Lake Superior (French: Lac Supérieur; Ojibwe: ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ,
Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the
Great Lakes of North America. The
lake is shared by the Canadian province of
Ontario to the north, the
U.S. state of
Minnesota to the west, and
Wisconsin and the Upper
Michigan to the south. It is generally considered the
largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area. It is the
world's third-largest freshwater lake by volume and the largest by
volume in North America. The furthest north and west of the Great
Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great
lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River.
2.1 Tributaries and outlet
2.2 Water levels
2.3 Climate change
Great Lakes Circle Tour
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami (pronounced as gitchi-gami
and kitchi-gami in other dialects), meaning "great sea." Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in The Song of
Hiawatha, as did
Gordon Lightfoot in his song, "The Wreck of the
Edmund Fitzgerald". According to other sources, the actual
Ojibwe Gichigami ("Ojibwe's Great Sea") or
("Anishinaabe's Great Sea"). The 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic
Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the
Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami (reflecting
The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of
the Ottawa River and
Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to
their discovery as le lac supérieur. Properly translated, the
expression means "Upper Lake," that is, the lake above Lake Huron. The
lake was also called Lac Tracy (named for Alexandre de Prouville de
Tracy) by 17th century
Jesuit missionaries. The British, upon
taking control of the region from the French in the 1760s following
the French and Indian War, anglicized the lake's name to Superior, "on
account of its being superior in magnitude to any of the lakes on that
Lake Superior bathymetric map. The deepest point, roughly
off its southeastern shore, is marked with "×". The deep trenches
in its eastern part may have originated from tunnel valleys.
Lake Superior empties into
Lake Huron via the St. Marys River and the
Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world
in area (if Lakes
Michigan and Huron are taken separately; see Lake
Michigan–Huron), and the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal
Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. The Caspian Sea, while
Lake Superior in both surface area and volume, is
brackish; though presently isolated, prehistorically the Caspian has
been repeatedly connected to and isolated from the
the Black Sea.
Lake Superior deepest point on the bathymetric map.
Lake Superior has a surface area of 31,700 square miles
(82,103 km2), which is approximately the size of South
Carolina or Austria. It has a maximum length of 350 statute miles
(560 km; 300 nmi) and maximum breadth of 160 statute miles
(257 km; 139 nmi). Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms
(483 ft; 147 m) with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms
(1,333 ft; 406 m).
Lake Superior contains 2,900
cubic miles (12,100 km³) of water. There is enough water
Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South
America to a depth of 30 centimetres (12 in).[a] The shoreline of
the lake stretches 2,726 miles (4,387 km) (including islands).
J. Val Klump was the first person to reach the
lowest depth of
Lake Superior on July 30, 1985, as part of a
scientific expedition, which at 122 fathoms 1 foot (733 ft or
223 m) below sea level is the second-lowest spot in the
continental interior of the
United States and the third-lowest spot in
the interior of the North American continent after
Iliamna Lake in
Alaska (942 feet [287 m] below sea level) and
Great Slave Lake
Great Slave Lake in the
Northwest Territories of Canada at (1,503 feet [458 m] below sea
Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States
and deeper than Lake Superior, Crater Lake's elevation is higher and
consequently its deepest point is 4,229 feet (1,289 m) above sea
While the temperature of the surface of
Lake Superior varies
seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms (660 ft;
200 m) is an almost constant 39 °F (4 °C).[citation
needed] This variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally
stratigraphic. Twice per year, however, the water column reaches a
uniform temperature of 39 °F (4 °C) from top to bottom,
and the lake waters thoroughly mix. This feature makes the lake
dimictic. Because of its volume,
Lake Superior has a retention time of
Annual storms on
Lake Superior regularly feature wave heights of over
20 feet (6 m). Waves well over 30 feet (9 m) have been
Tributaries and outlet
Lake Superior basin
The lake is fed by over 200 rivers. The largest include the Nipigon
River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White
River, the Michipicoten River, the
Bois Brule River
Bois Brule River and the
Lake Superior drains into
Lake Huron via the St.
Marys River. There are rapids at the river's upper (Lake Superior) end
where the river bed has a relatively steep gradient. The Soo Locks
were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the
25-foot (8 m) height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron.
