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LAMBETH (/ˈlæmbəθ/ ) is a district in Central London , England, located in the London Borough of Lambeth . It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Charing Cross . The population of Lambeth
Lambeth
was 23,937 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London
London
expanded, with dense industrial, commercial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another. The changes brought by World War II
World War II
altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th century and early 21st century has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings. The area is home to the International Maritime Organization .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Local governance * 3 Buildings and Churches * 4 Literary Lambeth
Lambeth
* 5 Leisure and Recreation * 6 Transport * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

The origins of the name of Lambeth
Lambeth
come from its first record in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning 'landing place for lambs', and in 1255 as Lambeth. In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
, Lambeth
Lambeth
is called "Lanchei", likely in error. The name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped from or to. It is formed from the Old English 'lamb' and 'hythe'. SOUTH LAMBETH is recorded as Sutlamehethe in 1241 and NORTH LAMBETH is recorded in 1319 as North Lamhuth.

The manor of Lambeth
Lambeth
is recorded as being under ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury from at least 1190. The Archbishops led the development of much of the manor, with Archbishop Hubert Walter creating the residence of Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
in 1197. Lambeth
Lambeth
and the palace were the site of two important 13th century international treaties; the Treaty of Lambeth 1217 and the Treaty of Lambeth 1212 . Edward, the Black Prince lived in Lambeth
Lambeth
in the 14th century in an estate that incorporated the land not belonging to the Archbishops, which also included Kennington (the Black Prince road in Lambeth
Lambeth
is named after him). As such, much of the freehold land of Lambeth
Lambeth
to this day remains under Royal ownership as part of the estate of the Duchy of Cornwall . Lambeth
Lambeth
was also the site of the principal medieval London
London
residence of the Dukes of Norfolk , but by 1680 the large house had been sold and ended up as a pottery manufacturer, creating some of the first examples of English delftware in the country. The road names, Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row reflect the history and legacy of the house today. Map of 1897, showing Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
and Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
.

Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
lies opposite the southern section of the Palace of Westminster
Westminster
on the Thames . The two were historically linked by a horse ferry across the river. Until the mid-18th century the north of Lambeth
Lambeth
was marshland, crossed by a number of roads raised against floods. The marshland in the area, known as Lambeth
Lambeth
Marshe, was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name. With the opening of Westminster Bridge in 1750, followed by the Blackfriars Bridge
Blackfriars Bridge
, Vauxhall Bridge and Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
itself, a number of major thoroughfares were developed through Lambeth, such as Westminster Bridge Road, Kennington Road and Camberwell New Road. Until the 18th century Lambeth
Lambeth
was still partly rural in nature, being outside the boundaries of central London, although it had experienced growth in the form of taverns and entertainment venues, such as theatres and Bear pits (being outside inner city regulations). The subsequent growth in road and marine transport, along with the development of industry in the wake of the industrial revolution brought great change to the area.

The area grew with an ever-increasing population at this time, many of whom were considerably poor. As a result, Lambeth
Lambeth
opened a parish workhouse in 1726. In 1777 a parliamentary report recorded a parish workhouse in operation accommodating up to 270 inmates. On 18 December 1835 the Lambeth
Lambeth
Poor Law Parish was formed, comprising the parish of St Mary, Lambeth, "including the district attached to the new churches of St John, Waterloo, Kennington, Brixton, Norwood". Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of twenty Guardians. Following in the tradition of earlier delftware manufacturers, the Royal Doulton Pottery company had their principle manufacturing site in Lambeth
Lambeth
for several centuries. The Lambeth
Lambeth
factory closed in 1956 and production was transferred to Staffordshire . However the Doulton offices, located on Black Prince Road still remain as they are a listed building, which includes the original decorative tiling.

Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Lambeth
Lambeth
trebled and in ten years alone between 1831 and 1841 it increased from 87,856 in to 105,883. The railway first came to Lambeth
Lambeth
in the 1840s, as construction began which extended the London
London
and South Western Railway from its original station at Nine Elms to the new terminus at Waterloo via the newly constructed Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct . With the massive urban development of London
London
in the 19th century and with the opening of the large Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station and Lower Marsh became known as Waterloo , becoming an area distinct from Lambeth
Lambeth
itself.

The Lambeth
Lambeth
Ragged school was built in 1851 to help educate the children of destitute facilities, although the widening of the London and South Western Railway in 1904 saw the building reduced in size. Part of the school building still exists today and is occupied by the Beaconsfield Gallery . The Beaufoy Institute was also built in 1907 to provide technical education for the poor of the area, although this stopped being an educational institution at the end of the 20th century.

Lambeth Walk and Lambeth
Lambeth
High Street were the two principle commercial streets of Lambeth, but today are predominantly residential in nature. Lambeth Walk was site of a market for many years, which by 1938 had 159 shops, including 11 butchers. The street and surrounding roads, like most of Lambeth
Lambeth
were extensively damaged in the Second World War . This included the complete destruction of the Victorian Swimming Baths (themselves built in 1897) in 1945, when a V2 Rocket hit the street resulting in the deaths of 37 people.

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society\'s headquarters were located in Lambeth
Lambeth
High Street from 1976 until 2015.

LOCAL GOVERNANCE

The tower of St Mary-at- Lambeth
Lambeth
constructed in 1377.

