HOME
The Info List - La Rochelle


--- Advertisement ---



1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(French pronunciation: ​[la ʁɔ.ʃɛl]) is a city in western France
France
and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
department. The city is connected to the Île de Ré
Île de Ré
by a 2.9-kilometre (1.8-mile) bridge completed on 19 May 1988. Its harbour opens into a protected strait, the Pertuis d'Antioche.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Foundation 1.3 Plantagenet rule (1154–1224) 1.4 Knights Templar 1.5 Hundred Years' War 1.6 French Wars of Religion 1.7 Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions

1.7.1 Revolt of Soubise (1625) 1.7.2 Siege of La Rochelle
Siege of La Rochelle
(1627–1628)

1.8 La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and the New World 1.9 La Rochelle
La Rochelle
faience 1.10 19th century 1.11 Second World War

2 Geography

2.1 Geology 2.2 Climate

3 Population 4 Today 5 Tourism 6 Transport 7 Education 8 Landmarks 9 Notable people

9.1 Born in La Rochelle 9.2 Lived in La Rochelle

10 Sport 11 Twin towns – Sister cities 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of La Rochelle Antiquity[edit]

Coastline around La Rochelle
La Rochelle
in Roman times.

The area of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was occupied in antiquity by the Gallic tribe of the Santones, who gave their name to the nearby region of Saintonge and the city of Saintes.[citation needed] The Romans subsequently occupied the area, where they developed salt production along the coast as well as wine production, which was then re-exported throughout the Empire.[citation needed] Roman villas have been found at Saint-Éloi and at Les Minimes, as well as salt evaporation ponds dating from the same period. Foundation[edit] La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was founded during the 10th century and became an important harbour in the 12th century.[citation needed] The establishment of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
as a harbour was a consequence of the victory of Duke Guillaume X of Aquitaine over Isambert de Châtelaillon
Châtelaillon
in 1130 and the subsequent destruction of his harbour of Châtelaillon.[1] In 1137, Guillaume X to all intents and purposes made La Rochelle
La Rochelle
a free port and gave it the right to establish itself as a commune. Fifty years later Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
upheld the communal charter promulgated by her father, and for the first time in France, a city mayor was appointed for La Rochelle, Guillaume de Montmirail. Guillaume was assisted in his responsibilities by 24 municipal magistrates, and 75 notables who had jurisdiction over the inhabitants. Under the communal charter, the city obtained many privileges, such as the right to mint its own coins, and to operate some businesses free of royal taxes, factors which would favour the development of the entrepreneurial middle-class (bourgeoisie).[citation needed] Plantagenet rule (1154–1224)[edit]

Left image: Vauclair castle
Vauclair castle
was built by the English in 1185. Right image: Remnants of Vauclair castle, Place de Verdun, La Rochelle.

Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet in 1152, who became king of England as Henry II in 1154, thus putting La Rochelle
La Rochelle
under Plantagenet rule, until Louis VIII captured it in the 1224 Siege of La Rochelle. During the Plantagenet control of the city in 1185, Henry II had the Vauclair castle built, remains of which are still visible in the Place de Verdun.[2]

Left image: Cour de la Commanderie in La Rochelle, ancient location of the Templars' headquarters. Right image: Original Templar cross, Cour de la Commanderie.

The main activities of the city were in the areas of maritime commerce and trade, especially with England, the Netherlands and Spain. In 1196, a wealthy bourgeois named Alexandre Auffredi
Alexandre Auffredi
sent a fleet of seven ships to Africa to tap the riches of the continent. He went bankrupt and went into poverty as he waited for the return of his ships, but they finally returned seven years later filled with riches. Knights Templar[edit] The Knights Templar
Knights Templar
had a strong presence in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
since before the time of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who exempted them from duties and gave them mills in her 1139 Charter.[3] La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was for the Templars their largest base on the Atlantic Ocean,[4] and where they stationed their main fleet.[5] From La Rochelle, they were able to act as intermediaries in trade between England and the Mediterranean.[4] A popular thread of conspiracy theory originating with Holy Blood, Holy Grail has it that the Templars used a fleet of 18 ships which had brought Jacques de Molay
Jacques de Molay
from Cyprus
Cyprus
to La Rochelle
La Rochelle
to escape arrest in France. The fleet allegedly left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307.[6][7] Hundred Years' War[edit] During the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
in 1360, following the Treaty of Bretigny La Rochelle
La Rochelle
again came under the rule of the English monarch. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
however expelled the English in June 1372, following the naval Battle of La Rochelle, between Castilian-French and English fleets. The French and Spanish decisively defeated the English, securing French control of the Channel for the first time since the Battle of Sluys
Battle of Sluys
in 1340. The naval battle of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was one of the first cases of the use of handguns on warships, which were deployed by the French and Spanish against the English.[8] Having recovered freedom, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
refused entry to Du Guesclin, until Charles V recognized the privileges of the city in November 1372. In 1402, the French adventurer Jean de Béthencourt
Jean de Béthencourt
left La Rochelle and sailed along the coast of Morocco
Morocco
to conquer the Canary islands.[9] Until the 15th century, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was to be the largest French harbour on the Atlantic coast, dealing mainly in wine, salt and cheese. French Wars of Religion[edit] Main article: French Wars of Religion

