Lake Titicaca (Spanish: Lago Titicaca, Quechua: Titiqaqa Qucha) is a
large, deep lake in the
Andes on the border of
Bolivia and Peru. By
volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South
Lake Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is
a tidal bay, not a lake.
It is often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world, with a
surface elevation of 3,812 metres (12,507 ft). Although
this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered
to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on
the lake was the 2,200-ton, 79-metre (259 ft) SS Ollanta. Today
the largest vessel is most likely the similarly sized, but broader,
train barge/float Manco Capac, operated by
PeruRail (berthed, as of 17
June 2013, at 15°50′11″S 70°00′53″W / 15.8364°S
70.0147°W / -15.8364; -70.0147, across the pier from the Ollanta).
Numerous smaller bodies of water around the world are at higher
7.4 Isla del Sol
7.5 Isla de la Luna
9 See also
11 External links
The lake is located at the northern end of the endorheic Altiplano
basin high in the
Andes on the border of
Peru and Bolivia. The western
part of the lake lies within the
Puno Region of Peru, and the eastern
side is located in the Bolivian La Paz Department.
The lake is composed of two nearly separate sub-basins connected by
the Strait of Tiquina, which is 800 m (2,620 ft) across at
the narrowest point. The larger sub-basin, Lago Grande (also called
Lago Chucuito), has a mean depth of 135 m (443 ft) and a
maximum depth of 284 m (932 ft). The smaller sub-basin,
Wiñaymarka (also called Lago Pequeño, "little lake"), has a mean
depth of 9 m (30 ft) and a maximum depth of 40 m
(131 ft). The overall average depth of the lake is 107 m
Five major river systems feed into
Lake Titicaca. In order of their
relative flow volumes these are Ramis, Coata, Ilave, Huancané, and
Suchez. More than twenty other smaller streams empty into Titicaca.
The lake has 41 islands, some of which are densely populated.
Having only a single season of free circulation, the lake is
monomictic, and water passes through Lago Huiñaimarca and
flows out the single outlet at the Río Desaguadero, which then
flows south through
Lake Poopó. This only accounts for
about 10% of the lake's water balance. Evapotranspiration, caused by
strong winds and intense sunlight at high altitude, balances the
remaining 90% of the water loss. It is nearly a closed lake.
Lake Titicaca has experienced constantly receding water
levels. Between April and November 2009 alone the water level dropped
by 81 cm (32 in), reaching the lowest level since 1949. This
drop is caused by shortened rainy seasons and the melting of glaciers
feeding the tributaries of the lake.
Water pollution is also
an increasing concern because cities in the Titicaca watershed grow,
sometimes outpacing solid waste and sewage treatment
infrastructure. According to the
Global Nature Fund (GNF),
Titicaca's biodiversity is threatened by water pollution and the
introduction of new species by humans. Already in 2012, the GNF
nominated the lake "Threatened
Lake of the Year".
The cold sources and winds over the lake give it an average surface
temperature of 10 to 14 °C (50 to 57 °F). In the winter
(June – September), mixing occurs with the deeper waters, which are
always between 10 to 11 °C (50 to 52 °F).
A view of
Lake Titicaca taken from the city of Puno
A reed boat on
Neither the protohistoric nor prehistoric name for
Lake Titicaca is
known. Given the various Native American groups that occupied the Lake
Titicaca region, it is likely that it lacked a single, commonly
accepted name in prehistoric times and at the time the Spaniards
The terms titi and caca can be translated in multiple ways. In Aymara,
titi can be translated as either puma, lead, or a heavy metal. The
word caca (kaka) can be translated as white or gray hairs of the head
and the term k’ak’a can be translated as either crack or fissure
or, alternatively, comb of a bird. According to Weston La Barre,
the Aymara considered in 1948 that the proper name of the lake is
titiq’aq’a, which means gray discolored, lead-colored puma. This
phrase refers to the sacred carved rock found on the Island of the
Sun. In addition to names including the term titi and/or caca,
Lake Titicaca was also known as Chuquivitu in the sixteenth century.