The current district of Lambeth
Lambeth
was part of the large ancient parish of Lambeth
Lambeth
St Mary in the Brixton hundred of Surrey
Surrey
. It was an elongated north-south parish with a two-mile River Thames
River Thames
frontage to the west. In the north it lay opposite the cities of London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
and extended southwards to cover the contemporary districts of Brixton , West Dulwich and West Norwood , almost reaching Crystal Palace . Lambeth
Lambeth
became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It continued as a single parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 and a single parish governed by a vestry after the introduction of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855. In 1889 it became part of the county of London
London
and the parish and vestry were reformed in 1900 to become the Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth
Lambeth
, governed by Lambeth
Lambeth
Borough Council. In the reform of local government in 1965, the Streatham
Streatham
and Clapham
Clapham
areas that had formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth were combined with Lambeth
Lambeth
to form the London Borough of Lambeth .

BUILDINGS AND CHURCHES

The church of St Mary-at- Lambeth
Lambeth
is the oldest above ground structure in Lambeth, the oldest structure of any kind being the crypt of Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
itself. The church has pre-Norman origins, being recorded as early as 1062 as a church built by Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor . It was rebuilt in flint and stone between the years 1374 and 1377. The tower is the only original part still to survive, as much of the church was reconstructed by 1852. The church was de-consecrated in 1972 and since 1977 it has been the home of the Garden Museum .

Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
is the home of the Archbishop of Canterbury and has been occupied as a residence by the Archbishops since the early 13th century. The oldest parts of the palace are Langton's Chapel and its crypt, both of which date back to the 13th Century, although they suffered greatly from damage in the Second World War , they have seen been extensively repaired and restored. Morton's Tower, the primary entrance of the palace was built in 1490. The Great Hall, rebuilt over different centuries but primarily following damage during the English Civil War contains the vast collections of the Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace Library. Later additions to the palace including the Blore Building, a newer private residence for the Archbishop, which was completed in 1833. The waterfront of Lambeth
Lambeth
including the International Maritime Organization and the former HQ of the London Fire Brigade .

The Albert Embankment , finished in 1869 and created by the engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
under the Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
forms the boundary of Lambeth
Lambeth
with the River Thames
River Thames
. The embankment included land reclaimed from the river and various small timber and boat-building yards, and was intended to protect low-lying areas of Lambeth
Lambeth
from flooding while also providing a new highway to bypass local congested streets. Unlike the Thames Embankment
Thames Embankment
on the opposite side of the river the Albert Embankment does not incorporate major interceptor sewers. This allowed the southern section of the embankment (upstream from Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge) to include a pair of tunnels onto a small slipway, named White Hart Draw Dock, whose origins can be traced back to the 14th century. Centuries later, Royal Doulton's pottery works used the docks to load for transport clay and finished goods to and from the Port of London . The refurbishment of White Hart Dock was carried out as part of a local art project in 2009, which saw the addition of wooden sculptures and benches to the 1868 boundary dock wall.

Located on the Albert Embankment is the purpose-built headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The IMO is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping . The building was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 May 1983. The architects of the building were Douglass Marriott, Worby -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ "Lambeth". Collins Dictionary. * ^ Wheatley, Henry Benjamin ; Cunningham, Peter (2011) . London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 355. * ^ A B C Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London
London
Place Names. Oxford. * ^ A B C " London
London
Borough of Lambeth". Ideal Homes: A History of South-East London
London
Suburbs. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B "Lambeth". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016. * ^ Cannon, John. "Treaty of Lambeth" A Dictionary of British History. Oxford University Press, 2009 * ^ "Royal Southwark
Southwark
and Lambeth". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016. * ^ A B C D E F G " Lambeth
Lambeth
Pharmacy Walk" (PDF). Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ A B "Lambeth: The parish". British History. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ " Lambeth
Lambeth
(Parish of St Mary), Surrey, London". workhouses.org. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B C "Memorial – White Hart Dock". London
London
Remembers. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B "Streets of London: Lambeth
Lambeth
Walk". BBC News
BBC News
. Retrieved 26 November 2016. * ^ " Lambeth
Lambeth
Baths". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archives. Retrieved 26 November 2016. * ^ "Pharmacy History and Lambeth". Royal Pharmaceutical Society . Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B C Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society . ISBN 0-901050-67-9 . * ^ A B "St Mary – A history". The Garden Museum. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B C D E "The History of Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace". The Archibishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ "White Hart Dock". Plaques of London. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B "IMO History: 30 years" (PDF). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ "Introduction to IMO". International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B "IMO Building History". Manchester History. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B "Fire Brigade HQ History". Manchester History. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ "Developer appointed for Albert Embankment Site". London
London
Fire Brigade. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ A B " Lambeth
Lambeth
Mission & St Mary\'s". North Lambeth
Lambeth
Parish. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ "Main Site". Beaconsfield Gallery. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ "About". Morley College. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ "Liza of Lambeth". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ " Lambeth
Lambeth
Parish Watch House". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016. * ^ " Lambeth Walk Open Space". Open Play. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ "Pedlars\' Park". London
London
Park Life. Retrieved 30 November 2016.

* ^ " Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
and its predeceasor". British History. Retrieved 30 November 2016.

FURTHER READING

* Daniel Lysons
Daniel Lysons
(1792), "Lambeth", Environs of London, 1: County of Surrey, London: T. Cadell * John Timbs
John Timbs
(1867), "Lambeth", Curiosities of London
London
(2nd ed.), London: J.C. Hotten, OCLC 12878129 * Findlay Muirhead, ed. (1922), "Lambeth", London
London
and its Environs (2nd ed.), London: Macmillan & Co., OCLC 365061

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