Left image: Remains of Reformation iconoclasm, Clocher Saint-Barthélémy, La Rochelle. Right image: Remains of iconoclasm, Eglise Saint-Sauveur, La Rochelle.

During the Renaissance, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
adopted Protestant ideas. Calvinism
Calvinism
started to be propagated in the region of La Rochelle, resulting in its suppression through the establishment of Cours présidiaux tribunals by Henry II. An early result of this was the burning at the stake of two "heretics" in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
in 1552.[10] Conversions to Calvinism
Calvinism
however continued, due to a change of religious beliefs, but also to a desire for political independence on the part of the local elite, and a popular opposition to royal expenses and requisitions in the building projects to fortify the coast against England.[10] On the initiative of Gaspard de Coligny, the Calvinists attempted to colonize the New World
New World
to find a new home for their religion, with the likes of Pierre Richier
Pierre Richier
and Jean de Léry. After the short-lived attempt of France
France
Antarctique, they failed to establish a colony in Brazil, and finally resolved to make a stand in La Rochelle itself.[11] Pierre Richier
Pierre Richier
became "Ministre de l'église de la Rochelle" ("Minister of the Church of La Rochelle") when he returned from Brazil
Brazil
in 1558, and was able to considerably increase the Huguenot
Huguenot
presence in La Rochelle, from a small base of about 50 souls who had been secretly educated in the Lutheran
Lutheran
faith by Charles de Clermont the previous year. He has been described, by Lancelot Voisin de La Popelinière, as "le père de l'église de La Rochelle" ("The Father of the Church of La Rochelle").

Protestant "Grand Temple" of La Rochelle, built on the Place du Château, modern Place de Verdun, in 1600–1603. Accidentally burned down in 1687.

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was the first French city, with Rouen, to experience iconoclastic riots in 1560, at the time of the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy, before the riots spread to many other cities.[12] Further cases of Reformation iconoclasm
Reformation iconoclasm
were recorded in La Rochelle from 30 May 1562, following the Massacre of Vassy. Protestants pillaged churches, destroyed images and statues, and also assassinated 13 Catholic priests in the Tower of the Lantern.[13] From 1568, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
became a centre for the Huguenots, and the city declared itself an independent Reformed Republic on the model of Geneva.[14] During the subsequent period, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
became an entity that has been described as a "state within a state".[15] This led to numerous conflicts with the Catholic central government. The city supported the Protestant movement of William of Orange in the Netherlands, and from La Rochelle
La Rochelle
the Dutch under Louis of Nassau
Louis of Nassau
and the Sea Beggars
Sea Beggars
were able to raid Spanish shipping.[16][17] In 1571 the city of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
suffered a naval blockade by the French Navy
French Navy
under the command of Filippo di Piero Strozzi
Filippo di Piero Strozzi
and Antoine Escalin des Aimars, a former protagonist of the Franco-Ottoman alliance.[18] The city was finally besieged during the Siege of La Rochelle (1572-1573) during the French Wars of Religion, following the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
in August 1572, and occurred at the same time as other sieges of Protestant cities such as the Siege of Sancerre. The conflict ended with the 1573 Peace of La Rochelle, which restricted the Protestant worship to the three cities of Montauban, Nîmes
Nîmes
and La Rochelle. Pierre Richier
Pierre Richier
died in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
in 1580. Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions[edit] Main article: Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
in 1628. Detail of Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
Le siège de La Rochelle.

