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Lake Michigan
Michigan
is one of the five Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. The other four Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are shared by the U.S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
by volume[1] and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and Lake Huron
Lake Huron
(and is slightly smaller than the U.S. state
U.S. state
of West Virginia). To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron
Lake Huron
through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart; the two are technically a single lake.[4] Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U.S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; Milwaukee; Green Bay, Wisconsin; Gary, Indiana; and Muskegon, Michigan. The word "Michigan" originally referred to the lake itself, and is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water".[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Statistics and bathymetry 2.2 Cities 2.3 Connection to ocean and open water 2.4 Beaches 2.5 Ferries 2.6 Islands 2.7 Parks 2.8 Lighthouses

3 Hydrology

3.1 Drinking water

4 Fishing

4.1 Commercial fisheries 4.2 Sports fishing

5 Shipping

5.1 Port of Chicago 5.2 Tourism
Tourism
and recreation

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Further information: Lake Chicago Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan
Michigan
region were the Hopewell Indians. Their culture declined after 800 AD, and for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa; Menominee; Sauk; Fox; Winnebago; Miami; Ottawa; and Potawatomi. The French explorer Jean Nicolet
Jean Nicolet
is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan, possibly in 1634 or 1638.[6] In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois
Illinois
has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois
Illinois
Confederation of tribes.[7] Lake Michigan
Michigan
is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, and the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron (also Huron–Michigan). The Straits of Mackinac
Straits of Mackinac
were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, Michigan, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, and on the northern side is St. Ignace, Michigan, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet
Louis Joliet
and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan
Michigan
to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox– Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Waterway. The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac
Fort Mackinac
on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781.[8] With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan
Michigan
became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and thence to the Gulf of Mexico.[9] French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.[10] In the 19th century, Lake Michigan
Michigan
played a major role in the development of Chicago
Chicago
and the Midwestern United States
Midwestern United States
west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago
Chicago
traveled east over Lake Michigan
Michigan
during the antebellum years, and only rarely falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping.[11] The first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan
Michigan
was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition.[12] In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan
Michigan
College. This formation lies 40 feet (12 m) below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated.[13][14] Geography[edit]

Lake Michigan
Michigan
bathymetric map.[15][16][17] The deepest point is marked with "×".[18]

Lake Michigan
Michigan
basin

Lake Michigan
Michigan
is the only one of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
wholly within the borders of the United States; the others are shared with Canada.[19] It lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Statistics and bathymetry[edit] Lake Michigan
Michigan
has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi (58,026 km2); (13,237 square miles, 34,284 km2 lying in Michigan
Michigan
state,[2] 7,358 square miles, 19,056 km2 in Wisconsin, 234 square miles, 606 km2 in Indiana, & 1,576 square miles, 4,079 km2 in Illinois) making it the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area (Lake Baikal, in Russia, is larger by water volume), and the fifth-largest lake in the world. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. It is 307 miles (494 km) long by 118 miles (190 km) wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles (2,640 km) long. The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet (279 ft; 85 m), while its greatest depth is 153 fathoms 5 feet (923 ft; 281 m).[2][20] It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles (4,918 km³) of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay
Grand Traverse Bay
in its northeast is another large bay. Its deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin (named after prehistoric Lake Chippewa) and is separated from South Chippewa
Chippewa
Basin, by a relatively shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau.[21][22] Cities[edit]

The Milwaukee
Milwaukee
lakefront

Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores, mainly in the Chicago
Chicago
and Milwaukee
Milwaukee
metropolitan areas. The economy of many communities in northern Michigan
Michigan
and Door County, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by the beauty and recreational opportunities offered by Lake Michigan.[23][citation needed] Seasonal residents often have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter. The southern tip of the lake near Gary, Indiana
Indiana
is heavily industrialized. Cities on the shores of Lake Michigan
Michigan
include:

Illinois

Chicago Evanston Glencoe Highland Park Kenilworth Lake Forest Lake Bluff North Chicago Waukegan Wilmette Winnetka Zion

