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Lambeth
Lambeth
(/ˈlæmbəθ/)[1]. It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Charing Cross. The population of the London Borough of Lambeth
London Borough of Lambeth
was 303,086 in 2011.[2] The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace. In Elizabethan times the area was known as L’amberth. (Map named Londinum Feracissumi Angliae Regni Metropolis) By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial, commercial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another. The changes brought by World War II
World War II
altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th century and early 21st century has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings. The area is home to the International Maritime Organization.

Contents

1 History 2 Local governance 3 Buildings and Churches 4 Literary Lambeth 5 Leisure and Recreation 6 Transport 7 Notable people 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] The origins of the name of Lambeth
Lambeth
come from its first record in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning 'landing place for lambs', and in 1255 as Lambeth. In the Domesday Book, Lambeth
Lambeth
is called "Lanchei", likely in error.[3] The name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped from or to. It is formed from the Old English
Old English
'lamb' and 'hythe'.[4] South Lambeth
South Lambeth
is recorded as Sutlamehethe in 1241 and North Lambeth
Lambeth
is recorded in 1319 as North Lamhuth.[4] The manor of Lambeth
Lambeth
is recorded as being under ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
from at least 1190.[5] The Archbishops led the development of much of the manor, with Archbishop Hubert Walter creating the residence of Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
in 1197.[6] Lambeth
Lambeth
and the palace were the site of two important 13th century international treaties; the Treaty of Lambeth 1217 and the Treaty of Lambeth 1212.[7] Edward, the Black Prince
Edward, the Black Prince
lived in Lambeth
Lambeth
in the 14th century in an estate that incorporated the land not belonging to the Archbishops, which also included Kennington
Kennington
(the Black Prince road in Lambeth
Lambeth
is named after him).[6] As such, much of the freehold land of Lambeth
Lambeth
to this day remains under Royal ownership as part of the estate of the Duchy of Cornwall.[8] Lambeth
Lambeth
was also the site of the principal medieval London residence of the Dukes of Norfolk, but by 1680 the large house had been sold and ended up as a pottery manufacturer, creating some of the first examples of English delftware in the country.[9] The road names, Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row reflect the history and legacy of the house today.[10]

Map of 1897, showing Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
and Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge.

Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
lies opposite the southern section of the Palace of Westminster
Westminster
on the Thames. The two were historically linked by a horse ferry across the river.[5] Until the mid-18th century the north of Lambeth
Lambeth
was marshland, crossed by a number of roads raised against floods. The marshland in the area, known as Lambeth
Lambeth
Marshe, was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name. With the opening of Westminster Bridge
Westminster Bridge
in 1750, followed by the Blackfriars Bridge, Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
and Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
itself, a number of major thoroughfares were developed through Lambeth, such as Westminster Bridge
Westminster Bridge
Road, Kennington
Kennington
Road and Camberwell
Camberwell
New Road.[5] Until the 18th century Lambeth
Lambeth
was still partly rural in nature, being outside the boundaries of central London, although it had experienced growth in the form of taverns and entertainment venues, such as theatres and Bear pits (being outside inner city regulations).[9] The subsequent growth in road and marine transport, along with the development of industry in the wake of the industrial revolution brought great change to the area.[9] The area grew with an ever-increasing population at this time, many of whom were considerably poor.[9] As a result, Lambeth
Lambeth
opened a parish workhouse in 1726. In 1777 a parliamentary report recorded a parish workhouse in operation accommodating up to 270 inmates. On 18 December 1835 the Lambeth
Lambeth
Poor Law
Poor Law
Parish was formed, comprising the parish of St Mary, Lambeth, "including the district attached to the new churches of St John, Waterloo, Kennington, Brixton, Norwood". Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of twenty Guardians.[11] Following in the tradition of earlier delftware manufacturers, the Royal Doulton Pottery company had their principle manufacturing site in Lambeth
Lambeth
for several centuries.[12] The Lambeth
Lambeth
factory closed in 1956 and production was transferred to Staffordshire. However the Doulton offices, located on Black Prince Road still remain as they are a listed building, which includes the original decorative tiling.[12] Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Lambeth
Lambeth
trebled and in ten years alone between 1831 and 1841 it increased from 87,856 in to 105,883.[10] The railway first came to Lambeth
Lambeth
in the 1840s, as construction began which extended the London and South Western Railway from its original station at Nine Elms to the new terminus at Waterloo via the newly constructed Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct. With the massive urban development of London in the 19th century and with the opening of the large Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station and Lower Marsh
Lower Marsh
became known as Waterloo, becoming an area distinct from Lambeth
Lambeth
itself.[4] The Lambeth
Lambeth
Ragged school was built in 1851 to help educate the children of destitute facilities, although the widening of the London and South Western Railway in 1904 saw the building reduced in size.[9] Part of the school building still exists today and is occupied by the Beaconsfield Gallery.[9] The Beaufoy Institute was also built in 1907 to provide technical education for the poor of the area, although this stopped being an educational institution at the end of the 20th century.[9] Lambeth Walk
Lambeth Walk
and Lambeth
Lambeth
High Street were the two principle commercial streets of Lambeth, but today are predominantly residential in nature. Lambeth Walk
Lambeth Walk
was site of a market for many years, which by 1938 had 159 shops, including 11 butchers.[13] The street and surrounding roads, like most of Lambeth
Lambeth
were extensively damaged in the Second World War.[13] This included the complete destruction of the Victorian Swimming Baths (themselves built in 1897) in 1945, when a V2 Rocket hit the street resulting in the deaths of 37 people.[14] The Royal Pharmaceutical Society's headquarters were located in Lambeth
Lambeth
High Street from 1976 until 2015.[15] For a list of street name toponymys in the area see Street names of Kennington
Kennington
and Lambeth Local governance[edit]