Under Henry IV, and under the regency of his son Louis XIII, the city enjoyed a certain freedom and prosperity. However, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
entered into conflict with the authority of the adult Louis, beginning with a 1622 revolt.[19] A fleet from La Rochelle
La Rochelle
fought a royal fleet of 35 ships under Charles, Duke of Guise, in front of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, but was defeated on 27 October 1622, leading to the signing of the Peace of Montpellier.[19] Revolt of Soubise (1625)[edit] Main article: Capture of Ré island In 1625, a new Huguenot
Huguenot
revolt led by Duke Henri de Rohan
Henri de Rohan
and his brother Soubise led to the Capture of Ré island
Capture of Ré island
by the forces of Louis XIII. Soubise conquered large parts of the Atlantic coast, but the supporting fleet of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was finally defeated by Montmorency, as was Soubise with 3,000 when he led a counter-attack against the royal troops who had landed on the island of Ré.[20] Siege of La Rochelle
Siege of La Rochelle
(1627–1628)[edit] Main article: Siege of La Rochelle

Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881.

Following these events, Louis XIII
Louis XIII
and his Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu declared the suppression of the Huguenot
Huguenot
revolt the first priority of the kingdom. The English came to the support of La Rochelle, starting an Anglo-French War, by sending a major expedition under the Duke of Buckingham. The expedition however ended in a fiasco for England with the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Meanwhile, cannon shots were exchanged on 10 September 1627 between La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and Royal troops. This resulted in the Siege of La Rochelle
Siege of La Rochelle
in which Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
blockaded the city for 14 months, until the city surrendered and lost its mayor and its privileges.

Expulsion from La Rochelle
La Rochelle
of 300 Protestant families in November 1661, Jan Luiken
Jan Luiken
(1649–1712).

The remaining Protestants of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
suffered new persecutions, when 300 families were again expelled in November 1661, the year Louis XIV came to power. The reason for the expulsions was that Catholics deeply resented a degree of revival of Protestant ownership of property within the city.[21] The growing persecution of the Huguenots
Huguenots
culminated with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Nantes
by Louis XIV in 1685. Many Huguenots emigrated, founding such cities as New Rochelle
New Rochelle
in the vicinity of today's New York in 1689. La Rochelle, and the siege of 1627 form much of the backdrop to the later chapters of Alexandre Dumas, père's classic novel, The Three Musketeers. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and the New World[edit] Further information: France-Americas relations

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
slave ship Le Saphir ex-voto, 1741.

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
harbour in 1762. Joseph Vernet. Musée de la Marine.

Because of its western location, which saved days of sailing time, La Rochelle enjoyed successful fishing in the western Atlantic and trading with the New World, which served to counterbalance the disadvantage of not being at the mouth of a river (useful for shipping goods to and from the interior). Its Protestant ship-owning and merchant class prospered in the 16th century until the Wars of Religion devastated the city.[22] The period following the wars was a prosperous one, marked by intense exchanges with the New World
New World
(Nouvelle France
France
in Canada, and the Antilles). La Rochelle
La Rochelle
became very active in triangular trade with the New World, dealing in the slave trade with Africa, sugar trade with plantations of the West Indies, and fur trade with Canada. This was a period of high artistic, cultural and architectural achievements for the city. Robert de La Salle departed from La Rochelle, France, on 24 July 1684, with the aim of setting up a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi, eventually establishing Fort Saint Louis in Texas.[23] The city eventually lost its trade and prominence during the decades spanning the Seven Years' War, the French revolution
French revolution
and the Napoleonic Wars. During that period France
France
lost many of the territorial possessions which it had had in the new World, and also saw a strong decrease in its sea power in the continuing conflicts with Britain, ultimately diminishing the role of such harbours as La Rochelle. After abolitionist movements led by such people as Samuel de Missy, the slave trade of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
ended with the onset of the French Revolution and the war with England in the 1790s, the last La Rochelle slave ship, the Saint-Jacques being captured in 1793 in the Gulf of Guinea.[24] In February 1794, the National Assembly legislated the Universal Emancipation decree, which effectively freed all colonial slaves. In 1809, the Battle of the Basque Roads
Battle of the Basque Roads
took place near La Rochelle, in which a British fleet defeated the French Atlantic Fleet. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
faience[edit]

Faience of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
with Chinese figures, 18th century. Musée d'Orbigny-Bernon.

Further information: French porcelain
French porcelain
and Orientalism in early modern France La Rochelle
La Rochelle
became one of the French centres for faience in the end of the 18th century.[25][26] Bernard Palissy
Bernard Palissy
was born in the region and had some bearing in this development. During the 18th century, its style was greatly influenced by Chinese themes and Japanese Kakiemon-type designs.[27][28] Many of these ceramics can be viewed at the Musée d'Orbigny-Bernon.

