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The LACCADIVE SEA or LAKSHADWEEP SEA is a body of water bordering India
India
(including its Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
islands), the Maldives
Maldives
, and Sri Lanka . It is located to the southwest of Karnataka
Karnataka
, to the west of Kerala
Kerala
and to the south of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. This warm sea has a stable water temperature through the year and is rich in marine life, with the Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
alone hosting about 3,600 species. Trivandrum , Kochi
Kochi
, Colombo
Colombo
, Quilon , Alappuzha
Alappuzha
and Malé
Malé
are the major cities on the shore of the Laccadive Sea. Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
, the southernmost tip of peninsular India
India
, also borders this sea.

CONTENTS

* 1 Extent * 2 Hydrology * 3 Fauna and human activities * 4 References * 5 Bibliography

EXTENT

A View of the Laccadive Sea
Sea
from Villingili

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Laccadive Sea
Sea
as follows: Laccadive sea shore at Kollam Beach
Kollam Beach

On the West. A line running from Sadashivgad
Sadashivgad
Lt. on West Coast of India
India
(14°48′N 74°07′E / 14.800°N 74.117°E / 14.800; 74.117 ) to Corah Divh (13°42′N 72°10′E / 13.700°N 72.167°E / 13.700; 72.167 ) and thence down the West side of the Laccadive and Maldive Archipelagos to the most Southerly point of Addu Atoll in the Maldives.

On the South. A line running from Dondra Head
Dondra Head
in Ceylon to the most Southerly point of Addu Atoll.

On the East. The West coasts of Ceylon and India.

On the Northeast. Adams Bridge (between India
India
and Ceylon).

HYDROLOGY

Water temperature is rather constant through the year, averaging 26–28 °С in summer and 25 °С in winter. Salinity is 34‰ (parts per thousand) in the center and northern part and up to 35.5‰ in the south. The coasts are sandy but the deeper parts are covered in silt . There are numerous coral reefs in the sea, such as the Lakshadweep islands which are made up of atolls and contain 105 coral species.

FAUNA AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Pearl
Pearl
fishing in the Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
, ca. 1926

The Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
is known for its pearl banks of Pinctada radiata and Pinctada fucata for at least two thousand years. Pliny the Elder (23–79) praised the pearl fishery of the gulf as most productive in the world. Although extraction of natural pearls is considered too expensive in most parts of the world, it is still conducted in the gulf. Also collected in large numbers are Shankha mollusks (Xancus pyrum) whose shells are used as a ritual and religious object. Other mollusks of the sea are either too scarce or not popular in the Indian society and therefore have no commercial value.

Another traditional occupation in the Laccadive Sea
Sea
is fishing. The annual fish catch is 2,000 to 5,000 tonnes from the Lakshadweep islands, which is mostly constituted by tuna (about 70%) and shark. Perches , halfbeaks , Carangidae
Carangidae
, needlefish and rays are also caught near the reefs. Shrimp
Shrimp
, Achelata
Achelata
and small fish, such as Sprattus , Pomacentridae and Apogonidae are widely used as a bait by the Laccadive islanders.

With about 3,600 species of flora and fauna, the Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
is regarded as one of the richest marine biological resources in the world. Of these 3,600 species, 44 are protected, 117 are corals, 79 crustaceans, 108 sponges, 260 mollusks, 441 fin fishes, 147 seaweeds and 17 mangroves. In 1986, a group of 21 islands and nearby waters with the total area of 560 km² were declared Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
Marine National Park . The park and its buffer zone were designated as a Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere Reserve
in 1989. The Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere Reserve
covers an area of 10,500 km² of ocean, islands and the adjoining coastline, and is the largest such reserve in India. Most of its area is restricted for outsiders and the access of boats is subject to strict rules, but local people continue fishing activities which they crucially depend on. About 150,000 people live in the buffer zone, and more than 70% of them depend on the coastal marine resources. There are about 125 fishing villages with 35,000 active fishers and 25,000 divers for sea cucumbers in the area, about 5,000 women collect seaweed. About 106,000 tonnes of fish were produced in the gulf in 2006, mostly oil sardines ( Sardinella longiceps), lesser sardines ( Sardinella spp.), ponyfish (Letognathus sp.), mackerel, penaeid shrimp , perches, squid (Sepioteuthis arctipinni ), deep-sea lobster (Puerulus sewelli ), crab (Varuna littorata ), skates and rays. The seaweed collection aims at shallow-water species Gelidiella acerosa (marikozhundu passi), Gracilaria edulis (Agarophytes, Kanchi passi), Sargassum spp. (kattakorai), Turbinaria (Alginophyte, Pakoda passi ) and Ulva lactuca
Ulva lactuca
, and is conducted between October and March. Because of National Park related restrictions, the production of seaweeds declined from 5,800 tonnes (dry weight) in 1978 to 3,250 tonnes in 2003.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C V. M. Kotlyakov, ed. (2006). Dictionary of modern geographical names: Laccadive Sea
Sea
(in Russian). * ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. p. 21. Retrieved 7 February 2010. * ^ Coral Reefs of India: Review of Their Extent, Condition, Research and Management Status by Vineeta Hoon, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations * ^ Status of Coral Reefs of India. Envfor.nic.in. Retrieved on 2013-03-22. Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Arnold Wright (1999). Twentieth century impressions of Ceylon: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources. p. 227. ISBN 81-206-1335-X . * ^ James Hornell (2009). The Indian Pearl
Pearl
Fisheries of the Gulf of Manar and Palk Bay. BiblioBazaar. p. 6. ISBN 1-110-87096-5 . * ^ A B ICSF p. 27 * ^ Michael O'Donoghue (2006). Gems: their sources, descriptions and identification. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 566. ISBN 0-7506-5856-8 . * ^ Taxa reported from regions in Indo-Arabia – see Maldives, Laccadive islands * ^ A B R. Raghu Prasad; P. V. Ramachandran Nair (1973). " India
India
and the Indian Ocean
Ocean
Fisheries" (PDF). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India. 15: 1–19. * ^ T. R. McClanahan; Charles R. C. Sheppard; David O. Obura (2000). Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: their ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press. p. 305. ISBN 0-19-512596-7 . * ^ ICSF p.25 * ^ ICSF pp. 27–30 * ^ ICSF pp. 1–2, 21, 24, 30 * ^ J. Sacratees; R. Karthigarani (2008). Environment impact assessment. APH Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 81-313-0407-8 . * ^ ICSF p. 26 * ^ ICSF pp. 42–43