Indiana

East Chicago Gary Hammond Michigan
Michigan
City Portage Porter Whiting

Michigan

Benton Harbor Bridgman Charlevoix Douglas Elberta Escanaba Ferrysburg Frankfort Gladstone Glenn Grand Beach Grand Haven Harbor Springs Holland Ludington

Mackinaw City Manistee Manistique Menominee Michiana Muskegon New Buffalo Norton Shores Pentwater Petoskey Saugatuck St. Joseph Shoreham South Haven Traverse City

Wisconsin

Algoma Cudahy Fox Point Green Bay Kenosha Kewaunee Manitowoc Milwaukee Mequon

Oconto Port Washington Racine Sheboygan Shorewood South Milwaukee Sturgeon Bay Two Rivers Whitefish Bay

Connection to ocean and open water[edit] [[

Sunset at Nordhouse Dunes

]] The Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
and Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Waterway opened the Great Lakes to ocean-going vessels. Wider ocean-going container ships do not fit through the locks on these routes, and thus shipping is limited on the lakes. Despite their vast size, large sections of the Great Lakes freeze in winter, interrupting most shipping. Some icebreakers ply the lakes. The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are also connected by the Illinois
Illinois
Waterway to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
via the Illinois
Illinois
River (from Chicago) and the Mississippi River. An alternate track is via the Illinois
Illinois
River (from Chicago), to the Mississippi, up the Ohio, and then through the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway
Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway
(combination of a series of rivers and lakes and canals), to Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
and the Gulf. Commercial tug-and-barge traffic on these waterways is heavy. Pleasure boats can also enter or exit the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
by way of the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
and Hudson River in New York. The Erie Canal
Erie Canal
connects to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
at the east end of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
(at Buffalo, NY) and at the south side of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
(at Oswego, NY). Beaches[edit]

Sand dune
Sand dune
on Lake Michigan
Michigan
at Indiana
Indiana
Dunes National Lakeshore

Saugatuck Dunes State Park

Lake Michigan
Michigan
has many beaches. The region is often referred to as the "Third Coast"[24] of the United States, after those of the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The sand is often soft and off-white, known as "singing sands" because of the squeaking noise (caused by high quartz content) it emits when walked upon. Some beaches have sand dunes covered in green beach grass and sand cherries, and the water is usually clear and cool, between 55 and 80 °F (13 and 27 °C),[25] even in the late summer months. However, because prevailing westerly winds tend to move the surface water toward the east, there is a flow of warmer water to the Michigan
Michigan
shore in the summer.[26] The sand dunes located on the east shore of Lake Michigan
Michigan
are the largest freshwater dune system in the world. In fact, in multiple locations along the shoreline, the dunes rise several hundred feet above the lake surface. Large dune formations can be seen in many state parks, national forests and national parks along the Indiana
Indiana
and Michigan
Michigan
shoreline. Some of the most expansive and unique dune formations can be found at Indiana
Indiana
Dunes National Lakeshore, Saugatuck Dunes State Park, Warren Dunes State Park, Hoffmaster State Park, Silver Lake State Park, Ludington State Park, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. Small dune formations can be found on the western shore of Lake Michigan
Michigan
at Illinois
Illinois
Beach State Park and moderate sized dune formations can be found in Kohler-Andrae State Park
Kohler-Andrae State Park
and Point Beach State Forest in Wisconsin. A large dune formation can be found in Whitefish Dunes State Park
Whitefish Dunes State Park
in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
in the Door Peninsula. Lake Michigan
Michigan
beaches in Northern Michigan
Michigan
are the only place in the world, aside from a few inland lakes in that region, where one can find Petoskey stones, the state stone.[citation needed] The beaches of the western coast and the northernmost part of the east coast are often rocky, with some sandy beaches due to local conditions; while the southern and eastern beaches are typically sandy and dune-covered. This is partly because of the prevailing winds from the west (which also cause thick layers of ice to build on the eastern shore in winter). The Chicago
Chicago
city waterfront is composed of parks, beaches, harbors and marinas, and residential developments connected by the Chicago Lakefront Trail. Where there are no beaches or marinas, stone or concrete revetments protect the shoreline from erosion. The Chicago lakefront is quite walkable; it is possible to stroll past parks, beaches, and marinas for about 24 miles (39 km) between the city's southern and northern limits along the lake. Ferries[edit]

