights to Jakarta, Medan, Bandung, Palembang, etc. Rail[edit] Lampung
Lampung
Province also has a railway line between Bandar Lampung
Bandar Lampung
- Palembang
Palembang
is part of a railway network in South Sumatra
Sumatra
operated by PT Kereta Api (Persero) Divre IV Tanjung Karang which is located in Bandar Lampung. Bandar Lampung
Bandar Lampung
- Palembang
Palembang
railway line with 40 stations along 387,872 km (241,012 mi) stretches between Tanjungkarang Station in Bandar Lampung
Bandar Lampung
to Kertapati Station in Palembang. See also[edit]

List of people from Lampung

References[edit]

^ a b Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010 Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 17 January 2011 (in Indonesian) ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.  ^ " Lampung
Lampung
Arms". Retrieved 24 July 2016.  ^ Claire Leow. Nestlé
Nestlé
to scrutinize Indonesia
Indonesia
coffee amid wildlife-endangerment fears, International Herald Tribune. ^ a b "Ceremonial Hanging (palepai)". Pacific Islands art. Dallas Museum of Art. Retrieved 2007-09-26.  ^ Gittinger, M. Splendid Symbols, Textiles and Tradition in Indonesia. Textile Museum, Washintom D.C. 1979.Library of Congress No 79-50373 p.88 ^ Gittinger, Mattiebelle S, SOUTH SUMATRAN SHIP CLOTHS. 1979 www.cs.arizona.edu/patterns/.../nb74_shp.pdf p.15 ^ Sudha Rajagopalan; Navigating Culture: Trade and Transformation in the Island State. The Permanent Exhibition on Indonesia. Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan
Medan
Sumut Aceh". Waspada.co.id. Retrieved 2016-07-24.  ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.  ^ Presiden Jokowi Hari ini Akan Lakukan Groundbreaking Jalan Tol Bakauheni ^ Pemerintah bangun tol Bakauheni Terbanggi Besar di 2015

Further reading[edit]

Elmhirst, R. (2001). Resource Struggles and the Politics of Place in North Lampung, Indonesia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 22(3):284–307. Pain, Marc (ed). (1989). Transmigration and spontaneous migrations in Indonesia : Propinsi Lampung. Bondy, France: ORSTOM.

External links[edit]

Early Indonesian textiles from three island cultures: Sumba, Toraja, Lampung, an exhibition catalogue from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Lampung

v t e

Regencies and cities of Lampung

Capital: Bandar Lampung

Regencies

Lampung
Lampung
Barat Lampung
Lampung
Selatan Lampung
Lampung
Tengah Lampung
Lampung
Timur Lampung
Lampung
Utara Mesuji Pesawaran Pesisir Barat Pringsewu Tanggamus Tulang Bawang Tulang Bawang Barat Way Kanan

Cities

Bandar Lampung Metro

v t e

Provinces of Indonesia

Capital: Jakarta

Sumatra

Aceh Bangka-Belitung Islands Bengkulu Jambi Lampung North Sumatra Riau Riau
Riau
Islands South Sumatra West Sumatra

Java

Banten Central Java East Java West Java Jakarta Yogyakarta

Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan East Kalimantan North Kalimantan South Kalimantan West Kalimantan

Lesser Sunda

Bali East Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara

Sulawesi

Central Sulawesi Gorontalo North Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi South Sulawesi West Sulawesi

Maluku

Maluku North Maluku

Papua

Papua West Papua

Former

Timor Timur

Lists by

GRP per ca

.