This name can be loosely translated as lance point. This name survives
in modern usage in which the large lake is occasionally referred to as
Stanish argues that the logical explanation for the origin of the name
Titicaca is a corruption of the term thakhsi cala, which is the
fifteenth- to sixteenth-century name of the sacred rock on the Island
of the Sun. Given the lack of a common name for
Lake Titicaca in
the sixteenth century, it is argued that the Spaniards used the name
of the site of the most important indigenous shrine in the region,
thakhsi cala on the Island of the Sun, as the name for the lake. In
time and with usage, this name developed into Titicaca.
Locally, the lake goes by several names. The small lake to the south
is called Huiñamarca. The large lake also is occasionally referred to
as Lago Mayor, and the small lake as Lago Menor. In addition, the
southeast quarter of the lake is separate from the main body
(connected only by the Strait of Tiquina), and the Bolivians call it
Lago Huiñaymarca (also Wiñay Marka, which in Aymara means The
Eternal City) and the larger part Lago Chucuito. In Peru, these
smaller and larger parts are referred to as Lago Pequeño and Lago
There are two
Telmatobius species in the lake: The smaller, more
coastal marbled water frog (pictured, at Isla del Sol) and the larger,
more deep-water Titicaca water frog.
Lake Titicaca is home to more than 530 aquatic species.
The lake holds large populations of water birds and was designated as
Ramsar Site on August 26, 1998. Several threatened species such as
Titicaca water frog
Titicaca water frog and the flightless
Titicaca grebe are
largely or entirely restricted to the lake, and the Titicaca
orestias has likely become extinct (last seen in 1938) due to
competition and predation by the introduced rainbow trout and the
Odontesthes bonariensis. In addition to the Titicaca
orestias, native fish species in the lake's basin are other species of
Orestias, and the catfish Trichomycterus dispar, T. rivulatus and
Astroblepus stuebeli (the last species not in the lake itself, but in
associated ecosystems). The many Orestias species in
differ significantly in both habitat preference and feeding
behavior. About 90% of the fish species in the basin are
endemic, including 23 species of Orestias that only are found in
the lake. In addition to the threatened Titicaca grebe, some of
the birds associated with water at Titicaca are the white-tufted
grebe, Puna ibis, Chilean flamingo, Andean gull, Andean lapwing,
white-backed stilt, greater yellowlegs, snowy egret, black-crowned
night-heron, Andean coot, common gallinule, plumbeous rail, various
ducks, wren-like rushbird, many-colored rush-tyrant and yellow-winged
Andean coot among totora reeds
Titicaca is home to 24 described species of freshwater snails (15
endemics, including several tiny Heleobia) and less than half
a dozen bivalves (all in family Sphaeriidae), but in general these are
very poorly known and their taxonomy is in need of a review. The
lake also has an endemic species flock of amphipods consisting of 11
Hyalella (an additional Titicaca
Hyalella species is non-endemic).
Reeds and other aquatic vegetation is widespread in
Totora reeds grow in water shallower than 3 m (9.8 ft), less
frequently to 5.5 m (18 ft), but macrophytes, notably Chara
and Potamogeton, occur down to 10 m (33 ft). In
sheltered shallow waters, such as the harbour of Puno, Azolla, Elodea,
Myriophyllum are common.
View from space, May 1985 (north at right)
Lake Titicaca during sunrise
The Tinajani Basin, in which
Lake Titicaca lies, is an intermontane
basin. This basin is a pull-apart basin created by strike-slip
movement along regional faults starting in the late
ending in the late Miocene. The initial development of the Tinajani
Basin is indicated by volcanic rocks, which accumulated between 27 and
20 million years ago within this basin. They lie upon an angular
unconformity which cuts across pre-basin strata. Lacustrine sediments
of the Lower Tinajani Formation, which are exposed within the Tinajani
Basin, demonstrate the presence of a pre-Quaternary, ancestral Lake
Titicaca within it between 18 and 14 million years ago. Little is
known about the prehistory of
Lake Titicaca between 14 million years
ago and 370,000 BP because the lake sediments dating to this period
lie buried beneath the bottom of
Lake Titicaca and have not yet been
sampled by continuous coring.