SS Badger
SS Badger
operates ferry services between Manitowoc and Ludington

Two passenger and vehicle ferries operate ferry services on Lake Michigan, both connecting Wisconsin
Wisconsin
on the western shore with Michigan on the east. From May to October, the historic steam ship, SS Badger, operates daily between Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and Ludington, Michigan,[27] connecting U.S. Highway 10
U.S. Highway 10
between the two cities. The Lake Express, established in 2004, carries passengers and vehicles across the lake between Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Muskegon, Michigan. Islands[edit]

Big Sable Point, Michigan

The Beaver Island archipelago in Charlevoix County, Michigan, includes Beaver Island, Garden Island, Grape Island, Gull Island, Hat Island, High Island, Hog Island, Horseshoe Island, Little Island, Pismire Island, Shoe Island, Squaw Island, Trout Island, and Whiskey Island. The Fox Islands in Leelanau County, Michigan, consist of North Fox Island and South Fox Island. The Manitou Islands, North Manitou Island
North Manitou Island
and South Manitou Island, are in Leelanau County, Michigan. Islands within Grand Traverse Bay
Grand Traverse Bay
include Bassett Island, Bellow Island, and Marion Island. Islands south of the Garden Peninsula
Garden Peninsula
in Delta County, Michigan include Gravelly Island, Gull Island, Little Gull Island, Little Summer Island, Poverty Island, Rocky Island, St. Martin Island, and Summer Island. Islands in Big Bay de Noc
Big Bay de Noc
in Delta County, Michigan
Michigan
include Round Island, Saint Vital Island, and Snake Island. Islands in Little Bay de Noc in Delta County, Michigan
Michigan
include Butlers Island and Sand Island. Wilderness State Park
Wilderness State Park
in Emmet County, Michigan
Michigan
contains Temperance Island and Waugoshance Island. Epoufette Island, Gravel Island, Little Hog Island, and Naubinway Island are located in Mackinac County, Michigan, in the area of Epoufette, Michigan
Michigan
and Naubinway, Michigan. Green Island and St. Helena Island are in the vicinity of the Mackinac Bridge, in Mackinac County, Michigan. Islands surrounding the Door Peninsula
Door Peninsula
in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
include Chambers Island, Fish Island, Gravel Island, Spider Island, Horseshoe Island, the Sister Islands, Detroit
Detroit
Island, Green Island, Hog Island, Pilot Island, Plum Island, Rock Island, the Strawberry Islands
Strawberry Islands
and Washington Island. The northern half of the peninsula is technically an island itself, due to the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal. Northerly Island
Northerly Island
is a 91-acre (37 ha) man-made island in Chicago. It is the home of the Adler Planetarium, the former site of Meigs Field, and the current site of the temporary concert venue Charter One Pavilion each summer. Other islands included Fisherman Island in Charlevoix County, Michigan and Ile aux Galets in Emmet County, Michigan. Plum Island (Wisconsin)
Plum Island (Wisconsin)
is an island at the western shore of Lake Michigan
Michigan
in the southern part of the town of Washington in Door County, Wisconsin.

Parks[edit]

Lake view from the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, with people climbing uphill

Chicago's North Avenue Beach, Lincoln Park

Lake Michigan
Michigan
and the Chicago
Chicago
skyline from Portage, Indiana

Eichelman Park in Kenosha, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
with Lake Michigan
Michigan
in the background

The National Park Service
National Park Service
maintains the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and Indiana
Indiana
Dunes National Lakeshore. Parts of the shoreline are within the Hiawatha National Forest
Hiawatha National Forest
and the Manistee National Forest. The Manistee National Forest
Manistee National Forest
section of the shoreline includes the Nordhouse Dunes Wilderness. The Lake Michigan
Michigan
division of the Michigan
Michigan
Islands National Wildlife Refuge is also within the lake. There are numerous state and local parks located on the shores of the lake or on islands within the lake. A partial list follows.