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
faience, 18th century.

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
faience with Chinese decorations.

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
faience pot, 18th century.

19th century[edit] In 1864, the harbour of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(area of the "Bassin à flot" behind the water locks), was the site for the maiden dive experiments of the first mechanically-powered submarine in the World, Plongeur, commanded by Marie-Joseph-Camille Doré, a native of La Rochelle. Second World War[edit] Further information: Allied siege of La Rochelle

U-boat pens in the harbour of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(2007).

During the Second World War, Germany
Germany
established a submarine naval base at La Pallice (the main port of La Rochelle). A German stronghold, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
was the last French city to be liberated at the end of the war. The Allied siege of La Rochelle
Allied siege of La Rochelle
took place between 12 September 1944 and 7 May 1945. The stronghold, including the islands of Ré and Oléron, was held by 20,000 German troops under a German vice-admiral Ernst Schirlitz. Following negotiations by the French Navy
French Navy
frigate captain Meyer, the general German capitulation occurred on 7 May and French troops entered La Rochelle on 8 May. The submarine base became the setting for parts of the movie Das Boot. The U-boat scenes in Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
were also shot in La Rochelle. The base is featured in the computer game Commandos 2: Men of Courage. Geography[edit] Geology[edit]

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
seen from Spot Satellite

The limestone cliffs around La Rochelle
La Rochelle
reveal the Jurassic
Jurassic
geology of the area

The bedrock of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and surrounding areas is composed of layers of limestone dating back to the Sequanian stage (upper Oxfordian stage) of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period (circa 160 million years ago), when a large part of France
France
was submerged. Many of these layers are visible in the white cliffs that border the sea, which contain many small marine fossils. Layers of thick white rock, formed during period of relatively warm seas, alternate with highly fragile layers containing sand and remains of mud, formed during colder periods, and with layers containing various corals, that were formed during warmer, tropical times.[29] The limestone thus formed is traditionally used as the main building material throughout the region. The area of La Pointe du Chay
La Pointe du Chay
about 5 km (3 mi) from La Rochelle is a popular cliff area for leisurely geological surveys. Climate[edit] Under Köppen’s climate classification, La Rochelle
La Rochelle
features an Oceanic climate. Although at the same latitude as Montreal
Montreal
in Canada or the Kuril islands
Kuril islands
in Russia, the area is quite mild throughout the year due to the influence of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
waters, and insolation is remarkably high, in fact, the highest in Western France
France
including sea resorts much further in the south such as Biarritz. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
seldom experiences very cold or very warm weather. These specific conditions – summer dry and sunny, winter mild and wet – have led to the establishment of a Mediterranean-type vegetation cohabiting with more continental and oceanic types of vegetation.

Climate data for La Rochelle, France
France
(1981–2010 averages, extremes 1955–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.3 (61.3) 20.2 (68.4) 25.0 (77) 29.1 (84.4) 33.1 (91.6) 37.4 (99.3) 39.0 (102.2) 38.2 (100.8) 34.2 (93.6) 30.0 (86) 22.5 (72.5) 18.7 (65.7) 39.0 (102.2)

Average high °C (°F) 9.1 (48.4) 10.2 (50.4) 13.0 (55.4) 15.5 (59.9) 19.1 (66.4) 22.3 (72.1) 24.4 (75.9) 24.5 (76.1) 22.1 (71.8) 18.1 (64.6) 13.0 (55.4) 9.7 (49.5) 16.8 (62.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.1 (44.8) 9.6 (49.3) 11.8 (53.2) 15.4 (59.7) 18.5 (65.3) 20.5 (68.9) 20.5 (68.9) 18.1 (64.6) 14.7 (58.5) 10.0 (50) 7.1 (44.8) 13.4 (56.1)

Average low °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 4.1 (39.4) 6.3 (43.3) 8.1 (46.6) 11.7 (53.1) 14.6 (58.3) 16.7 (62.1) 16.5 (61.7) 14.0 (57.2) 11.3 (52.3) 7.1 (44.8) 4.5 (40.1) 9.9 (49.8)