Lake Superior in winter, as seen from
Duluth, Minnesota in December
A frozen Duluth Harbor Entrance
The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet (183 m)
above sea level. Until approximately 1887 the natural hydraulic
conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined outflow from
Lake Superior. By 1921 development in support of transportation and
hydroelectric power resulted in gates, locks, power canals and other
control structures completely spanning St. Marys rapids. The
regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is
operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Water
levels, including diversions of water from the
Hudson Bay watershed,
are regulated by the International
Lake Superior Board of Control
which was established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission.
Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007,
slightly less than the previous record low in 1926. However, the
water levels returned within a few days.
Historic high water The lake's water level fluctuates from month to
month, with the highest lake levels in October and November. The
normal high-water mark is 1.17 feet (0.36 m) above datum
(601.1 ft or 183.2 m). In the summer of 1985, Lake Superior
reached its highest recorded level at 2.33 feet (0.71 m) above
datum. The winter of 1986 set new high-water records through the
winter and spring months (January to June), ranging from 1.33 feet
(0.41 m) to 1.833 feet (0.559 m) above Chart Datum.
Historic low water The lake's lowest levels occur in March and April.
The normal low-water mark is 0.33 feet (0.10 m) below datum
(601.1 ft or 183.2 m). In the winter of 1926 Lake Superior
reached its lowest recorded level at 1.58 feet (0.48 m) below
datum. Additionally, the entire first half of the year (January to
June) included record low months. The low water was a continuation of
the dropping lake levels from the previous year, 1925, which set
low-water records for October through December. During the nine-month
period October 1925 to June 1926 water levels ranged from 1.58 feet
(0.48 m) to 0.33 feet (0.10 m) below Chart Datum. In the
summer of 2007 monthly historic lows were set; August at 0.66 feet
(0.20 m), September at 0.58 feet (0.18 m).
According to a study by professors at the University of Minnesota
Lake Superior may have warmed faster than its surrounding
area. Summer surface temperatures in the lake appeared to have
increased by about 4.5 °F (2.5 °C) since 1979, compared
with an approximately 2.7 °F (1.5 °C) increase in the
surrounding average air temperature. The increase in the lake's
surface temperature may be related to the decreasing ice cover. Less
winter ice cover allows more solar radiation to penetrate and warm the
water. If trends continue, Lake Superior, which freezes over
completely once every 20 years, could routinely be ice-free by
2040. This would be a significant departure from historical
records as, according to Hubert Lamb,
Samuel Champlain reported ice
along the shores of
Lake Superior in June 1608. Warmer
temperatures could actually lead to more snow in the lake effect snow
belts along the shores of the lake, especially in the Upper Peninsula
of Michigan. However, two recent consecutive winters (2013–2014 and
2014–2015) brought unusually high ice coverage to the Great Lakes,
and on March 6, 2014 overall ice coverage peaked at 92.5%, the
second-highest in recorded history.
Brooklyn Museum, Lake Superior, Walter Shirlaw
The largest island in
Lake Superior is
Isle Royale in the state of
Isle Royale contains several lakes, some of which also
contain islands. Other well-known islands include
Madeline Island in
the state of Wisconsin,
Michipicoten Island in the province of
Ontario, and Grand Island (the location of the Grand Island National
Recreation Area) in the state of Michigan.
The larger cities on
Lake Superior include the twin ports of Duluth,
Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin; Thunder Bay, Ontario; Marquette,
Michigan; and the twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and Sault
Ste. Marie, Ontario. Duluth-Superior, at the western end of Lake
Superior, is the most inland point on the
St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway and the
most inland port in the world.
Among the scenic places on the lake are
Apostle Islands National
Isle Royale National Park,
Porcupine Mountains Wilderness
State Park, Pukaskwa National Park,
Lake Superior Provincial Park,
Grand Island National Recreation Area,
Sleeping Giant (Ontario)
Sleeping Giant (Ontario) and
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore.
Great Lakes Circle Tour
Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system
connecting all of the
Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
Lake Superior's size reduces the severity of the seasons of its humid
continental climate (more typically seen in locations like Nova
Scotia). The water surface's slow reaction to temperature changes,
seasonally ranging between 32 and 55 °F (0–13 °C) around
1970, helps to moderate surrounding air temperatures in the summer
and winter, and creates lake effect snow in colder months. The hills
and mountains that border the lake hold moisture and fog, particularly
in the fall.
The lake's surface temperature has risen by 4.5 °F
(2.5 °C) since 1979.