Chicago
Chicago
Park District Beaches Duck Lake State Park Fayette Historic State Park Fisherman's Island State Park Grand Haven
Grand Haven
State Park Grand Mere State Park Harrington Beach State Park Holland State Park Hoffmaster State Park Illinois
Illinois
Beach State Park Indian Lake State Park Indiana
Indiana
Dunes State Park Kohler-Andrae State Park Lake Park, Milwaukee Ludington State Park Leelanau State Park Mears State Park Muskegon
Muskegon
State Park Newport State Park Orchard Beach State Park Peninsula State Park Racine Zoo Saugatuck Dunes State Park Silver Lake State Park Traverse City State Park Terry Andrae State Park Van Buren State Park Warren Dunes State Park

White Shoal Light (Michigan)

Wells State Park Wilderness State Park

Lighthouses[edit]

Illinois
Illinois
lighthouses Indiana
Indiana
lighthouses Michigan
Michigan
lighthouses Wisconsin
Wisconsin
lighthouses

Hydrology[edit] The Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Reef, running under Lake Michigan
Michigan
from a point between Milwaukee
Milwaukee
and Racine to a point between Grand Haven
Grand Haven
and Muskegon, divides the lake into northern and southern basins. Each basin has a clockwise flow of water, deriving from rivers, winds, and the Coriolis effect. Prevailing westerly winds tend to move the surface water toward the east, producing a moderating effect on the climate of western Michigan. There is a mean difference in summer temperatures of 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit (2 to 5 degrees Celsius) between the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Michigan
Michigan
shores.[26] Hydrologically Michigan
Michigan
and Huron are the same body of water (sometimes called Lake Michigan-Huron), but are normally considered distinct. Counted together, it is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. The Mackinac Bridge
Mackinac Bridge
is generally considered the dividing line between them. Both lakes are part of the Great Lakes Waterway. Historic High Water

The lake fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels typically experienced in the summer. The normal high-water mark is 2.00 feet (0.61 m) above datum 577.5 ft (176.0 m). In the summer of 1986, Lakes Michigan
Michigan
and Huron reached their highest level during the period during which records have been kept, at 5.92 ft (1.80 m) above datum.[28] The high water records began in February 1986 and lasted through the year, ending with January 1987. Water levels ranged from 3.67 ft (1.12 m) to 5.92 feet (1.80 m) above Chart Datum.[28] On February 21, 1986, the waters neared the all-time maximum for the period during which records have been kept.[29]

Historic Low Water

Lake levels tend to be the lowest in winter. The normal low water mark is 1.00 foot (0.30 m) below datum 577.5 ft (176.0 m). In the winter of 1964, Lakes Michigan
Michigan
and Huron reached their lowest level at 1.38 feet (0.42 m) below datum.[28] As with the highwater records, monthly low water records were set each month from February 1964 through January 1965. During this twelve-month period water levels ranged from 1.38 feet (0.42 m) to 0.71 feet (0.22 m) below Chart Datum.[28]