Lake Titicaca drilling project recovered a 136-m-long drill
core of sediments from the bottom of
Lake Titicaca at a depth of 235 m
and at a location just east of Isla del Sol. This core contains a
continuous record of lake sedimentation and paleoenvironmental
Lake Titicaca back to about 370,000 BP. For this period
Lake Titicaca was typically fresher and had higher lake
levels during periods of expanded regional glaciation that
corresponded to global glacial periods. During periods of reduced
regional glaciation that corresponded to global interglacial periods,
Lake Titicaca had typically low lake levels.
Lacustrine sediments and associated terraces provide evidence for the
past existence of five major prehistoric lakes that occupied the
Tinajani Basin during the
Pliocene and Pleistocene. Within the
Altiplano (Tinajani Basin), these prehistoric lakes were Lake
Mataro at an elevation of 3,950 m,
Lake Cabana at an elevation of
Lake Ballivián at an elevation of 3,860 m,
Minchin at an elevation of 3,825 m, and
Lake (North) Tauca at an
elevation 3,815 m. The age of
Lake Mataro is uncertain—it may date
back to the Late Pliocene.
Lake Cabana possibly dates to the Middle
Lake Ballivián existed between 120,000 and 98,000 BP.
Two high lake stands, between 72,000 – 68,000 BP and 44,000 –
34,000 BP, have been discerned for
Lake Minchin within the Altiplano.
Another ancient lake in the area is Ouki. The high lake levels of Lake
Tauca have been dated as having occurred between 18,100 and 14,100
Lake Titicaca has a borderline Subtropical highland/Alpine climate
with cool to cold temperatures for most of the year. The average
annual precipitation is 610 mm (24 in.) mostly falling in summer
thunderstorms. Winters are dry with very cold nights and mornings and
warm afternoons. Below are the average temperatures of the town
Juliaca in the northern part of the lake.
Climate data for Puno,
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: Hong Kong Observatory,
Further information: Uru people
Raft of totora on
Lake Titicaca in the island of the Sun (Bolivia)
The "Floating Islands" are small manmade islands constructed by the
Uros (or Uru) people from layers of cut totora, a thick buoyant reed
that grows abundantly in the shallows of
Lake Titicaca. The Uros
harvest the reeds that naturally grow on the lake's banks to make the
islands by continuously adding reeds to the surface.
According to legend, the
Uru people originated in the Amazon and
migrated to the area of
Lake Titicaca in the pre-Columbian era, where
they were oppressed by the local population and were unable to secure
land of their own. They built the reed islands, which could be
moved into deep water or to different parts of the lake as necessary,
for greater safety from their hostile neighbors on land.
Golden in color, many of the islands measure about 15 by 15 metres (50
by 50 ft), and the largest are approximately half the size of a
football field. Each island contains several thatched houses,
typically belonging to members of a single extended family. Some
of the islands have watchtowers and other buildings, also constructed
Historically, most of the Uros islands were located near the middle of
the lake, about 14 km (9 mi) from the shore; however, in
1986, after a major storm devastated the islands, many Uros rebuilt
closer to shore. As of 2011[update], about 1,200 Uros lived on an
archipelago of 60 artificial islands, clustering in the western
corner of the lake near Puno, Titicaca's major Peruvian port town.
The islands have become one of Peru's tourist attractions, allowing
the Uros to supplement their hunting and fishing by conveying visitors
to the islands by motorboat and selling handicrafts.
Amantani island as seen from
Amantani is another small island on
Lake Titicaca populated by Quechua
speakers. About 4,000 people live in ten communities on the roughly
circular 15 square kilometers (6 sq mi) island. There are
two mountain peaks, called Pachatata (Father Earth) and Pachamama
(Mother Earth), and ancient ruins on the top of both peaks. The
hillsides that rise up from the lake are terraced and planted with
wheat, potatoes, and vegetables. Most of the small fields are worked
by hand. Long stone fences divide the fields, and cattle and sheep
graze on the hillsides.
There are no cars on the island and no hotels. Since machines are not
allowed on the island, all agriculture is done by hand. A few small
stores sell basic goods, and there is a health clinic and 6 schools.
Electricity was produced by a generator and provided limited power a
couple of hours each day, but with the rising price of the petroleum,
they no longer use the generator. Most families use candles or
flashlights powered by batteries or hand-cranks. Small solar panels
have recently been installed on some homes.