Record low °C (°F) −11.5 (11.3) −13.6 (7.5) −6.6 (20.1) −1.2 (29.8) 2.6 (36.7) 5.4 (41.7) 9.6 (49.3) 8.8 (47.8) 5.5 (41.9) −0.4 (31.3) −5.1 (22.8) −9.5 (14.9) −13.6 (7.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.0 (2.913) 56.8 (2.236) 53.9 (2.122) 64.9 (2.555) 55.8 (2.197) 39.1 (1.539) 43.9 (1.728) 45.0 (1.772) 60.3 (2.374) 91.9 (3.618) 93.5 (3.681) 87.9 (3.461) 767.0 (30.197)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.9 9.1 9.7 10.3 9.3 6.7 6.6 6.3 7.4 11.9 12.4 12.5 114.1

Average snowy days 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.9 3.7

Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 80 78 79 77 76 77 79 83 86 88 81.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 84.3 114.6 165.8 196.8 231.3 261.2 271.0 259.6 212.1 140.5 92.3 76.3 2,105.5

Source #1: Meteo France[30][31][32]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days 1961–1990)[33]

Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1821 12,327 —    

1831 14,629 +18.7%

1836 14,857 +1.6%

1841 16,720 +12.5%

1846 17,465 +4.5%

1851 16,507 −5.5%

1856 16,175 −2.0%

1861 18,904 +16.9%

1866 18,710 −1.0%

1872 19,506 +4.3%

1876 19,583 +0.4%

1881 22,464 +14.7%

1886 23,829 +6.1%

1891 26,808 +12.5%

1896 28,376 +5.8%

1901 31,559 +11.2%

1906 33,858 +7.3%

1911 36,371 +7.4%

1921 39,770 +9.3%

1926 41,521 +4.4%

1931 45,043 +8.5%

1936 47,737 +6.0%

1945 48,923 +2.5%

1954 58,799 +20.2%

1962 66,590 +13.3%

1968 73,347 +10.1%

1975 75,367 +2.8%

1982 75,840 +0.6%

1990 76,094 +0.3%

1999 76,584 +0.6%

2008 75,822 −1.0%

Today[edit]

Panoramic picture of the harbour towers at night.

The city has beautifully maintained its past architecture, making it one of the most picturesque and historically rich cities on the Atlantic coast. This helped develop a strong tourism industry. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
possesses a commercial deep water harbour, named La Pallice. The large submarine pens built during World War II still stand there, although they are not in use. La Pallice is equipped with oil unloading equipment, and mainly handles tropical wood. It is also the location of the fishing fleet, which was moved from the old harbour in the centre of the city during the 1980s. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
also maintains strong links with the sea by harbouring the largest marina for pleasure boats in Europe at Les Minimes, and a rather rich boat-building industry which includes Amel Yachts.[34] La Rochelle
La Rochelle
has a very big aquarium, and a small botanical garden (the Jardin des plantes de La Rochelle). The Calypso, the ship used by Jacques-Yves Cousteau
Jacques-Yves Cousteau
as a mobile laboratory for oceanography, and which was sunk after a collision in the port of Singapore
Singapore
(1996) is now on display (sadly rotting) at the Maritime Museum of La Rochelle. One of the biggest music festivals in France, "FrancoFolies", takes place each summer in La Rochelle, where Francophone musicians come together for a week of concerts and celebration. 2004 marked the 20th anniversary of this event. The French Socialist Party has held its annual summer convention (Université d'été) in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
since 1983. La Rochelle
La Rochelle
is the setting for the best-selling series of French language textbooks in the UK, titled Tricolore. The central character, Martine Dhome,[35] lives with her family at the fictional address of 12, rue de la République. Tourism[edit]

Harbour towers at night

La Rochelle's main feature is the "Vieux Port" ("Old Harbour"), which is at the heart of the city, picturesque and lined with seafood restaurants. The city walls are open to an evening promenade. The old town has been well preserved. From the harbour, boating trips can be taken to the Île d'Aix
Île d'Aix
and Fort Boyard (home to the internationally famous TV show of the same name). Nearby Île de Ré
Île de Ré
is a short drive to the North. The countryside of the surrounding Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
is very rural and full of history (Saintes). To the North is Venise Verte, a marshy area of country, criss-crossed with tiny canals and a popular resort for inland boating. Inland is the country of Cognac and Pineau. The nearby Île de Ré
Île de Ré
is accessible via a bridge from La Rochelle.[36] Transport[edit] La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and its region are served by the international La Rochelle - Île de Ré
Île de Ré
Airport, which has progressively developed over the last 5 years. Currently, it is the largest airport in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Nouvelle-Aquitaine
region. The train station Gare de La Rochelle offers connections to Bordeaux, Nantes, Poitiers, Paris
Paris
and several regional destinations. OFP La Rochelle is a freight railway serving the port.[37] La Rochelle
La Rochelle
launched one of the first successful bicycle sharing systems in 1974.[citation needed] Education[edit] The city has more than 10,000 students each year. The University of La Rochelle was established in 1993. Together with the École supérieure de commerce de la rochelle ( La Rochelle
La Rochelle
Business School), they are the famous institutions of higher education of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(7,000 and 3,500 students respectively). Landmarks[edit]