Bedrock geologic map of the U.S. area bordering Lake Superior:
Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
North American cratons and basement rock, showing the formation of the
Rift containing today's Lake Superior
The rocks of Lake Superior's northern shore date back to the early
history of the earth. During the
Precambrian (between 4.5 billion and
540 million years ago) magma forcing its way to the surface created
the intrusive granites of the Canadian Shield. These ancient
granites can be seen on the North Shore today. It was during the
Penokean orogeny, part of the process that created the Great Lakes
Tectonic Zone, that many valuable metals were deposited. The region
surrounding the lake has proved to be rich in minerals. Copper, iron,
silver, gold and nickel are or were the most frequently mined.
Examples include the Hemlo gold mine near Marathon, copper at Point
Mamainse, silver at
Silver Islet and uranium at Theano Point.
The mountains steadily eroded, depositing layers of sediments that
compacted and became limestone, dolostone, taconite and the shale at
The continent was later riven, creating one of the deepest rifts in
the world. The lake lies in this long-extinct
valley, the Midcontinent Rift.
Magma was injected between layers of
sedimentary rock, forming diabase sills. This hard diabase protects
the layers of sedimentary rock below, forming the flat-topped mesas in
Thunder Bay area.
Amethyst formed in some of the cavities created by the Midcontinent
Rift and there are several amethyst mines in the
Thunder Bay area.
Basaltic columns along Lake Superior
Lava erupted from the rift and formed the black basalt rock of
Michipicoten Island, Black Bay Peninsula, and St. Ignace Island.
Wisconsin glaciation 10,000 years ago, ice covered the
region at a thickness of 1.25 miles (2 km). The land contours
familiar today were carved by the advance and retreat of the ice
sheet. The retreat left gravel, sand, clay and boulder deposits.
Glacial meltwaters gathered in the Superior basin creating Lake
Minong, a precursor to Lake Superior. Without the immense weight
of the ice, the land rebounded, and a drainage outlet formed at Sault
Ste. Marie, which would become known as St. Mary's River.
Lake Superior Provincial Park, Ontario
The first people came to the
Lake Superior region 10,000 years ago
after the retreat of the glaciers in the last Ice Age. They are known
as the Plano, and they used stone-tipped spears to hunt caribou on the
northwestern side of Lake Minong.
The next documented people are known as the Shield Archaic (c.
5000–500 BC). Evidence of this culture can be found at the
eastern and western ends of the Canadian shore. They used bows and
arrows, dugout canoes, fished, hunted, mined copper for tools and
weapons, and established trading networks. They are believed to be the
direct ancestors of the
Ojibwe and Cree.
The Laurel people (c. 500 BC to AD 500) developed seine net fishing,
evidence being found at rivers around Superior such as the Pic and
Another culture known as the Terminal Woodland Indians (c. AD
900–1650) has been found. They were Algonkian people who hunted,
fished and gathered berries. They used snow shoes, birch bark canoes
and conical or domed lodges. At the mouth of the Michipicoten River,
nine layers of encampments have been discovered. Most of the Pukaskwa
Pits were likely made during this time.
The Anishinaabe, which includes the
Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited
Lake Superior region for over five hundred years and were preceded
by the Dakota, Fox, Menominee, Nipigon, Noquet and Gros Ventres. They
Lake Superior either
Ojibwe Gichigami ("the Ojibwe's Great
Sea") or Anishnaabe Gichgamiing ("the Anishinaabe's Great Sea"). After
the arrival of Europeans, the
Anishinaabe made themselves the
middle-men between the French fur traders and other Native peoples.
They soon became the dominant Native American nation in the region:
they forced out the
Sioux and Fox and won a victory against the
Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century,
Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores.
Reconstructed Great Hall,
Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota
In the 18th century, the fur trade in the region was booming, with the
Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company having a virtual monopoly. In 1783, however, the
North West Company
North West Company was formed to rival the Hudson's Bay Company. The
North West Company
North West Company built forts on
Lake Superior at Grand Portage, Fort
William, Nipigon, the Pic River, the Michipicoten River, and Sault
Ste. Marie. But by 1821, with competition taking too great a toll on
both, the companies merged under the
Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company name.
Many towns around the lake are either current or former mining areas,
or engaged in processing or shipping. Today, tourism is another
significant industry; the sparsely populated
Lake Superior country,
with its rugged shorelines and wilderness, attracts tourists and
Vintage stereoscopic photo titled, "Ice blockade in Marquette Harbor,
Lake Superior has been an important link in the
Great Lakes Waterway,
providing a route for the transportation of iron ore as well as grain
and other mined and manufactured materials. Large cargo vessels called
lake freighters, as well as smaller ocean-going freighters, transport
these commodities across Lake Superior.