In January 2013, Lake Michigan's monthly mean water levels dipped to an all-time low of 576.2 ft (175.6 m),[30] reaching their lowest ebb since record keeping began in 1918. The lakes were 29 in (0.74 m) below their long-term average and had declined 17 inches since January 2012.[31] Keith Kompoltowicz, chief of watershed hydrology for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' district office in Detroit, explained that biggest factors leading to the lower water levels in 2013 were a combination of the "lack of a large snowpack" in the winter of 2011/2012 coupled with very hot and dry conditions in the summer of 2012.[30] Drinking water[edit] Lake Michigan, like the other Great Lakes, supplies drinking water to millions of people in bordering areas. The lakes are collectively administered by the state and provincial governments adjacent to them pursuant to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Compact. Environmental problems can still plague the lake. Steel mills and refineries operate near the Indiana
Indiana
shoreline. The Chicago
Chicago
Tribune reported that BP is a major polluter, dumping thousands of pounds of raw sludge into the lake every day from its Whiting, Indiana, oil refinery.[32] In March 2014 BP's Whiting refinery was responsible for spilling more than 1,600 US gallons (6,100 l) of oil into the lake.[33] Fishing[edit] Lake Michigan
Michigan
is home to a wide variety of fish species and other organisms. It was originally home to lake whitefish, lake trout, yellow perch, panfish, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and bowfin, as well as some species of catfish. As a result of improvements to the Welland Canal
Welland Canal
in 1919, an invasion of sea lampreys and overharvesting, there has been a decline in native lake trout populations, ultimately causing an increase in the population of another invasive species, the alewife. As a result, salmonids, including various strains of brown trout, steelhead (rainbow trout), coho and chinook salmon, were introduced as predators in order to decrease the alewife population. This program was so successful that the introduced population of trout and salmon exploded, resulting in the creation of a large sport fishery for these introduced species. Lake Michigan
Michigan
is now stocked annually with steelhead, brown trout, and coho and chinook salmon, which have also begun natural reproduction in some Lake Michigan tributaries. However, several introduced invasive species, such as lampreys, round goby, zebra mussels and quagga mussels, continue to cause major changes in water clarity and fertility, resulting in knock-on changes to Lake Michigan's ecosystem, threatening the vitality of native fish populations. Commercial fisheries[edit] Fisheries in inland waters of the United States
United States
are small compared to marine fisheries. The largest fisheries are the landings from the Great Lakes, worth about $13 million in 2003.[34] Michigan’s commercial fishery today consists mainly of 150 tribe-licensed commercial fishing operations through the Chippewa-Ottawa Resource Authority (CORA) and tribes belonging to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC), which harvest 50 percent of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
commercial catch in Michigan
Michigan
waters, and 45 state-licensed commercial fishing enterprises.[35] The prime commercial species is the lake whitefish ( Coregonus
Coregonus
clupeaformis). The annual harvest declined from an average of 11 million pounds (5,000,000 kg) from 1981 through to 1999 to more recent annual harvests of 8 to 9.5 million pounds (3,600,000 to 4,300,000 kg). The price for lake whitefish dropped from $1.04/lb. to as low as $.40/lb during periods of high production.[35] Sports fishing[edit] Sports fishing includes salmon, whitefish, smelt, lake trout and walleye being major catches. In the late 1960s, successful stocking programs for Pacific salmon led to the development of Lake Michigan’s charter fishing industry.[36] Shipping[edit] Like all of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan
Michigan
is today used as a major mode of transport for bulk goods. In 2002, 162 million net tons of dry bulk cargo were moved via the Lakes. This was, in order of volume: iron ore, grain and potash.[citation needed] The iron ore and much of the stone and coal are used in the steel industry. There is also some shipping of liquid and containerized cargo, but most container vessels cannot pass the locks on the Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
because the ships are too wide. The total amount of shipping on the lakes has been on a downward trend for several years. Port of Chicago[edit] Main article: Port of Chicago The Port of Chicago, operated by the Illinois
Illinois
International Port District, has grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet. The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.[37] Tourism
Tourism
and recreation[edit] Tourism
Tourism
and recreation are major industries on all of the Great Lakes:

A few small cruise ships operate on Lake Michigan, including a couple of sailing ships. Many other water sports are practiced on the lakes, such as yachting, sea kayaking, diving, kitesurfing and lake surfing. The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Circle Tour, a designated scenic road system, connects all of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the St. Lawrence River.[38] Great Lakes
Great Lakes
passenger steamers have been operating since the mid-1800s. Several ferries currently operate on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to carry passengers to various islands, including Beaver Island and Bois Blanc Island (Michigan). Currently, two car ferry services traverse Lake Michigan
Michigan
from around April to November: the SS Badger, a steamer from Ludington, Michigan, to Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and the Lake Express, a high speed catamaran from Milwaukee
Milwaukee
to Muskegon, Michigan.

