Borphukan (Assamese: লাচিত বৰফুকন ) was a
Borphukan in the
Ahom kingdom known for his leadership
in the 1671
Battle of Saraighat
Battle of Saraighat that thwarted a drawn-out attempt by
Mughal forces under the command of
Ramsingh I to take back
Kamrup. He died about a year later due to illness.. He was
the inventor of guerilla tactic which he used against the mughals
2 Battle of Saraighat
3 Memorial & monuments
3.1 Lachit Divas
Borphukan Gold Medal (Best Cadet of NDA)
3.3 Mahabir Lachit Award
3.4 Lachit Borphukan's Maidam
4 See also
7 External links
Borphukan was the son of Momai Tamuli Borbarua, the first
Borbarua (or "Governor") of upper-
Assam and Commander-in-Chief of the
Ahom army) under Prataap Singha. He was born in Betioni, what is today
Golaghat district; to a family belonging to Chutiya ethnic group.
Borphukan was educated in the Humanities, Fralung Philosophy,
Indigenous Scriptures and military skills. He was given the
responsibility of serving as the Soladhara Barua (scarf-bearer) of the
Ahom Swargadeo, a position equivalent to a Private Secretaryship,
which was regarded as the first step for a career as an ambitious
diplomat or politician. Other offices held by Lachit before his
appointment as Phu - kan - lung (Phu = Great, Kan / Kon / Kun / = Man,
Lung = Dragon)or
Borphukan included Superintendent of the Stable of
Royal Horses (Ghora Barua), Commander of the strategic Simulgarh Fort
and Superintendent of the Royal Household Guards (Dolakaxaria Barua)
for King Chakradhwaj Singha.
Chakradhwaj Singha selected Lachit
Borphukan to lead the forces
of the Kingdom of Ahom to liberate
Guwahati from Mughal-occupation.
The King presented Lachit with a gold-hafted sword (Hengdang) and the
customary paraphernalia of distinction. Lachit raised the army and
preparations were completed by summer of 1667. Lachit recovered
Guwahati from the
Mughals and successfully defended it against the
Mughal forces during the Battle of Saraighat.
Borphukan died about a year after the victory at
to natural causes. His remains lie in rest at the Lachit Maidaam
constructed in 1672 by
Udayaditya Singha at Hoolungapara
16 km from Jorhat.
There is no portrait of Lachit Barphukan, but an old chronicle does
provide a physical description:
His face is broad, and resembles the moon in its full phase. No one is
capable of staring at his face.
Battle of Saraighat
Main article: Battle of Saraighat
35-feet-high statue of Ahom general Lachit
Borphukan and his army in
the middle of the Brahmaputra.
After being defeated by Lachit and his forces, the
Mughals army sailed
Brahmaputra river from
Assam advancing to
Guwahati. The Mughal Army under
Ram Singh I
Ram Singh I consisted of 30,000
infantry, 15,000 archers, 18,000 Turkish cavalry, 5,000 gunners and
over 1000 cannons besides a large flotilla of boats.
Ram Singh, the Mughal commander in chief failed to make any advance
against the Assamese army during the first phase of the war. An arrow
carrying a letter by Ram Singh telling that Lachit have been paid
rupees one lakh and he should evacuate
Guwahati was fired into the
Ahom camp, which eventually reached the Ahom king, Chakradhwaj
Singha. Although the king started to doubt Lachit's sincerity and
patriotism, his prime minister
Atan Buragohain convinced the King this
was just a trick against Lachit.
During the last stage of the Battle of Saraighat, when the Mughals
attacked by the river in Saraighat, the Assamese soldiers began to
lose their will to fight. Some elements retreated. Though Lachit was
seriously ill he boarded a boat and with seven boats advanced against
the Mughal fleet. He said: "If you (the soldiers) want to flee, flee.
The king has given me a task here and I will do it well. Let the
Mughals take me away. You report to the king that his general fought
well following his orders". His soldiers rallied and a desperate
battle ensured on the river Brahmaputra.
Lachit Barphukan was victorious. The
Mughals were forced to retreat
from Guwahati. The Mughal Commander-in-Chief, acknowledging his
defeat by the Ahom soldiers and their Commander-in-chief Lachit
Glory to the king! Glory to the counselors! Glory to the commanders!
Glory to the country! One single individual leads all the forces! Even
I, Ram Singh, being personally on the spot, have not been able to find
any loophole and an opportunity!
Memorial & monuments
Lachit Bust at National Defense Academy
On 24 November each year Lachit Divas (Lachit Day) is celebrated
Assam to commemorate the heroism of Lachit
the victory of the Assamese army at the Battle of Saraighat.
Lachit Divas is celebrated to promote the ideals of Lachit Borphukan
– the legendary general of Assam’s history. Sarbananda Sonowal,
the chief minister of
Assam took part in the Lachit Divas celebration
at the statue of Lachit
Brahmaputra riverfront on 24th
November 2017. Sonowal stated the first countrywide celebration of
‘Lachit Divas’ would take place in
New Delhi followed by state
capitals such as Hyderabad,
Kolkata in a phased manner.