Because of ice, the Lake is closed to shipping from mid-January to
late March. Exact dates for the shipping season vary each year,
depending on weather conditions that form and break the ice.
See also: Great Storms of the North American Great Lakes, List of
shipwrecks of Isle Royale, and Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve
According to shipwreck historian Frederick Stonehouse, the southern
Lake Superior between Grand Marais, Michigan, and Whitefish
Point is known as the "Graveyard of the Great Lakes" and more ships
have been lost around the Whitefish Point area than any other part of
Lake Superior. These shipwrecks are now protected by the Whitefish
Point Underwater Preserve.
Storms that claimed multiple ships include the
Mataafa Storm in 1905
Great Lakes Storm of 1913.
Wreckage of SS Cyprus—a 420-foot (130 m) ore carrier that
sank on October 11, 1907, during a
Lake Superior storm in 77 fathoms
(460 ft or 140 m) of water—was located in August 2007. All
but Charles G. Pitz of Cyprus's 23 crew perished . The ore carrier
Lake Superior on her second voyage, while hauling iron ore
from Superior, Wisconsin, to Buffalo, New York. Built in Lorain, Ohio,
Cyprus was launched August 17, 1907.
In 1918 the last warships to sink in the Great Lakes, French
minesweepers Inkerman and Cerisoles, vanished in a Lake Superior
storm. With 78 crewmembers dead, their sinking marked the largest loss
of life on
Lake Superior to date.
SS Edmund Fitzgerald was the latest major shipwreck on Lake
Superior, sinking 15 nautical miles (28 km; 17 mi) from
Whitefish Point in a storm on November 10, 1975. The wreck was
Gordon Lightfoot in his ballad "The Wreck of the
Edmund Fitzgerald". All 29 crew members perished when the ship sank,
and no bodies were ever recovered. Edmund Fitzgerald was swallowed up
so intensely by
Lake Superior that the 729-foot (222 m) ship
split in half; her two pieces are approximately 170 feet (52 m)
apart in a depth of 91 fathoms 4 feet (550 ft or
According to legend, "
Lake Superior seldom gives up her dead".
This is because of the unusually low temperature of the water,
estimated at under 36 °F (2 °C) on average around
1970. Normally, bacteria feeding on a sunken decaying body will
generate gas inside the body, causing it to float to the surface after
a few days. However, Lake Superior's water is cold enough year-round
to inhibit bacterial growth, and bodies tend to sink and never
resurface. This is alluded to in Lightfoot's "The Wreck of the
Edmund Fitzgerald" ballad. Fitzgerald adventurer Joe MacInnis reported
that, in July 1994, explorer Frederick Shannon's Expedition 94 to the
wreck of Edmund Fitzgerald discovered and filmed a man's body near the
port side of her pilothouse, not far from the open door, "fully
clothed, wearing an orange life jacket, and lying face down in the
Bedrock shoreline, Neys Provincial Park, Ontario
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan
Over 80 species of fish have been found in Lake Superior. Species
native to the lake include: banded killifish, bloater, brook trout,
burbot, cisco, lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, longnose
sucker, muskellunge, northern pike, pumpkinseed, rock bass, round
whitefish, smallmouth bass, walleye, white sucker and yellow perch. In
addition, many fish species have been either intentionally or
accidentally introduced to Lake Superior: Atlantic salmon, brown
trout, carp, chinook salmon, coho salmon, freshwater drum, pink
salmon, rainbow smelt, rainbow trout, round goby, ruffe, sea lamprey
and white perch.
Lake Superior has fewer dissolved nutrients relative to its water
volume than the other
Great Lakes and so is less productive in terms
of fish populations and is an oligotrophic lake. This is a result of
the underdeveloped soils found in its relatively small watershed.
However, nitrate concentrations in the lake have been continuously
rising for more than a century. They are still much lower than levels
considered dangerous to human health; but this steady, long-term rise
is an unusual record of environmental nitrogen buildup. It may relate
to anthropogenic alternations to the regional nitrogen cycle, but
researchers are still unsure of the causes of this change to the
As for other
Great Lakes fish, populations have also been affected by
the accidental or intentional introduction of foreign species such as
the sea lamprey and Eurasian ruffe. Accidental introductions have
occurred in part by the removal of natural barriers to navigation
between the Great Lakes. Overfishing has also been a factor in the
decline of fish populations.