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Marine Protected Areas in India, International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), April 2008, ISBN 978-81-904590-9-9

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea
Sea
* Beaufort Sea
Sea
* Chukchi Sea
Sea
* East Siberian Sea
Sea
* Greenland Sea
Sea
* Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea
Sea
* Laptev Sea
Sea
* Lincoln Sea
Sea
* Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
Sea
* Pechora Sea
Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Sea
* Wandel Sea
Sea
* White Sea
Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Sea
* Aegean Sea
Sea
* Alboran Sea
Sea
* Archipelago Sea
Sea
* Argentine Sea
Sea
* Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Sea
* Baltic Sea
Sea
* Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea
Sea
* Bothnian Sea
Sea
* Caribbean Sea
Sea
* Celtic Sea
Sea
* English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea
Sea
* Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion
Gulf of Lion
* Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico * Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Sea
* Irish Sea
Sea
* Irminger Sea
Sea
* James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea
Sea
* Levantine Sea
Sea
* Libyan Sea
Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Sea
* Marmara Sea
Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Sea
* Myrtoan Sea
Sea
* North Sea
Sea
* Norwegian Sea
Sea
* Sargasso Sea
Sea
* Sea
Sea
of Åland * Sea
Sea
of Azov * Sea
Sea
of Crete * Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea
Sea
* Tyrrhenian Sea
Sea
* Wadden Sea
Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Sea
* Arabian Sea
Sea
* Bali Sea
Sea
* Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea
Sea
* Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea
Sea
* Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea
Sea
* Timor Sea
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Sea
* Banda Sea
Sea
* Bering Sea
Sea
* Bismarck Sea
Sea
* Bohai Sea
Sea
* Bohol Sea
Sea
* Camotes Sea
Sea
* Celebes Sea
Sea
* Ceram Sea
Sea
* Chilean Sea
Sea
* Coral Sea
Sea
* East China Sea
Sea
* Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea
Sea
* Koro Sea
Sea
* Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea
Sea
* Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea
Sea
* Salish Sea
Sea
* Savu Sea
Sea
* Sea
Sea
of Japan * Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea
Sea
* Shantar Sea
Sea
* Sibuyan Sea
Sea
* Solomon Sea
Sea
* South China Sea
Sea
* Sulu Sea
Sea
* Tasman Sea
Sea
* Visayan Sea
Sea
* Yellow Sea
Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea
Sea
* Cooperation Sea
Sea
* Cosmonauts Sea
Sea
* Davis Sea
Sea
* D\'Urville Sea
Sea
* King Haakon VII Sea
Sea
* Lazarev Sea
Sea
* Mawson Sea
Sea
* Riiser-Larsen Sea
Sea
* Ross Sea
Sea
* Scotia Sea
Sea
* Somov Sea
Sea
* Weddell Sea
Sea

LANDLOCKED SEAS

* Aral Sea
Sea
* Caspian Sea
Sea
* Dead Sea
Sea
* Salton Sea
Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Hydrography of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent

INLAND RIVERS

* Beas * Betwa * Bhagirathi * Brahmaputra * Chambal * Chenab * Damodar * Godavari * Gandaki * Ganges
Ganges
* Ghaghara * Indus * Jhelum * Kali * Kaveri * Kosi * Krishna * Luni * Mahanadi
Mahanadi
* Mahaweli * Meghna * Narmada * Padma * Ravi * Sarasvati * Sankosh * Sharda * Son * Sutlej * Tapti * Yamuna

INLAND LAKES, DELTAS, ETC.

* Ganges
Ganges
Basin * Ganges
Ganges
Delta * Indus Delta * Dal Lake * Pookode Lake
Pookode Lake
* Skeleton Lake * Chilika Lake
Chilika Lake
* Lake Powai * Borith Lake
Borith Lake
* Saiful Muluk * Gosaikunda
Gosaikunda
* Nizam Sagar
Nizam Sagar
* Red Hills Lake
Red Hills Lake
* Malampuzha
Malampuzha
* Kerala
Kerala
backwaters * Pulicat Lake

COASTAL

* Indian Ocean
Ocean
* Arabian Sea
Sea
* Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Laccadive Sea * Palk Strait

CATEGORIES

* Lakes of Bangladesh / India
India
/ Nepal / Pakistan * Reservoirs and dams in India
India
* Rivers of Bangladesh / Bhutan / India
India
/ Nepal / Pakistan

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Sea
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