The tower of St Mary-at- Lambeth
Lambeth
constructed in 1377.

The current district of Lambeth
Lambeth
was part of the large ancient parish of Lambeth
Lambeth
St Mary in the Brixton
Brixton
hundred of Surrey.[16] It was an elongated north-south parish with a two-mile River Thames
River Thames
frontage to the west. In the north it lay opposite the cities of London and Westminster
Westminster
and extended southwards to cover the contemporary districts of Brixton, West Dulwich
West Dulwich
and West Norwood, almost reaching Crystal Palace. Lambeth
Lambeth
became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It continued as a single parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law
Poor Law
Amendment Act 1834 and a single parish governed by a vestry after the introduction of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855.[16] In 1889 it became part of the county of London and the parish and vestry were reformed in 1900 to become the Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth, governed by Lambeth
Lambeth
Borough Council. In the reform of local government in 1965, the Streatham
Streatham
and Clapham areas that had formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth were combined with Lambeth
Lambeth
to form the London Borough of Lambeth.[16] Buildings and Churches[edit] The church of St Mary-at- Lambeth
Lambeth
is the oldest above ground structure in Lambeth, the oldest structure of any kind being the crypt of Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
itself.[17] The church has pre-Norman origins, being recorded as early as 1062 as a church built by Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor. It was rebuilt in flint and stone between the years 1374 and 1377. The tower is the only original part still to survive, as much of the church was reconstructed by 1852. The church was de-consecrated in 1972 and since 1977 it has been the home of the Garden Museum.[17] Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
is the home of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
and has been occupied as a residence by the Archbishops since the early 13th century.[18] The oldest parts of the palace are Langton's Chapel and its crypt, both of which date back to the 13th Century. Although they suffered greatly from damage in the Second World War, they have seen been extensively repaired and restored.[18] Morton's Tower, the main entrance to the palace, was built in 1490.[18] The Great Hall, rebuilt over different centuries but primarily following damage during the English Civil War, contains the vast collections of the Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace Library.[18] Later additions to the palace including the Blore Building, a newer private residence for the Archbishop, which was completed in 1833.[18]

The waterfront of Lambeth
Lambeth
including the International Maritime Organization and the former HQ of the London Fire Brigade.