Some of the families on
Amantani open their homes to tourists for
overnight stays and provide cooked meals, arranged through tour
guides. The families who do so are required to have a special room set
aside for the tourists and must fit a code by the tourist companies
that help them. Guests typically take food staples (cooking oil, rice,
etc. but no sugar products, as they have no dental facilities) as a
gift or school supplies for the children on the island. They hold
nightly traditional dance shows for the tourists where they offer to
dress them up in their traditional clothes and participate.
Taquile is a hilly island located 45 kilometers east of Puno. It is
narrow and long and was used as a prison during the Spanish Colony and
into the 20th century. In 1970 it became property of the Taquile
people, who have inhabited the island since then (current population
around 2,200). The taquiean Island is 5.5 by 1.6 km in size
(maximum measurements), with an area of 5.72 km². The highest
point of the island is 4,050 meters above sea level and the main
village is at 3,950 m. Pre-Inca ruins are found on the highest part of
the island, and agricultural terraces on hillsides. From the hillsides
Taquile you have a view over the white snow tops of the Bolivian
mountains. The inhabitants, known as Taquileños, are southern Quechua
Taquile is still largely unchanged by mainland modernities.
There are no cars on the island and no hotels and a few small stores
sell basic goods. Most families use candles or flashlights powered by
batteries or hand-cranks. Small solar panels have recently been
installed on some homes. On clear nights,
Taquile is a perfect place
for star gazing and you furthermore experience much lightning in the
horizon due to electric activity in the area.
Culture is very much alive on Taquile, which can be seen in the
traditional clothes everyone wears.
Taquile is especially known for
its handicraft tradition which is regarded as among the highest
quality handicrafts not only in
Peru but in the world. "
Its Textile Art" were honored by being proclaimed "Masterpieces of the
Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO. Knitting is
exclusively performed by males, starting at age eight. The women
exclusively make yarn and weave.
Taquileans are also known for having created an innovative,
community-controlled tourism model, offering home stays,
transportation, and restaurants to tourists. Ever since tourism
started coming to
Taquile in the seventies the taquleans have slowly
lost control over the mass day-tourism operated by non-Taquileans. The
Taquileans have thus developed alternative tourism models, including
lodging for groups, cultural activities and local guides, who have
recently completed a 2-year training program. Furthermore, the local
Travel Agency Munay
Taquile has been established to regain control
The people in
Taquile run their society based on community
collectivism and on the Inca moral code ama sua, ama llulla, ama
qhilla, (do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy). The island is
divided into six sectors or suyus for crop rotation purposes. The
economy is based on fishing, terraced farming horticulture based on
potato cultivation, and tourist-generated income from the
approximately 40,000 tourists who visit each year.
Isla del Sol
Situated on the Bolivian side of the lake with regular boat links to
the Bolivian town of Copacabana,
Isla del Sol
Isla del Sol ("Island of the sun") is
one of the largest islands of the lake. Geographically, the terrain is
harsh; it is a rocky, hilly island. There are no motor vehicles or
paved roads on the island. The main economic activity of the
approximately 800 families on the island is farming, with fishing and
tourism augmenting the subsistence economy.
There are over 180 ruins on the island. Most of these date to the Inca
period circa the 15th century AD. Many hills on the island contain
agricultural terraces, which adapt steep and rocky terrain to
agriculture. Among the ruins on the island are the Sacred Rock, a
labyrinth-like building called Chicana, Kasa Pata, and Pilco Kaima. In
the religion of the Incas, it was believed that the sun god was born
Johan Reinhard directed underwater archaeological
investigations off of the Island of the Sun, recovering Inca and
Tiahuanaco offerings. These artifacts are currently on display in the
site museum of the village of Challapampa.
Isla de la Luna
Isla de la Luna
Isla de la Luna and Cordillera Real
Isla de la Luna
Isla de la Luna is situated east from the bigger Isla del Sol. Both
islands belong to the La Paz Department of Bolivia. According to
legends that refer to
Isla de la Luna
Isla de la Luna (Spanish for
"island of the moon") is where
Viracocha commanded the rising of the
moon. Ruins of a supposed Inca nunnery (Mamakuna) occupy the oriental
Archaeological excavations indicate that the
Tiwanaku peoples (ca.
AD 650-1000) built a major temple on the Island of the Moon. Pottery
vessels of local dignitaries dating from this period have been
excavated on islands in
Lake Titicaca. Two of them were found in the
nineteenth century and are now in the
British Museum in London.
