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Lager
Lager
is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures.[1] It may be pale, golden, amber, or dark. Pale lager
Pale lager
is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer. Well-known brands include Pilsner
Pilsner
Urquell, Miller, Stella Artois, Beck's, Brahma, Budweiser Budvar, Corona, Snow, Tsingtao, Singha, Kirin, Heineken, Carling, Foster's, and Carlsberg. As well as maturation in cold storage, lager is also distinguished by the use of the Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast. While it is possible to use lager yeast in a warm fermentation process, such as with American steam beer, the lack of a cold storage maturation phase precludes such beer from being classified as lager. On the other hand, German Altbier
Altbier
and Kölsch, brewed with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae top-fermenting yeast at a warm temperature, but with a cold storage finishing stage, are classified as obergäriges lagerbier (top-fermented lager beer).[2][3] Until the 19th century, the German word lagerbier (de) referred to all types of bottom-fermented, cool-conditioned beer, in normal strengths. In Germany
Germany
today, however, the term is mainly reserved for the prevalent lager beer styles of southern Germany,[4] "Helles" (pale), or a "Dunkel" (dark). Pilsner, a more heavily hopped pale lager, is most often known as "Pilsner", "Pilsener", or "Pils". Other lagers are Bock, Märzen, and Schwarzbier. In the United Kingdom, the term lager commonly refers specifically to pale lagers, many of which are derived from the Pilsner
Pilsner
style.[5]

Contents

1 History of lager brewing 2 Production process 3 Variations

3.1 Styles

3.1.1 Pale lager 3.1.2 Vienna
Vienna
Lager 3.1.3 Dark lager

4 See also 5 References

History of lager brewing[edit] While cold storage of beer, "lagering", in caves for example, was a common practice throughout the medieval period, bottom-fermenting yeast seems to have emerged as a hybridization in the early fifteenth century. In 2011, a team of researchers claimed to have discovered that Saccharomyces eubayanus is responsible for creating the hybrid yeast used to make lager.[6][7] Based on the numbers of breweries, lager brewing became the main form of brewing in Bohemia between 1860 and 1870, as shown in the following table:[8]

Year Total Breweries Lager
Lager
Breweries Lager
Lager
Percentage

1860 416 135 32.5%

1865 540 459 85.0%

1870 849 831 97.9%

In the 19th century, prior to the advent of refrigeration, German brewers would dig cellars for lagering and fill them with ice from nearby lakes and rivers, which would cool the beer during the summer months. To further protect the cellars from the summer heat, they would plant chestnut trees, which have spreading, dense canopies but shallow roots which would not intrude on the caverns. The practice of serving beer at these sites evolved into the modern beer garden.[9] The rise of lager was entwined with the development of refrigeration, as refrigeration made it possible to brew lager year-round (brewing in the summer had previously been banned in many locations across Germany), and efficient refrigeration also made it possible to brew lager in more places and keep it cold until serving.[10] The first large-scale refrigerated lagering tanks were developed for Gabriel Sedelmayr's Spaten Brewery
Spaten Brewery
in Munich by Carl von Linde
Carl von Linde
in 1870.[10] Production process[edit] Lager
Lager
beer uses a process of cool fermentation, followed by maturation in cold storage. The German word "Lager" means storeroom or warehouse. The yeast generally used with lager brewing is Saccharomyces pastorianus. It is a close relative of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast used for warm fermented ales. While prohibited by the German Reinheitsgebot
Reinheitsgebot
tradition, lagers in some countries often feature large proportions of adjuncts, usually rice or maize. Adjuncts
Adjuncts
entered United States
United States
brewing as a means of thinning out the body of U.S. beers, balancing the large quantities of protein introduced by six-row barley. Adjuncts
Adjuncts
are often used now in beermaking to introduce a large quantity of sugar, and thereby increase ABV, at a lower price than a formulation using an all-malt grain bill. There are however cases in which adjunct usage actually increases the cost of manufacture.[11] Variations[edit] The examples of lager beers produced worldwide vary greatly in flavor, color, composition and alcohol content. Styles[edit]

Pale lager

Helles Pilsner Märzen Bock

Dark lager

Dunkel Doppelbock Schwarzbier

Pale lager[edit]

Czech Pilsener
Pilsener
beer

Main article: Pale lager The most common lager beers in worldwide production are pale lagers. The flavor of these lighter lagers is usually mild, and the producers often recommend that the beers be served refrigerated. Pale lager
Pale lager
is a very pale to golden-colored lager with a well attenuated body and noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid 19th century when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques[12] back to the Spaten Brewery
Spaten Brewery
in Germany
Germany
and applied it to existing lagering brewing methods. This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll who produced in Bohemia (now part of the Czech Republic) the first Pilsner
Pilsner
beer— Pilsner
Pilsner
Urquell. The resulting pale colored, lean and stable beers were very successful and gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today.[13] Vienna
Vienna
Lager[edit] Distinctly amber colored Vienna
Vienna
lager was developed by brewer Anton Dreher in Vienna
Vienna
in 1841. Austrian brewers who emigrated to Mexico in the late 19th century took the style with them. Vienna
Vienna
lager is a reddish-brown or copper-colored beer with medium body and slight malt sweetness. The malt aroma and flavor may have a toasted character.[14] Despite their name, Vienna
Vienna
lagers are generally uncommon in continental Europe today but can be found frequently in North America, where it is often called pre-Prohibition style amber lager (often shortened to "pre-Prohibition lager"), as the style was popular in pre-1919 America.[citation needed] Notable examples include Samuel Adams Boston Lager, Great Lakes Eliot Ness, Devils Backbone Vienna Lager, Abita Amber, Yuengling
Yuengling
Traditional Lager, Dos Equis
Dos Equis
Ámbar and Negra Modelo. In Norway, the style has retained some of its former popularity, and is still brewed by most major breweries.[citation needed] Dark lager[edit]