North Shore of Lake Superior
South Shore of Lake Superior
Great Lakes Areas of Concern
Great Lakes census statistical areas
Great Lakes Commission
Great Recycling and Northern Development Canal
Great Lakes Storm of 1913
International Boundary Waters Treaty
List of cities along the Great Lakes
Shipwrecks of the 1913
Great Lakes storm
Sixty Years' War for control of the Great Lakes
North America (2.47×107 km²) and
South America (1.78×107 km²)
combined cover 4.26×107 km². Lake Superior's volume (1.20×104 km³)
over 4.26×107 km² gives a depth of 0.282 m.
^ a b c d e f g h i "Great Lakes: Basic Information: Physical Facts".
U.S. Government. May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on October
29, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
^ a b c d e "
Great Lakes Atlas: Factsheet #1". United States
Environmental Protection Agency. April 11, 2011. Retrieved November
^ a b Wright, John W., ed. (2006). The New York Times Almanac (2007
ed.). New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 64.
^ "Shorelines of the Great Lakes".
Michigan Department of
Environmental Quality. Archived from the original on April 5,
Great Lakes Water Levels" (PDF). US Army Corps of Engineers.
The link also has daily elevations for the current month.
^ a b "Superior Pursuit: Facts About the Greatest Great
Minnesota Sea Grant". University of Minnesota. Retrieved August
^ a b "Kitchi-Gami Almanac: The Name". lakesuperior.com. January 1,
^ Chisholm, Barbara & Gutsche, Andrea (1998). Under the Shadow of
the Gods: A Guide to the History of the Canadian Shore of Lake
Superior (1st ed.). Transcontinental Printing.
Great Lakes Atlas". Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. 1995.
^ Stewart, George R. (1945). Names on the Land, A Historical Account
of Place-Naming in the United States. p. 83.
^ a b National Geophysical Data Center (1999). "
Bathymetry of Lake
Superior". National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. Retrieved
(the general reference to NGDC because this lake was never published,
Bathymetry at NGDC has been suspended).
^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). "
Bathymetry of Lake Huron".
National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5G15XS5.
Retrieved March 23, 2015. (only small portion of this map)
^ Hastings, D. & Dunbar, P.K. (1999). "Global Land One-Kilometer
Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1". National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA.
doi:10.7289/V52R3PMS. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
^ a b "About Our Great Lakes: Tour". National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
(GLERL). Retrieved December 15, 2017.
^ Wright, H. E., Jr. (1973). Black, Robert Foster; Goldthwait, Richard
Parker; Willman, Harold, eds. "Tunnel Valleys,
Glacial Surges, and
Subglacial Hydrology of the Superior Lobe, Minnesota". Geological
Society of America Memoirs. Geological Society of America Memoirs.
Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America Inc. 136: 251–276.
doi:10.1130/MEM136-p251. ISBN 0813711363. Retrieved April 1,
^ Regis, Robert S.; Jennings-Patterson, Carrie; Wattrus, Nigel &
Rausch, Deborah (March 24–25, 2003). Relationship of deep troughs in
Lake Superior basin and large-scale glaciofluvial
landforms in the central upper peninsula of Michigan. North-Central
Section 37th Annual Meeting. Kansas City, Missouri: The Geological
Society of America. Paper No. 19-10.
^ a b c "Lake Superior".
Minnesota Sea Grant, University of Minnesota.
Retrieved August 9, 2007.
^ Lake Superior's Natural Processes
Minnesota Sea Grant.
Seagrant.umn.edu (October 15, 2014). Retrieved on 2015-11-17.
^ "The fall storm season." (Website.) National Weather Service, U.S.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on
September 25, 2007
^ Chisholm & Gutsche (1998), p. xiii.
Lake Superior hits record lows". The Globe and Mail. Toronto.
Associated Press. October 1, 2007. Archived from the original on June
10, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
Great Lakes Water Levels.
Great Lakes Information Network.
Retrieved on October 23, 2007.
^ a b c d e Monthly bulletin of Lake Levels for The Great Lakes;
September 2009; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District
^ Marshall, Jessica (May 30, 2007). "Global warming is shrinking the
Great Lakes". New Scientist. Archived from the original on October 13,
2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
Lake Superior warming faster than surrounding climate". The Globe
and Mail. Toronto. Associated Press. June 4, 2007. Archived from the
original on April 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-25. (Subscription
^ Lamb, Hubert H. (1995). "The little ice age". Climate, history and
the modern world. London: Routledge. p. 241.
