LAKE PEIPUS (Estonian : Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Russian :
Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero),
German : Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in
The lake is the fifth-largest in
* LAKE PEIPSI/CHUDSKOE (Estonian : Peipsi järv, Russian : Чудское озеро), the northern part of the lake, with an area of 2,611 km2 (73%) * LAKE PSKOV (Estonian : Pihkva järv, Russian : Псковское озеро), the southern part of the lake (area 708 km2 or 20%) * LAKE LäMMIJäRV/TEPLOE (Estonian : Lämmijärv, Russian : Тёплое озеро), the sound connecting the other two parts of the lake (area 236 km2 or 7%)
The lake is used for fishing and recreation, but suffered from some
environmental degradation from Soviet -era agriculture. Some 30 rivers
and streams discharge into Lake Peipus. The largest rivers are the
* 1 Formation * 2 Topography and hydrography * 3 Basin and islands * 4 Flora and fauna * 5 Ecology * 6 Economy * 7 History * 8 References * 9 External links
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The lake is a remnant of a larger body of water which existed in this
area during an
Ice Age . In the
Paleozoic Era, 300–400 million
years ago, the entire territory of the modern Gulf of
TOPOGRAPHY AND HYDROGRAPHY
The banks of
Water balance of
WATER BALANCE VOLUME
Inflow Precipitation 560 mm (1.9 km3)
Surface and groundwater 3150 mm (11.2 km3)
Outflow Streamflow 3390 mm (12 km3)
Evaporation 320 mm (1.1 km3)
The relief of the bottom is uniform and flat, gradually rising near the shores and covered with silt , and in some places with sand. The deepest point of 15.3 m is located in the Teploe Lake, 300 m from the coast.
The lake is well-flowing, with the annual inflow of water equal to about half of the total water volume.
The lake water is fresh, with a low transparency of about 2.5 m due to plankton and suspended sediments caused by the river flow. Water currents are weak (5–9 cm/s); they are induced by the wind and stop when it ceases. However, during the spring flood, there is a constant surface current from north to south (it does not make sense).
Because of the shallow depth, the lake quickly warms up and cools down. Water temperature reaches 25–26 °C in July. The lakes freeze in late November – early December and thaws in late April – early May, first lakes Teploe and Pihkva and then lake Peipus.
Map of pools of Narva and Lake Peipsi
BASIN AND ISLANDS
About 30 rivers flow into the lake. The largest are Velikaya and
The lake contains 29 islands with a total area of 25.8 km2, with 40 more islands located within the delta of the Velikaya River. The islands are low wetlands, elevated above the lake surface on average by only 1–2 m (maximum 4.5 m) and therefore suffer from floods. The largest islands are Piirissaar (area 7.39 km2, located in the southern part of Lake Peipus), Kolpino (area 11 km2, in the Pihkva Lake) and Kamenka (area 6 km2). In the center of Pihkva Lake there is a group of Talabski Islands (Belova, Zalita and Talavenets).
FLORA AND FAUNA
The lake hosts 54 species of coastal aquatic flora, including cane ,
calamus (Acorus calamus), bulrush , grass rush , lesser bulrush (Typha
angustifolia) and water parsnip (Sium latifolium). Floating plants are
rare and are of only three types: arrowhead , yellow water-lily and
water knotweed . The lake is home to perch , pike-perch , bream ,
roaches , whitefishes , smelt and other species of fish. The wetlands
of the coastal strip of the lake are important resting and feeding
grounds for swans, geese and ducks migrating between the
White Sea and
Baltic Sea and western Europe. Lake Peipsi is one of the main
stopovers for Bewick\'s swan (Cygnus columbianus). The swans leave
their breeding grounds in the Russian
The ecological condition of the lake basin is, in general,
satisfactory – water is mostly of grades I and II (clean), and is of
grade III in some rivers due to the high content of phosphorus . The
water condition of the rivers has improved since 2001–2007, but
there is an increase in population of blue-green algae . The main
The towns standing on the banks are relatively small and include
Mustvee (population 1,610),
Kallaste (population 1,260) and Gdov
(population 4,400). The largest city,
In 1242, the southern part of
The largest city on the lake,
Gdov was founded in 1431 as a fortress and became a city in 1780;
the only remains of the historical
Gdov Kremlin are three fortress
Kallaste was founded in the 18th century by the Old Believers
who had fled from the
* ^ Lake Peipus. Encyclopædia Britannica online
* ^ A B C "Chudsko-Pskovskoe ozero".
Great Soviet Encyclopedia .
* ^ (in Russian) Russian lakes with area of more than 350 km².
(GIF table). Retrieved on 2012-01-21.
* ^ Encyclopedic Dictionary of Geography: Geographical names –
Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia. 1983, p. 488.
* ^ A B C D E F Sokolov AA Hydrography of the USSR L.:
* ^ A B Tourist Encyclopedia. Peipsi-
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* 360° aerial panorama of