The Tour de la Lanterne in La Rochelle, fully under scaffolding. January 1, 2015

Orbigny-Bernon Museum Muséum d'histoire naturelle de La Rochelle Saint-Louis Cathedral

Notable people[edit] Born in La Rochelle[edit]

François-Maurice Allotte de La Fuÿe, numismatist Antoine Albeau, windsurfer Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, politician and revolutionary Aimé Bonpland, botanist William-Adolphe Bouguereau, painter Jean-Loup Chrétien, astronaut John Theophilus Desaguliers, physician and mathematician Guy-Victor Duperre, admiral Jean Duvignaud, writer Eugène Fromentin, writer and painter Nicolas Gargot de La Rochette, governor of Placentia Bernard Giraudeau, actor and director Jean Guiton, mayor during the Siege of La Rochelle Grégory Havret, professional golfer Guy Laroche, fashion designer Samuel de Missy, abolitionist Fabrice Neaud, artist and cartoonist Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Nougaret (1742–1823), writer, playwright Victor Prevost, photographer Paul Ramadier, politician and member of the French Resistance René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, scientist Winshluss, artist and cartoonist Etienne Trudeau, ancestor of Canadian Prime Ministers Pierre Trudeau and Justin Trudeau Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches, German Imperial Field Marshal Michel Boudrot (Boudreau, Boudreaux) Judge and Lieutenant General, Lieutenant-général et juge en chef de Port-Royal, Governor General, laboureur, lieutenand general civil et criminel e Port Royal., Lieutenant général en Acadie, Lt. General Of Port Royal

Lived in La Rochelle[edit]

Colette Besson, sprinter Saint Louis de Montfort Alcide d'Orbigny, botanist Marie Louise Trichet Georges Simenon, author Jean-Paul Sartre

Sport[edit] Stade Rochelais
Stade Rochelais
are a professional rugby union team in the Top 14 league. They play their home matches at Stade Marcel-Deflandre. Since 1991 the city has annually hosted the Marathon de La Rochelle, the second most popular marathon of France
France
and an international-level race which featured 10,000 participants in 2010.[38] Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France La Rochelle
La Rochelle
is twinned with:[39]

New Rochelle, New York, United States, since 1910 Acre, Israel, since 1972 Petrozavodsk, Karelia, Russia, since 1973 Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, since 1988 Essaouira, Morocco, since 1999 Santiago de Figueiró, Portugal, since 2003

See also[edit]

Kingdom of France
France
portal France
France
portal

Communes of the Charente
Charente
department

References[edit]