The structures seen on the island today were built by the Inca (ca.
1450–1532) directly over the earlier
Chelleca island on the Bolivian side
Amantani Island – Peru. In the background Capachica Peninsula.
Suriki lies in the Bolivian part of lake Titicaca (in the southeastern
part also known as lake Wiñaymarka).
Suriki is thought to be the last place where the art of reed boat
construction survives, at least as late as 1998. Craftsmen from
Thor Heyerdahl in the construction of several of his
projects, such as the reed boats
Ra II and Tigris, and a balloon
The dual gauge car float Manco Capac links PeruRail's 1,435 mm
(4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge line at
the Bolivian railways' 1,000 mm
(3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) meter gauge line at Guaqui.
The lake has had a number of steamships, each of which was built in
United Kingdom in "knock down" form with bolts and nuts,
disassembled into many hundreds of pieces, transported to the lake,
and then riveted together and launched.
SS Yavari in Puno, 2002
In 1862 Thames Ironworks on the
River Thames built the iron-hulled
sister ships SS Yavari and SS Yapura under contract to the James Watt
Foundry of Birmingham. The ships were designed as combined cargo,
passenger and gunboats for the Peruvian Navy. After several years'
delay in delivery from the Pacific coast to the lake, Yavari was
launched in 1870 and Yapura in 1873. Yavari was 30 metres
(100 ft) long but in 1914 her hull was lengthened for extra cargo
capacity and she was re-engined as a motor vessel. During the last
days of the
War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific Chile was sending a warship on railroad
Lake in order to disrupt trade.
William Denny and Brothers
William Denny and Brothers at
Dumbarton on the
River Clyde in
Scotland built SS Coya. She was 52 metres (170 ft) long
and was launched on the lake in 1893.
Earle's Shipbuilding at
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull on the
SS Inca. By now a railway served the lake so the ship was
delivered in kit form by rail. At 67 metres (220 ft) long and
1,809 tons Inca was the lake's largest ship thus far. In the 1920s
Earle's supplied a new bottom for the ship, which also was delivered
in kit form.
Trade continued to grow, so in 1930 Earle's built
SS Ollanta. Her parts were landed at the Pacific Ocean
Mollendo and brought by rail to the lake port of Puno. At
79 metres (260 ft) long and 2,200 tons she was considerably
larger than the Inca, so first a new slipway had to be built to build
her. She was launched in November 1931.
In 1975 Yavari and Yapura were returned to the Peruvian Navy, who
converted Yapura into a hospital ship and renamed her BAP Puno.
The Navy discarded Yavari but in 1987 charitable interests bought her
and started restoring her. She is now moored at
provides static tourist accommodation while her restoration
continues. Coya was beached in 1984 but restored as a floating
restaurant in 2001. Inca survived until 1994 when she was broken
up. Ollanta is no longer in scheduled service but
been leasing her for tourist charter operations.
Titicaca National Reservation
Tourism in Peru
^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Data Summary: Lago Titicaca (
Lake Environment Committee Foundation - ILEC. Archived
from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
^ a b c Grove, M. J., P. A. Baker, S. L. Cross, C. A. Rigsby and G. O.
Seltzer 2003 Application of Strontium Isotopes to Understanding the
Hydrology and Paleohydrology of the Altiplano, Bolivia-Peru.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194:281-297.
^ Rigsby, C., P. A. Baker and M. S. Aldenderfer 2003 Fluvial History
of the Rio Ilave Valley, Peru, and Its Relationship to Climate and
Human History. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
^ Questions Unlimited (2003). "Who Wants to Be a Judge at the National
Academic Championship?". National Academic Championship. Retrieved 6
^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
Lake Elevations in the World". About.com Education.
Retrieved 27 April 2015.
^ "The Highest
Lake in the World". highestlake.com. Retrieved 27 April
^ a b c Dejoux, C. and A. Iltis (editors) 1992
Lake Titicaca: A
Synthesis of Limnological Knowledge. 68. Kluwer Academic Publishers,
^ Roche, M. A., J. Bourges, J. Cortes and R. Mattos 1992 Climatology
and Hydrology of the
Lake Titicaca Basin. In
Lake Titicaca: A
Synthesis of Limnological Knowledge, edited by C. Dejoux and A. Iltis,
pp. 63-88. Monographiae Biologicae. vol. 68, H. J. Dumont and M. J. A.