See also[edit]

Ohio Street Beach, downtown Chicago

Beaver Island Chicago
Chicago
beaches Chicago
Chicago
River Door Peninsula Green Bay Jardine Water Purification Plant Lake Michigan
Michigan
Shore AVA Leelanau Peninsula Little Traverse Bay Milwaukee
Milwaukee
River Port of Milwaukee Washington Island

References[edit]

^ a b "Lake Michigan". Great-lakes.net. 2009-06-18. Archived from the original on 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2010-01-14.  ^ a b c d e Wright 2006, p. 64 ^ Shorelines of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Archived 2015-04-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Map". Michigan
Michigan
Department of Environmental Quality. 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.  ^ "Superior Watershed Partnership Projects". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.  ^ Bogue 1985, pp. 7–13 ^ http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/1733d4.jpg ^ "Colonial Fort Michilimackinac". Mighty Mac. Retrieved 2014-07-06.  ^ Bogue 1985, pp. 14–16 ^ Shelak 2003, p. 3 ^ Cronon, William (1991). Nature's Metropolis: Chicago
Chicago
and the Great West. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company. p. 87.  ^ "Variations In Sediment Accumulation Rates And The Flux Of Labile Organic Matter In Eastern Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Basins". The Journal of Great Lakes Research. 1989. Archived from the original on 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2009-08-09.  ^ Flesher, John (2007-09-04). "Possible mastodon carving found on rock". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-05-25.  ^ Flesher, John (2007-09-05). "Rock brings history to surface (pictures)". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2008-05-25.  ^ National Geophysical Data Center, 1996. Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Michigan. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5B85627 [access date: 2015-03-23]. ^ National Geophysical Data Center, 1999. Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Huron. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5G15XS5 [access date: 2015-03-23]. (only small portion of this map) ^ National Geophysical Data Center, 1999. Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1. Hastings, D. and P.K. Dunbar. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V52R3PMS [access date: 2015-03-16]. ^ "About Our Great Lakes: Tour". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Retrieved December 15, 2017.  ^ 05, US EPA,REG. "Geophysical Lake Michigan
Michigan
- US EPA". US EPA.  ^ "Chart: 14901 Edition: 15 Edition Date: August 2006 Clear Dates: NM – 12/17/2011 LNM – 12/6/2011";"Soundings in feet and fathoms". NOAA. Retrieved September 18, 2013.  ^ https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/michiganlarge.jpg ^ " Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Michigan". www.ngdc.noaa.gov.  ^ http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/explore/coastal-communities/economic-vitality-and-the-great-lakes/ ^ " NOAA
NOAA
Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Region". NOAA. Retrieved 2015-09-15.  ^ " Michigan
Michigan
Sea Grant Coastwatch". Coastwatch.msu.edu. Retrieved 2010-01-14.  ^ a b Hilton 2002, pp. 3–5 ^ "Schedule and Fares". SS Badger. Retrieved April 1, 2018.  ^ a b c d Monthly bulletin of Lake Levels for The Great Lakes; September 2009; US Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit
Detroit
District ^ "The Weather History for February 21st". Southwest Lower Michigan Weather History. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ a b Bivins, Larry (3 April 2013). "Low Great Lakes
Great Lakes
water levels plague shipping, recreation". USA Today.  ^ Flesher, John (5 February 2013). "Two Great Lakes
Great Lakes
hit lowest water levels since record keeping began nearly a century ago". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013.  ^ Hawthorne, Michael. "BP gets break on dumping in lake". Chicago Tribune.  ^ Hawthorne, Michael. "BP raises estimate of Lake Michigan
Michigan
oil spill". Chicago
Chicago
Tribune.  ^ NOAA/NMFS: (2004) Fisheries of the United States, 2003 Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Michigan
Michigan
Commercial Fisheries Marketing and Product Development (PDF) (Report). Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan
Michigan
Sea Grant.  ^ O'Keefe, Dan (2009). Charter Fishing in Michigan: A Profile of Customers and Economic Impacts (PDF) (Report). Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan
Michigan
Sea Grant.  ^ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
(November 2007). "Calumet Harbor, IL and IN". Retrieved on July 31, 2014. ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Circle Tour". Great-lakes.net. 2005-07-05. Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 