^ Reformation in La Rochelle: tradition and change in early modern Europe by Judith Chandler Pugh Meyer p.19 [1] ^ Bradshaw's illustrated travellers' hand book in [afterw.] to France by George Bradshaw [2] ^ Malcolm Barber. The new knighthood. Google Books. p. 26. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ a b The history of the Knights Templars by Charles Greenstreet Addison, p.15] ^ Evelyn Lord. The Knights Templar
Knights Templar
in Britain. Google Books. p. 120,155. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ Karen Rall. The Templars and the Grail. Google Books. p. 26. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ Tim Wallace-Murphy. Templars in America. Google Books. p. 17. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ Bernard Brodie. From crossbow to H-bomb. Google Books. p. 64. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ Canary Islands by Sarah Andrews, Josephine Quintero p.25 ^ a b City on the ocean sea: La Rochelle, 1530–1650 by Kevin C. Robbins p.120ff ^ Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.133 [3] ^ War Against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin by Carlos M. N. Eire p.279 ^ Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.148 [4] ^ Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.149 [5] ^ Richard MacKenney. "The City State, 1500-1700" Humanities Press International, 1989. (originally released by the University of Michigan) ISBN 0391035983 p 13 ^ The rise and fall of Renaissance
Renaissance
France, 1483–1610 by Robert Jean Knecht p.355 [6] ^ The Counter-Reformation and price revolution, 1559–1610 Richard Bruce Wernham p.288 [7] ^ Memoirs of Maximilian de Béthune, duke of Sully. Google Books. p. 20. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ a b Denis Vaugeois. Champlain. Google Books. p. 22. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Page 268 [8] ^ Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life ..., Volume 2004 Neil Kamil p.584 ^ Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. Walker and Co., New York, 1997 pp. 51–52. ISBN 0-8027-1326-2. ^ James E. Bruseth. From a watery grave. Google Books. Retrieved 15 April 2010.  ^ The French Atlantic: Travels in Culture and History by Bill Marshall p.59-60 ^ Tin Enamelled Pottery Edwin Atlee Barber p.23 ^ The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts, Volume 1 by Gordon Campbell p.19 ^ "Heavily potted plates with crude red and green Chinese figures were made in large numbers " in Collecting European delft and faience Diana Imber, Praeger, 1968, p.60 ^ "The industry only really started to flourish in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
towards the middle of the 18th century (...) new everyday vessels were decorated "au petit feu" with flowers and Chinese figures then in fashion." Cahiers de la céramique du verre et des arts du feu, Issues 41–45 Musée national de céramique (France). Société des amis du Musée national de céramique, 1968 ^ La Rochelle
La Rochelle
touristic board at the "Pointe du Chay" ^ "Données climatiques de la station de La Rochelle" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ "Climat Poitou-Charentes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ " La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(17)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: La Rochelle
La Rochelle
Aérodrome (17) - altitude 22m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2014.  ^ http://www.sudouest.fr/2018/01/10/portes-ouvertes-chez-amel-pour-recruter-4097597-1485.php ^ "A textbook love affair?". BBC News Magazine. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2013-04-21.  ^ "How to reach us? Destination Ile de Ré". www.holidays-iledere.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ "Actualité Transport > Le port de La Rochelle
La Rochelle
lance ses trains avec ECR". Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ Vazel, Pierre-Jean (2011-11-28). Komen breaks La Rochelle
La Rochelle
record with 2:07:13. IAAF. Retrieved on 2011-11-30. ^ "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 

INSEE Boardman, John The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, Princeton 1993 ISBN 0-691-03680-2

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of La Rochelle External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for La Rochelle.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to La Rochelle.