German Dunkel
Dunkel
beer

See also: Dunkel
Dunkel
and Schwarzbier Lagers would likely have been mainly dark until the 1840s; pale lagers were not common until the later part of the 19th century when technological advances made them easier to produce.[15] Dark lagers typically range in color from amber to dark reddish brown, and may be termed Vienna, amber lager, dunkel, tmavé, or schwarzbier depending on region, color or brewing method. Tmavé is Czech for "dark", so is the term for a dark beer in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
- beers which are so dark as to be black are termed černé pivo, "black beer".[16] Dunkel
Dunkel
is German for "dark", so is the term for a dark beer in Germany. With alcohol concentrations of 4.5% to 6% by volume, dunkels are weaker than Doppelbocks, another traditional dark Bavarian beer. Dunkels were the original style of the Bavarian villages and countryside.[17] Schwarzbier, a much darker, almost black beer with a chocolate or licorice-like flavor, similar to stout, is mainly brewed in Saxony
Saxony
and Thuringia. In 2010 brewer Diageo
Diageo
which is part made up of the Irish brewer Guinness
Guinness
released their own Guinness
Guinness
Black Lager
Lager
brand. See also[edit]

Beer
Beer
portal

Beer
Beer
measurement, information on measuring the color, strength, and bitterness of beer Reinheitsgebot, an influential Bavarian and German brewing law

References[edit]

^ Briggs, D.E.; Boulton, C.A.; Brookes, P. A.; and Stevens, R. Brewing, 2004, CRC. ISBN 0-8493-2547-1 p. 5. ^ Jeff Alworth (2015). The Beer
Beer
Bible The Essential Beer
Beer
Lover's Guide. Workman Publishing. p. 234. ISBN 0-7611-8498-8.  ^ Ray Daniels (1998). Designing Great Beers The Ultimate Guide to Brewing Classic Beer
Beer
Styles. Brewers Publications. ISBN 978-0-9840756-1-4.  ^ "Willkommen beim Deutschen Brauer-Bund: Helles
Helles
Lager/Export". brauer-bund.de (in German). Retrieved September 3, 2015.  ^ "Pils is arguably the most successful beer style in the world". The German Beer
Beer
Institute. Archived from the original on 2011-10-19.  ^ "500 years ago, yeast's epic journey gave rise to lager beer". Geneticarchaeology.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ "Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108: 14539–14544. 2011-08-22. doi:10.1073/pnas.1105430108. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ Pasteur, Louis, Studies in Fermentation, 1879. English translation reprinted 2005 Beerbooks.com ISBN 0-9662084-2-0 p10. Citing Moniteur de la Brasserie, 23 April 1871. ^ Schäffer, Albert (2012-05-21). "120 Minuten sind nicht genug" [120 minutes aren't enough]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
(in German). Retrieved 2016-10-11.  ^ a b James Burke (1979). "Eat, Drink, and Be Merry". Connections. Episode 8. Event occurs at 41 (49 minutes). BBC.  ^ Bamforth, Charles (2003). Beer: Tap into the Art and Science of Brewing, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-515479-7.  ^ "The History of Lager".  ^ "LAGER BEER STYLES, European All-malt Pilsener". Beermonthclub.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ Gregory J. Noonan, Mikel Redman and Scott Russell; Seven Barrel Brewery Brewers' Handbook; G.W. Kent, Inc; ISBN 1-887167-00-5 (paperback, 1996) ^ "German Beer
Beer
Guide: Dunkel". www.germanbeerguide.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2010-05-26.  ^ "Pražský Most u Valšů at Beer
Beer
Culture". www.beerculture.org. Retrieved 2010-09-28.  ^ "Dunkel". German Beer
Beer
Guide. 2004-08-01. Archived from the original on 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 

v t e

Beer
Beer
styles

Ale Lager

Beer
Beer
in Belgium

Pilsner White or wheat beer Blonde or golden ale Hop-accentuated beers and India Pale Ale Lambic

Framboise Gueuze Kriek

Amber ales Trappist beers Abbey beers Tripel Flanders red ale Dubbel Oud bruin Brown Ale Scotch Ales Stout Quadrupel Saison Winter or Christmas beers Fruit beers (non-Lambic)

Beer
Beer
in Germany

Altbier Berliner Weisse Bock Dortmunder Export Dunkel Gose Helles Kellerbier Kölsch Märzen Pale lager Roggenbier Schwarzbier Smoked beer Wheat beer Zoigl

Beer
Beer
in the UK

Barley
Barley
wine Bitter Brown ale India pale ale Mild ale Old ale Porter Scotch ale Stout

Beer
Beer
in the US

Amber ale American Pale Ale American wild ale Cream ale Ice lager Kentucky common beer Pumpkin ale Steam beer

Other

Baltic porter Bière de Garde Copper ale Corn beer Grodziskie/Grätzer Hard soda Irish red ale Light beer Malt
Malt
beer Millet beer Pale ale Pilsner Rye beer Sahti Small beer Sour beer Vienna
Vienna
lager

See also

History of beer Beer
Beer
by region Beer
Beer
sommelier Adjuncts Low-alcohol beer Seasonal beer Trappist beer

Beer
Beer
portal

Authority control

.