Werger, general editor. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
^ Cross, S. L., P. A. Baker, G. O. Seltzer, S. C. Fritz and R. B.
Dunbar 2001 Late Quaternary Climate and Hydrology of Tropical South
America Inferred from an Isotopic and Chemical Model of
Bolivia and Peru. Quaternary Research 56(1):1-9.
^ Mourguiart, P., T. Corrége, D. Wirrmann, J. Argollo, M. E.
Montenegro, M. Pourchet and P. Carbonel 1998 Holocene Palaeohydrology
Lake Titicaca Estimated from an Ostracod-Based Transfer Function.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 143:51-72.
^ Baucom, P. C. and C. A. Rigsby 1999 Climate and
Lake Level History
of the Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, as Recorded in Holocene Sediments
of the Rio Desaguadero. Journal of Sedimentary Research 69(3):597-611.
^ Talbi, A., A. Coudrain, P. Ribstein and B. Pouyaud 1999 Computation
of the Rainfall of
Lake Titicaca Catchment During the Holocene.
Géosciences de Surface 329:197-203.
^ Carlos Valdez:
Lake Titicaca at dangerously low level - website of
the Sydney Morning Herald (accessed 2009-11-28)
Lake Titicaca evaporating away (video) - report by al Jazeera
^ Shahriari, Sara (30 March 2012). "Pollution threatens South
Lake Titicaca". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 26
^ "GNF - Threatened
Lake of the Year 2012". GNF. 22 March 2012.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-12. Retrieved
^ a b c d e Standish, C. (2005) Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of
Complex Society in Southern
Peru and Northern Bolivia. Oakland,
California, University of California Press. 338 pp.
^ La Barre, W. (1948) The Aymara Indians of the
Lake Titicaca Plateau,
Bolivia. American Anthropological Association Memoir. no. 68, pp.
^ Bauer, B., and Stanish, C. (2001) Ritual and Pilgrimage in the
Ancient Andes. Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press. 314 pp.
^ a b Cossel, Lindquist, Craig, and Luthman (2014). Pathogenic fungus
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius
marmoratus: first record from
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Dis Aquat Organ.
112(1):83-7. doi: 10.3354/dao02778
^ a b Kroll; Hershler; Albrecht; Terrazas; Apaza; Fuentealba; Wolff;
and Wilke (2012). The endemic gastropod fauna of
correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history. Ecol
Evol. Jul 2012; 2(7): 1517–1530.
^ a b Fjeldså, J.; & Krabbe, N. (1990). Birds of the High Andes:
A Manual to the Birds of the Temperate Zone of the
Patagonia, South America. ISBN 978-8788757163
^ Parenti, Lynne R. (1984). A taxonomic revision of the Andean
Killifish Genus Orestias (Cyprinodontiformes, Cyprinodontidae).
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 178: 107-214.
^ a b Hales, J., and P. Petry (2013). Titicaca. Freshwater Ecoregions
of the World. Retrieved 11 February 2013
^ Lauzanne, L. (1992). Fish Fauna. Pp. 405-448 in: Dejoux, C., eds.
Lake Titicaca: a synthesis of limnological knowledge.
^ Maldonado, E. E., Hubert, N. N., Sagnes, P. P., & De MÉrona, B.
B. (2009). Morphology–diet relationships in four killifishes
(Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from
Lake Titicaca. Journal of
Fish Biology, 74(3), 502-520. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02140.x
^ Vila, Morales, Scott, Poulin, Veliz, Harrod and Mendez (2013).
Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of the genus Orestias
(Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in the southern Chilean Altiplano: the
relevance of ancient and recent divergence processes in speciation.
Journal of Fish Biology 82, 927–943.
^ Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). The Diversity of Aquatic
Ecosystems. p. 46. Developments in Hydrobiology. Aquatic Biodiversity.
^ Slugina, Z.V. (2006). Endemic Bivalvia in ancient lakes.
Hydrobiologia 568(S): 213–217.