Borphukan Gold Medal (Best Cadet of NDA)
The best passing out cadet of
National Defence Academy
National Defence Academy is conferred
Borphukan gold medal every year from 1999, after the then
Indian Army chief General V P Malik made the formal announcement about
its institution in
New Delhi on 24 April 1999 at an all-India level
national seminar & lecture programme organised at the initiative
of a Guwahati-based organisation founded by Assam's leading heritage
scholar and former top Indian bureaucrat Principal Bhabananda Deka and
columnist, storywriter, novelist Arnab Jan Deka. Assam
Foundation-India under the leadership of its founder-member and
director Principal Bhabananda Deka and executive director Arnab Jan
Deka were primarily instrumental in presenting the 17th century
Assamese Army General Lachit
Borphukan at the pan-Indian level for the
very first time by organizing the said seminar & lecture program
New Delhi on 24 April 1999. At the invitation of Arnab Jan Deka,
the incumbent Vice President of India Dr Krishna Kant, Indian Army
chief General V P Malik, India Government's Home Secretary B P Singh
Assam Foundation programme and delivered research based
lectures acknowledging Lachit's military prowess as army general.
Assam Tribune’ on its issue dated 25 April 1999 under a
caption "Heroic feats of Lachit recalled" reported from
New Delhi that
"A lecture on the life and times of Lachit Barphukan organized by
Assam Foundation involving leading political figures, historians,
bureaucrats and Army officers today sought to place the great Ahom
general at the centre-stage by bringing out his feats and deeds of
brevity outside of Assam. The Chief of the Army Staff, V P Malik, who
was present at the lecture today perhaps to remove the shortcoming of
historians, agreeing in principle, had instituted a Lachit Barphukan
prize at the National Defence Academy. The move, it was felt, will
promote awareness about Lachit among the officers of the Defence
services and inspire them to emulate his great example. Earlier, the
function was inaugurated by Vice President, K Kant who said that
leadership of Barphukan as a Ahom general was a great whatershed in
the political history of Assam. Addressing the function, the Union
Home Secretary B P Singh said that whenever great politician, military
leaders and patriots meet, great events happen of which the country
saw glimpses in Lachit's life." Almost all leading Indian
newspapers like Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Telegraph extensively
covered this event in their national editions published from New Delhi
on 25 April 1999. Press Trust of India (PTI) report published on
Hindustan Times and others also reported that
Assam chief minister
Prafulla Kumar Mahanta and governor S K Sinha "thanked the Army Chief
General V P Malik, for agreeing in principle to institute a ‘Lachit
Barphukan Prize’ at the
National Defence Academy
National Defence Academy saying this would
inspire defence personnel to emulate Barphukan's heroism and
sacrifices." The main organizer of the historic event Arnab Jan
Deka recalled the proceedings of the event leading to institution of
Lachit Barphukan Award and Statue at the India government's top army
school through a write-up published in 1 September 2016 issue of the
top Assamese literary journal ‘Prantik’, wherein the news
published in leading dailies like Hindustan Times, The Hindu and The
Assam Tribune regarding the event had been extensively quoted. The
announcement of institution of the award by Indian Army chief General
Malik on 25 April 1999 at the Delhi programme in presence of India's
vice-president and other dignitaries was the pivot to perpetuate the
memory of Lachit
Borphukan at the national level for the very first
time. Battalion Cadet Adjutant Aaditya Udupa, 126th NDA
Course,was awarded the medal for the Spring Term 2014 on 28 May 2014.
Mahabir Lachit Award
An award is presented to notable personalities of
Assam by Tai Ahom
Yuva Parishad. Some of recipients are : Lt. Gen (retd.) S.K.
Sinha (2012), Bhugeswar Baruah (2013), Capt. Jintu Gogoi -
posthumously (2014), Jadav Payang (2015), Dr. Pushpadhar Gogoi
and Dr. Hiran Gohain (2016). The award includes cash amount of
₹50,000.00, a citation and a traditional sword.
Lachit Borphukan's Maidam
Main article: Lachit Borphukan's Maidam
Lachit Borphukan's Maidam was constructed in memory of Lachit
Borphukan at Jorhat, Assam. It is 8 km far from the famous
Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary. Here last remains of
laid under this tomb (Maidam) constructed by
Singha in 1672.
Lachit Borphukan, a movie in Assamese language.
Lachit Bhawan inside Lachit maidam.
Lachit Barphukan's maidam at Hoolungapara, Jorhat
Statue of Lachit
National Defence Academy
National Defence Academy (NDA),
Lachit Borphukon's Statue near Church field, Tezpur
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Assam Tribune Online". Assamtribune.com.
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recalled". The Hindu.
^ Reporter, PTI (25 April 1999). "Lachit Barphukan a national hero,
says Krishan Kant". Hindustan Times.
^ Deka, Arnab Jan (1 Sep 2016). "Puner National Defence Academyt
Lachitar pratimurti aru xonar padak prawartanar aaror buranji".
Prantik. 35 (19): 21–22.
Borphukan gold medal award: NDA ideal platform for grooming
of cadets: Gogoi - Regional News Post". Newslivetv.com. 2013-02-18.
^ "The Sentinel". Sentinelassam.com. Archived from the original on
2016-03-03. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
^ "Lachit Award posthumously to Jintu Gogoi".
^ "Mahabir Lachit Award 2015 conferred on Jadav Payeng". Echo of
^ "Tributes to Bir Lachit; Govt confers Lachit Award to Dr Hiren
Gohain". G-Plus. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
^ "Lachit Borphukan's Maidam,
Jorhat Lachit Borphukan's Maidam
Jorhat Tourist Places". Holidayiq.com. Retrieved
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from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
^ Swati Mitra (2011).
Assam Travel Guide. Goodearth Publications.
pp. 102–. ISBN 978-93-80262-04-8. Retrieved 3 April
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