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Poyang Lake
Lake
(Chinese: 鄱阳湖/鄱陽湖; pinyin: Póyáng Hú, Gan: Po-yong U), located in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province, is the largest freshwater lake in China.[3] The lake is fed by the Gan, Xin, and Xiu
Xiu
rivers, which connect to the Yangtze
Yangtze
through a channel. The area of Poyang Lake
Lake
fluctuates dramatically between the wet and dry seasons, but in recent years the size of the lake has been decreasing overall. In a normal year the area of the lake averages 3,500 square kilometres (1,400 sq mi). In early 2012, due to drought, sand quarrying, and the practice of storing water at the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
the area of the lake reached a low of about 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi).[4] The lake provides a habitat for half a million migratory birds[5] and is a favorite destination for birding. During the winter, the lake becomes home to a large number of migrating Siberian cranes, up to 90% of which spend the winter there.

Contents

1 Formation 2 Environmental issues

2.1 Loss of Wildlife 2.2 Shrinkage

3 In history 4 References 5 External links

Formation[edit] Poyang Lake
Lake
has also been called Pengli Marsh (彭蠡澤) historically, but they are not the same. Before the Han Dynasty, the Yangtze
Yangtze
followed a more northerly course through what is now Longgan Lake
Lake
whilst Pengli Marsh formed the lower reaches of the Gan River. The area that is now Poyang Lake
Lake
was a plain along the Gan River. Around 400 AD, the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
switched to a more southerly course, causing the Gan River
Gan River
to back up and form Lake
Lake
Poyang. The backing up of the Gan River
Gan River
drowned Poyang County
Poyang County
and Haihun County, forcing a mass migration to Wucheng Township in what is now Yongxiu County. Wucheng thus became one of the great ancient townships of Jiangxi Province. This migration gave birth to the phrase, "Drowning Haihun County gives rise to Wucheng Township" (Chinese: 淹了海昏縣,出了吳城鎮). Lake
Lake
Poyang reached its greatest size during the Tang Dynasty, when its area reached 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi).[citation needed] Environmental issues[edit]

Midstream and Downstream Drainage Map of Yangtze
Yangtze
River, Poayang Lake Dam's Location

Loss of Wildlife[edit] There has been a fishing ban in place since 2002. In 2007 fears were expressed that China's finless porpoise, known locally as the jiangzhu ("river pig"), a native of the lake along with other waters such as Dongting Lake, might follow the baiji, the Yangtze
Yangtze
river dolphin, into extinction. Calls have been made for action to be taken to save the porpoise, of which there are about 1,400 left living, with between 700 and 900 in the Yangtze, with about another 500 in Poyang and Dongting Lakes. 2007 population levels are less than half the 1997 levels, and the population is dropping at a rate of 7.3 per cent per year. Sand dredging has become a mainstay of local economic development in the last few years, and is an important source of revenue in the region that borders Poyang Lake. But at the same time, high-density dredging projects have been the principal cause of the death of the local wildlife population. Dredging makes the waters of the lake muddier, and the porpoises cannot see as far as they once could, and have to rely on their highly developed sonar systems to avoid obstacles and look for food. Large ships enter and leave the lake at the rate of two a minute and such a high density of shipping means the porpoises have difficulty hearing their food, and also cannot swim freely from one bank to the other.[6] Furthermore, construction of Poyang Lake
Lake
Dam is expected to cause devastating effects on the remaining porpoises. [7] Shrinkage[edit] Due to the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
upriver on the Yangtze
Yangtze
river, Poyang Lake can shrink and dry up for portions of the year. In 2016, the lake nearly dried up completely. 200 square kilometers of land was underwater in October, while the lake is normally 3,500 square kilometers in area when full. In addition to the Three Gorges Dam, which must store water in its reservoir to be used in the winter, a drought was also blamed for the shrinkage.[8] The Jiangxi
Jiangxi
local government has proposed to build the Poyang Lake
Lake
Dam to maintain water levels in the lake, building a sluice wall across the connection between the lake and the Yangtze
Yangtze
river. An environmental impact assessment is pending. Scientists, as well as environmental groups such as the World Wide Fund for Nature, have criticised the proposal, arguing that artificially engineering water levels in the lake will adversely affect wildlife diversity.[9] In history[edit] In 1363, the Battle of Lake
Lake
Poyang took place there, and it is claimed to be the largest naval battle in history. The lake has also been described as the "Chinese Bermuda Triangle". Many ships have disappeared while sailing in it. On 16 April 1945, an Imperial Japanese Navy ship, which carried loot from the Japanese Occupation of China
China
vanished without a trace with 200 sailors.[10] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h "Poyang Lake". World Lake
Lake
Database. International Lake
Lake
Environment Committee Foundation. 1999. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ Ding, Duowen; Tan, Xueqing (2011). "Numerical Simulation of the Effects of the Urbanization on the Poyang Wetland". In Kenneth W. Potter, Donald K. Frevert. Watershed Management 2010. American Society of Civil Engineers. p. 444. ISBN 978-0-7844-1143-8.  ^ http://english.people.com.cn/200202/21/eng20020221_90777.shtml People's Daily Online "Spring Fishing Ban on China's Largest Freshwater
Freshwater
Lake" ^ https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/jan/31/china-freshwater-lake-dries-up The Guardian "China's largest freshwater lake dries up" ^ http://www.globalnature.org/docs/02_vorlage.asp?id=15793&sp=E&m1=11089&m2=11093&m3=11178&m4=15621&m5=15793&m6=&domid=1011 Global Nature Fund: "Detailed Data Lake
Lake
Poyang-hu" ^ Kejia Z.. 2007. Poyang Lake
Lake
saving the finless porpoise. Chinadialogue.net. Retrieved on September 28, 2017 ^ Chen S.. 2017. Water scheme threatens Yangtze River
Yangtze River
porpoises with extinction, scientist warns. South China
China
Morning Post. Retrieved on September 28, 2017 ^ Thibault, Harold (2012-01-31). "China's largest freshwater lake dries up". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-11-09.  ^ Ives, Mike (29 December 2016). "As China's Largest Freshwater
Freshwater
Lake Shrinks, a Solution Faces Criticism". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ "China's Poyang Lake: 'Bermuda Triangle of the East'". The Epoch Times. October 30, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Chinadialogue.net: Saving the finless porpoise Poyang Lake
Lake
Dam