^ González, E.R.; and Watling, L. (2003). Two new species of Hyalella
Lake Titicaca, and redescriptions of four others in the genus
(Crustacea: Amphipoda). Hydrobiologia 497(1-3): 181-204.
^ a b Iltis, A., and P. Mourguiart (1992). Higher Plants: Distribution
and biomass. Pp. 242-253 in: Dejoux, C., eds. (1992).
Lake Titicaca: a
synthesis of limnological knowledge. ISBN 0-7923-1663-0
^ Pull-apart basins, also called strike-slip basins, are regional
topographic depressions created by lateral movement at a bend or
discontinuity within a strike slip fault.
^ Marocco, R., R. Baudino, and A. Lavenu, 1995, Intermontane Late
Paleogene–Neogene Basins of the
Andes of Ecuador and Peru:
Sedimentologic and Tectonic Characteristics. in A.J. Tankard, R.
Suárez Soruco, and H.J. Welsink, eds., pp. 597-613, Petroleum basins
of South America: Memoir no. 62. American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
^ a b c Fritz, S. C., P. A. Baker, G. O. Seltzer, A. Ballantyne, P.
Tapia, H. Cheng, and R. L. Edwards, 2007, Quaternary glaciation and
hydrologic variation in the South American tropics as reconstructed
Lake Titicaca drilling project. Quaternary Research
^ Fritz, S.C., P.A. Baker, P. Tapia, T. Spanbauer, and K. Westover
(2012) Evolution of the
Lake Titicaca basin and its diatom flora over
the last ~370,000 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
^ Clapperton, C. M., 1993, Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of
South America. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 779 pp.
^ Rouchy, J. M., M. Servant, M. Fournier, and C. Causse, 1996,
Extensive carbonate algal bioherms in Upper
Pleistocene saline lakes
of the central
Altiplano of Bolivia: Sedimentology 43(6):973–993.
^ Placzek, C., J. Quade, and P. J. Patchett, 2006, Geochronology and
stratigraphy of Late
Pleistocene lake cycles on the Southern Bolivian
Altiplano: implications for causes of tropical climate change.
Geological Society of America Bulletin 118(5-6):515–532.
^ "ClClimatological Information for Juliaca, Peru". Hong Kong
^ a b c d e f g Foer, Joshua (February 25, 2011). "The Island People:
The seventh hidden wonder of South America". Slate. Archived from the
original on October 7, 2016.
^ a b c Istvan, Zoltan (July 3, 2003). "Rough Waters for Peru's
Floating Islands". National Geographic Channel. Archived from the
original on August 6, 2016.
^ Reinhard, Johan (1992) "Underwater Archaeological Research in Lake
Titicaca, Bolivia." In Ancient America: Contributions to New World
Archaeology, N. Saunders (ed.), Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 117-143.
^ Bolivia, Lonely Planet 2007, ISBN 1-74104-557-6
^ Bauer, Brian and Charles Stanish 2001 Ritual and Pilgrimage in the
Andes University of Texas press, Austin
British Museum Collection
^ a b Box, Ben (1998). South American Handbook. Footprint Handbooks.
p. 292. ISBN 0-8442-4886-X.
Peru Railroads[permanent dead link]
^ a b c d e f g "The Yavari Story". Yavari -
Lake Titicaca - Peru. The
Yavari Project. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
^ Sater, William F. (2007). Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the
Pacific, 1879–1884. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska
Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-4334-7.
^ a b Cameron, Stuart; Robinson, George; Strathdee, Paul. "SS Coya".
Clyde-built Database. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
^ a b c d "The
Lake Steamers - Post 1900". Yavari -
Lake Titicaca -
Peru. The Yavari Project. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28.
^ a b c d e f g h Grace, Michael L (2009-11-16). "The SS Ollanta".
Cruising the Past. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
^ Dickinson, Rob. "Steam in
Peru 2001". International Steam Pages.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for
Lake Titicaca - The Highest Navigable
Lake in the World
Bolivian Navy and Naval Ensign
Management issues in the
Lake Titicaca and
Lake Poopo system:
Importance of developing a water budget
Peru Cultural Society-
Lake Titicaca History
Lakes on the Altiplano
Present-day lakes and salt pans
Salar de Uyuni
Salar de Coipasa
Lake expansions of
Other paleolakes and lake expansions in the region