The Albert Embankment, finished in 1869 and created by the engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
under the Metropolitan Board of Works, forms the boundary of Lambeth. The embankment includes land reclaimed from the river and various small timber and boat-building yards, and was intended to protect low-lying areas of Lambeth
Lambeth
from flooding while also providing a new highway to bypass local congested streets. Unlike the Thames Embankment
Thames Embankment
on the opposite side of the river, the Albert Embankment does not incorporate major interceptor sewers. This allowed the southern section of the embankment (upstream from Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge) to include a pair of tunnels leading to a small slipway, named White Hart Draw Dock, whose origins can be traced back to the 14th century.[19] Centuries later, Royal Doulton's pottery works used the docks to load clay and finished goods for transport to and from the Port of London. The refurbishment of White Hart Dock was carried out as part of a local art project in 2009, which included the addition of wooden sculptures and benches to the 1868 dock boundary wall.[12] Located on the Albert Embankment
Albert Embankment
is the purpose-built headquarters of the International Maritime Organization
International Maritime Organization
(IMO).[20] The IMO is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.[21] The building was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 May 1983.[20] The architects of the building were Douglass Marriott, Worby & Robinson.[22] The front of the building is dominated by a seven-metre high, ten-tonne bronze sculpture of the bow of a ship, with a lone seafarer maintaining a look-out from Lambeth
Lambeth
to the Thames.[22] From 1937 until 2007 the headquarters of the London Fire Brigade
London Fire Brigade
were in Lambeth, on Albert Embankment.[23] The headquarters building, constructed in an art deco style, was designed by architects of the London City Council and opened in 1937.[23] Occupying a prominent position on the Thames it is, however, still an operating fire station, although future plans have been submitted which may see redevelopment of the listed building.[24] The Lambeth
Lambeth
Mission is a church of the united Methodist Anglican denomination, located on Lambeth
Lambeth
Road.[25] The original church was founded in 1739 but was entirely destroyed by a bomb in the Second World War. A new church for the mission was constructed in 1950 and continues to function as an active church today.[25] The Beaconsfield gallery is a public contemporary art gallery in Lambeth, which was established in 1995 and specialises in temporary exhibitions and art classes.[26] Morley College
Morley College
is an adult education college, founded in the 1880s, that occupies sites on either side of the boundary between the London boroughs of Southwark
Southwark
and Lambeth.[27] Literary Lambeth[edit] In William Blake's epic Milton: A Poem in Two Books, the poet John Milton
Milton
leaves Heaven and travels to Lambeth, in the form of a falling comet, and enters Blake's foot. This allows Blake to treat the ordinary world as perceived by the five senses as a sandal formed of "precious stones and gold" that he can now wear. Blake ties the sandal and, guided by Los, walks with it into the City of Art, inspired by the spirit of poetic creativity. The poem was written between 1804 and 1810. Liza of Lambeth, the first novel by W. Somerset Maugham, is about the life and loves of a young factory worker living in Lambeth
Lambeth
near Westminster Bridge
Westminster Bridge
Road.[28] Thyrza, a novel by George Gissing
George Gissing
first published in 1887, is set in late Victorian Lambeth, particularly Newport Street, Lambeth Walk
Lambeth Walk
and Walnut Tree Walk. The novel was intended by Gissing to "contain the very spirit of London working-class life". The story tells of Walter Egremont, an Oxford-trained idealist who gives lectures on literature to workers, some of them from his father's Lambeth
Lambeth
factory. Leisure and Recreation[edit] Lambeth
Lambeth
has several areas of public parks and gardens. This includes Old Paradise Gardens, which is a park occupying former burial ground on Lambeth
Lambeth
High Street and old Paradise Street. A watch-house for holding the 'drunk and disorderely' existed on the site, from 1825 until 1930 and is today marked by a memorial stone.[29] Lambeth
Lambeth
Walk Open Space is a small public park to the east of Lambeth
Lambeth
on Fitzalan walk and includes several open spaces and play areas.[30] Pedlars' Park is another small public park in Lambeth, which was created in 1968 on the site of the former St. Saviour's Salamanca Street School.[31] The Archbishop's Park is open to the public and borders the edge of Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
and the neighbouring area of Waterloo and the hospital of St Thomas. Transport[edit] The nearest London Underground stations are Waterloo, Southwark
Southwark
and Lambeth
Lambeth
North. London Waterloo
London Waterloo
is also a National Rail
National Rail
station and so is Waterloo East station which is located in-between both Waterloo and Southwark
Southwark
stations. Vauxhall station
Vauxhall station
is also nearby in Vauxhall, situated more towards the South Lambeth
South Lambeth
area near Kennington. The South Western Main Line
South Western Main Line
runs through Lambeth
Lambeth
on the Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct. The principal road through the area is Lambeth Road
Lambeth Road
(the A3203). Lambeth Walk
Lambeth Walk
adjoins Lambeth
Lambeth
Road. The current Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
opened on 19 July 1932. It replaced an earlier suspension bridge which itself was built between 1862 and 1928, but was eventually closed and demolished following the 1928 Thames flood.[32] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Lambeth See also[edit]

List of schools in Lambeth

References[edit]