Great Lakes Ice Coverage to Limit Severe Weather, Pose
Challenges to Shipping Industry. Accuweather.com. Retrieved on
November 17, 2015.
Great Lakes Circle Tour". Great-lakes.net. Retrieved November 17,
^ "Highway 17: A Scenic Route along the northern
Lake Superior shore".
Thekingshighway.ca. February 18, 2012. Retrieved
2015-11-17. [self-published source]
^ a b Derecki, J. A. (July 1980). "NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL
GLERL-29: Evaporation from Lake Superior" (PDF). Great Lakes
Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. p. 37. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
^ "Global warming is shrinking the Great Lakes". New Scientist.
September 25, 2007. Archived from the original on October 13,
^ Geology of National Parks, Second Edition, Ann G. Harris, Kendall
Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, Iowa, 1977, p. 200
^ Linder, Douglas O. (2006). "'Simply Superior: The World's Greatest
Lake Superior facts". Law.umkc.edu. Archived from the original
on November 5, 2005. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
Ontario Amethyst: Ontario's
Ontario Ministry of
Northern Development and Mines. Archived from the original on August
12, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
^ Chisholm & Gutsche (1998), p. xv.
^ a b Chisholm & Gutsche (1998), p. xvi.
^ Chisholm & Gutsche (1998), p. xvii.
^ "Paul R. Treggurtha: Last trip for the Tregurtha this year". Duluth
Shipping News. January 12, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015. Another
trip here was planned but has apparently been canceled, making this
her last and 41st visit this season. Last year, without a late start
due to ice, the Tregurtha was here 49 times.
^ Stonehouse, Frederick (1998) . Lake Superior's Shipwreck
Coast. Gwinn, MI: Avery Color Studios. p. 267.
^ "Century-old shipwreck discovered: Ore carrier went down in Lake
Superior on its second voyage". MSNBC. Associated Press. September 10,
^ Kohl, Cris (1998). The 100 Best
Great Lakes Shipwrecks. Vol. II.
Seawolf Communications. p. 430. ISBN 0-9681437-3-3.
^ Chisholm & Gutsche (1998), p. xxxiv.
^ MacInnis, Joseph (1998). Fitzgerald's Storm: The Wreck of the Edmund
Fitzgerald. Berkeley, CA, USA:
Thunder Bay Press. p. 101.
Lake Superior Fish Species".
Minnesota Sea Grant, University of
Minnesota. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
Minnesota 2009 fishing regulations, p. 23
^ Sterner, Robert W.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Brovold, Sandra; Bullerjahn,
George S.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; McKay, R. Michael L.;
Sherrell, Robert M. (2007). "Increasing stoichiometric imbalance in
North America's largest lake: Nitrification in Lake Superior".
Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (10): L10406.
Burt, Williams A., and Hubbard, Bela Reports on the
Mineral Region of
Lake Superior (Buffalo: L. Danforth, 1846), 113 pages.
Grady, Wayne. The Great Lakes: The Natural History of a Changing
Region.Greystone Books, D&M Publishers INC, 2007
Hyde, Charles K., and Ann and John Mahan. The Northern Lights:
Lighthouses of the Upper Great Lakes. Detroit: Wayne State University
Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8143-2554-8 ISBN 9780814325544.
Great Lakes Lighthouses, American and Canadian: A
Comprehensive Directory/Guide to
Great Lakes Lighthouses, (Gwinn,
Michigan: Avery Color Studios, Inc., 1998) ISBN 0-932212-98-0.
Penrod, John, Lighthouses of Michigan, (Berrien Center, Michigan:
Penrod/Hiawatha, 1998) ISBN 978-0-942618-78-5
Penrose, Laurie and Bill, A Traveler's Guide to 116 Michigan
Lighthouses (Petoskey, Michigan: Friede Publications, 1999).
ISBN 0-923756-03-5 ISBN 9780923756031
Sims, P.K. and L.M.H. Carter, eds. Archean and Proterozoic Geology of
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Michigan Lighthouses: An Aerial Photographic
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ISBN 1-880311-01-1 ISBN 9781880311011
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Mining Gazette; Vol. 29; June
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Arery Color Studios; 1977
"Cumberland" & "Wreck of Sidewheel Steamer Cumberland"; Detroit,
Michigan; Detroit Free Press; January 29, 1974
"S.S.George M. Cox Wrecked"; Houghton, Michigan; Houghton Mining
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