Further reading[edit]

Bogue, Margaret Beattie (1985). Around the Shores of Lake Michigan: A Guide to Historic Sites. University of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Press. ISBN 0-299-10004-9.  Hilton, George Woodman (2002). Lake Michigan
Michigan
Passenger Steamers. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4240-5.  Hyde, Charles K.; Mahan, Ann; Mahan, John (1995). The Northern Lights: Lighthouses of the Upper Great Lakes. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-814325-54-4.  Oleszewski, Wes (1998). Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Lighthouses, American and Canadian: A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Lighthouses. Gwinn: Avery Color Studios, Inc. ISBN 0-932212-98-0.  Penrod, John (1998). Lighthouses of Michigan. Berrien Center: Pernod/Hiawatha. ISBN 978-0-942618-78-5.  Penrose, Laurie; Penrose, Bill (1999). A Traveler’s Guide to 116 Michigan
Michigan
Lighthouses. Petoskey: Friede Publications. ISBN 978-0-923756-03-1.  Shelak, Benjamin J. (2003). Shipwrecks of Lake Michigan. Big Earth Publishing. ISBN 1-931599-21-1.  Wagner, John L. (1998). Michigan
Michigan
Lighthouses: An Aerial Photographic Perspective. East Lansing: John L. Wagner. ISBN 978-1-880311-01-1.  Wright, John W., ed. (2006). The New York Times Almanac. Editors and reporters of The New York Times (2007 ed.). New York, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-303820-6.  Wright, Larry; Wright, Patricia (2006). Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Lighthouses Encyclopedia (Hardback ed.). Erin: Boston Mills Press. ISBN 1-55046-399-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Michigan.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article about Lake Michigan.

Geographic data related to Lake Michigan
Michigan
at OpenStreetMap EPA's Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Atlas Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Coast Watch Michigan
Michigan
DNR map of Lake Michigan Official Michigan
Michigan
DNR Freshwater Fishing Regulations Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Michigan  "Michigan, Lake". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.   Anderson, William P. (1911). "Michigan, Lake". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 

Lighthouses

Bibliography on Michigan
Michigan
lighthouses Interactive map of lighthouses in area (northern Lake Michigan) Interactive map of lighthouses in area (southern Lake Michigan)[permanent dead link] Terry Pepper on lighthouses of the western Great Lakes Wagner, John L., Beacons Shining in the Night, Michigan
Michigan
lighthouse bibliography, chronology, history, and photographs, Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan
Michigan
University

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Northern Michigan

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Geography

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Transportation

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Economy

East Jordan Iron Works Georgia-Pacific Holcim Lafarge Cement Michigan
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wine USG Corporation Weyerhaeuser

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v t e

Upper Peninsula
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Central cities

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Geography

Copper Country Gogebic Range Grand Island Keweenaw Peninsula Keweenaw Waterway Lake Superior Lake Huron Lake Michigan Menominee
Menominee
River Mount Arvon Pictured Rocks Porcupine Mountains St. Marys River Straits of Mackinac

Transportation

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County Airport Delta County Airport Ford Airport Gogebic–Iron County Airport Houghton County Airport Mackinac Bridge International Bridge International Rail Bridge Portage Lake Lift Bridge Sawyer International Airport Soo Locks

Economy

Cleveland-Cliffs Inc. Copper mining in Michigan Verso Corporation

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315125

.