^ "Lambeth". Collins Dictionary London Borough of Lambeth ^ http://www.ukcensusdata.com/lambeth-e09000022.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Wheatley, Henry Benjamin; Cunningham, Peter (2011) [First published in 1891]. London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 355.  ^ a b c Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford.  ^ a b c "London Borough of Lambeth". Ideal Homes: A History of South-East London Suburbs. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b "Lambeth". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016.  ^ Cannon, John. "Treaty of Lambeth" A Dictionary of British History. Oxford University Press, 2009 ^ "Royal Southwark
Southwark
and Lambeth". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g " Lambeth
Lambeth
Pharmacy Walk" (PDF). Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ a b "Lambeth: The parish". British History. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ " Lambeth
Lambeth
(Parish of St Mary), Surrey, London". workhouses.org. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b c "Memorial – White Hart Dock". London Remembers. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b "Streets of London: Lambeth
Lambeth
Walk". BBC News. Retrieved 26 November 2016.  ^ " Lambeth
Lambeth
Baths". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archives. Retrieved 26 November 2016.  ^ "Pharmacy History and Lambeth". Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b c Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-901050-67-9.  ^ a b "St Mary – A history". The Garden Museum. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e "The History of Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace". The Archibishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ "White Hart Dock". Plaques of London. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b "IMO History: 30 years" (PDF). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ "Introduction to IMO". International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b "IMO Building History". Manchester History. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b "Fire Brigade HQ History". Manchester History. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ "Developer appointed for Albert Embankment
Albert Embankment
Site". London Fire Brigade. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ a b " Lambeth
Lambeth
Mission & St Mary's". North Lambeth
Lambeth
Parish. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ "Main Site". Beaconsfield Gallery. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ "About". Morley College. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ "Liza of Lambeth". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ " Lambeth
Lambeth
Parish Watch House". Vauxhall
Vauxhall
History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016.  ^ " Lambeth Walk
Lambeth Walk
Open Space". Open Play. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ "Pedlars' Park". London Park Life. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ " Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
and its predeceasor". British History. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Daniel Lysons
Daniel Lysons
(1792), "Lambeth", Environs of London, 1: County of Surrey, London: T. Cadell  John Timbs
John Timbs
(1867), "Lambeth", Curiosities of London (2nd ed.), London: J.C. Hotten, OCLC 12878129  Findlay Muirhead, ed. (1922), "Lambeth", London and its Environs (2nd ed.), London: Macmillan & Co., OCLC 365061 

External links[edit]

london-se1.co.uk local news website Lambeth, In Their Shoes Lambeth
Lambeth
history resource Digital Public Library of America. Works related to Lambeth, various dates

v t e

London Borough of Lambeth

Districts

Brixton Clapham Clapham
Clapham
Park Crystal Palace Gipsy Hill Grange Mills Herne Hill Kennington Knight's Hill Lambeth Loughborough Junction Norbury Oval South Bank South Lambeth Stockwell Streatham Streatham
Streatham
Vale Tulse Hill Upper Norwood Vauxhall Waterloo West Dulwich West Norwood

Attractions

Ashby's Mill BFI Southbank Black Cultural Archives The Chocolate Museum Garden Museum Florence Nightingale Museum Imperial War Museum Lambeth
Lambeth
Archives Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace London County Hall London Eye Lower Marsh
Lower Marsh
Market The Old Vic Oval Cricket Ground Ovalhouse Sea Life London Aquarium South Bank Southbank Centre

Royal National Theatre BFI Southbank Royal Festival Hall Queen Elizabeth Hall Purcell Room Hayward

South London Theatre White Bear Theatre Young Vic

Bridges

Hungerford Lambeth Westminster Vauxhall Waterloo

Parks and open spaces

Archbishop's Park Brockwell Park Clapham
Clapham
Common Jubilee Gardens Kennington
Kennington
Park Larkhall Park Loughborough Junction Mostyn Gardens Myatt's Fields Park Norbury
Norbury
Park Norwood Park Pedlar's Park Ruskin Park Streatham
Streatham
Common Streatham
Streatham
Vale Park Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Park Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Spring Gardens

Constituencies

Streatham Vauxhall Dulwich
Dulwich
and West Norwood

Tube, rail, and riverboat stations

Brixton

rail tube

Clapham
Clapham
Common Clapham
Clapham
North Clapham
Clapham
High Street Gipsy Hill Herne Hill Lambeth
Lambeth
North Loughborough Junction Norbury
Norbury
railway station Oval Stockwell Streatham Streatham
Streatham
Common Streatham
Streatham
Hill Tulse Hill Vauxhall Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Road Waterloo Waterloo East West Norwood

Other topics

Council Grade I and II* listed buildings People Public art Schools The Lambeth
Lambeth
Walk

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London
City of London
wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey
Surrey
Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greate

.