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake
Lake
Poyang.

v t e

Lakes of China

Five Great Lakes

Poyang Dongting Chao Tai Hongze

Notable freshwater lakes

Xingkai Poyang Dongting Tai Hulun Hongze Nansi Bosten Chao Gaoyou Ngoring Gyaring Sayram Baiyangdian Honghu Longgan Liangzi Dianchi Manasarovar Ulansuhai Luoma Erhai Junshan Fuxian Shiju Wabu Nanyi Dongping Ge Yangcheng Chenghai Dianshan Yangzong Xingyun Qilu Yilong Ayding Buir Chagan Daming Diexi Dongqian Heaven (Changbai Tianchi) Baihua Karakul Kunming Lugu Ruyi South Tangjiashan Baiyun Xuanwu Yueya Kanas

Notable salt lakes

Qinghai Namtso Serling Zhari Namco Tangra Yumco Ulungur Yamdrok Pangong Rakshastal (La-Ang Tso) Aibi

National Parks

Jingpo Wudalianchi Tai West (Hangzhou) East Lake
Lake
(Wuhan) Tianshan Tianchi Songhua Jingyue Slim West Dongting Hongfeng Dianchi Jin Crescent QInghai Chao Fairy West (Huizhou) Qiong Bosten Feiyun Huguang Rock Bailong Sayram Huating Zhelin

Protected wetlands

Dongting Poyang Hulun South Dongting West Dongting Xingkai Bita Napa Lashi Nygoring Gyaring

Nature Reserves

Hengshui Xingkai Wudalianchi Yinglong Caiyun Shengjin Poyang Dongting Erhai Serling West (Dunhuang) Gahai Qinghai Caohai Hulun Kanas Hongze Haba

Major urban lakes

West (Hangzhou) East (Wuhan) Tangxun Lake Kunming Yuyuantan West (Huizhou) Slim West Taiye Dianchi Daming Yueya Ruyi South Xuanwu Qujiangchi Lotus Pond Baiyun Yinglong Caiyun

Reservoirs

Three Gorges Longtan Longyangxia Danjiangkou Sapung Thousand Islands Xinfengjiang Liujiaxia Changshou Yantan Jiangkou Guanting Miyun See also: List of dams and reservoirs in China

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