City council website

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
department

Agudelle Aigrefeuille-d'Aunis Allas-Bocage Allas-Champagne Anais Andilly Angliers Angoulins Annepont Annezay Antezant-la-Chapelle Arces Archiac Archingeay Ardillières Ars-en-Ré Arthenac Arvert Asnières-la-Giraud Aujac Aulnay Aumagne Authon-Ébéon Avy Aytré Bagnizeau Balanzac Ballans Ballon La Barde Barzan Bazauges Beaugeay Beauvais-sur-Matha Bedenac Belluire Benon Bercloux Bernay-Saint-Martin Berneuil Beurlay Bignay Biron Blanzac-lès-Matha Blanzay-sur-Boutonne Bois Le Bois-Plage-en-Ré Boisredon Bords Boresse-et-Martron Boscamnant Bougneau Bouhet Bourcefranc-le-Chapus Bourgneuf Boutenac-Touvent Bran La Brée-les-Bains Bresdon Breuil-la-Réorte Breuillet Breuil-Magné Brie-sous-Archiac Brie-sous-Matha Brie-sous-Mortagne Brives-sur-Charente Brizambourg La Brousse Burie Bussac-Forêt Bussac-sur-Charente Cabariot Celles Cercoux Chadenac Chaillevette Chambon Chamouillac Champagnac Champagne Champagnolles Champdolent Chaniers Chantemerle-sur-la-Soie La Chapelle-des-Pots Charron Chartuzac Le Château-d'Oléron Châtelaillon-Plage Chatenet Chaunac Le Chay Chenac-Saint-Seurin-d'Uzet Chepniers Chérac Cherbonnières Chermignac Chervettes Chevanceaux Chives Cierzac Ciré-d'Aunis Clam Clavette Clérac Clion La Clisse La Clotte Coivert Colombiers Consac Contré Corignac Corme-Écluse Corme-Royal La Couarde-sur-Mer Coulonges Courant Courcelles Courcerac Courçon Courcoury Courpignac Coux Cozes Cramchaban Cravans Crazannes Cressé Croix-Chapeau La Croix-Comtesse Dampierre-sur-Boutonne Dœuil-sur-le-Mignon Dolus-d'Oléron Dompierre-sur-Charente Dompierre-sur-Mer Le Douhet Échebrune Échillais Écoyeux Écurat Les Éduts Les Églises-d'Argenteuil L'Éguille Épargnes Esnandes Les Essards Essouvert Étaules Expiremont Fenioux Ferrières Fléac-sur-Seugne Floirac La Flotte Fontaine-Chalendray Fontaines-d'Ozillac Fontcouverte Fontenet Forges Le Fouilloux Fouras La Frédière Geay Gémozac La Genétouze Genouillé Germignac Gibourne Le Gicq Givrezac Les Gonds Gourvillette Grandjean Le Grand-Village-Plage La Grève-sur-Mignon Grézac La Gripperie-Saint-Symphorien Le Gua Le Gué-d'Alleré Guitinières Haimps Hiers-Brouage L'Houmeau Île-d'Aix La Jard Jarnac-Champagne La Jarne La Jarrie La Jarrie-Audouin Jazennes Jonzac Juicq Jussas Lagord La Laigne Landes Landrais Léoville Loire-les-Marais Loiré-sur-Nie Loix Longèves Lonzac Lorignac Loulay Louzignac Lozay Luchat Lussac Lussant Macqueville Marans Marennes Marignac Marsais Marsilly Massac Matha Les Mathes Mazeray Mazerolles Médis Mérignac Meschers-sur-Gironde Messac Meursac Meux Migré Migron Mirambeau Moëze Mons Montendre Montguyon Montils Montlieu-la-Garde Montpellier-de-Médillan Montroy Moragne Mornac-sur-Seudre Mortagne-sur-Gironde Mortiers Mosnac Le Mung Muron Nachamps Nancras Nantillé Néré Neuillac Neulles Neuvicq Neuvicq-le-Château Nieul-lès-Saintes Nieulle-sur-Seudre Nieul-le-Virouil Nieul-sur-Mer Les Nouillers Nuaillé-d'Aunis Nuaillé-sur-Boutonne Orignolles Ozillac Paillé Péré Pérignac Périgny Pessines Le Pin Pisany Plassac Plassay Polignac Pommiers-Moulons Pons Pont-l'Abbé-d'Arnoult Port-d'Envaux Port-des-Barques Les Portes-en-Ré Pouillac Poursay-Garnaud Préguillac Prignac Puilboreau Puy-du-Lac Puyravault Puyrolland Réaux-sur-Trèfle Rétaud Rioux Rivedoux-Plage Rochefort La Rochelle Romazières Romegoux La Ronde Rouffiac Rouffignac Royan Sablonceaux Saint-Agnant Saint-Aigulin Saint-André-de-Lidon Saint-Augustin Saint-Bonnet-sur-Gironde Saint-Bris-des-Bois Saint-Césaire Saint-Christophe Saint-Ciers-Champagne Saint-Ciers-du-Taillon Saint-Clément-des-Baleines Saint-Coutant-le-Grand Saint-Crépin Saint-Cyr-du-Doret Saint-Denis-d'Oléron Saint-Dizant-du-Bois Saint-Dizant-du-Gua Sainte-Colombe Sainte-Gemme Sainte-Lheurine Sainte-Marie-de-Ré Sainte-Même Sainte-Radegonde Sainte-Ramée Saintes Sainte-Soulle Saint-Eugène Saint-Félix Saint-Fort-sur-Gironde Saint-Froult Saint-Genis-de-Saintonge Saint-Georges-Antignac Saint-Georges-de-Didonne Saint-Georges-de-Longuepierre Saint-Georges-des-Agoûts Saint-Georges-des-Coteaux Saint-Georges-d'Oléron Saint-Georges-du-Bois Saint-Germain-de-Lusignan Saint-Germain-de-Marencennes Saint-Germain-de-Vibrac Saint-Germain-du-Seudre Saint-Grégoire-d'Ardennes Saint-Hilaire-de-Villefranche Saint-Hilaire-du-Bois Saint-Hippolyte Saint-Jean-d'Angély Saint-Jean-d'Angle Saint-Jean-de-Liversay Saint-Julien-de-l'Escap Saint-Just-Luzac Saint-Laurent-de-la-Barrière Saint-Laurent-de-la-Prée Saint-Léger Saint-Loup Saint-Maigrin Saint-Mandé-sur-Brédoire Saint-Mard Saint-Martial Saint-Martial-de-Mirambeau Saint-Martial-de-Vitaterne Saint-Martial-sur-Né Saint-Martin-d'Ary Saint-Martin-de-Coux Saint-Martin-de-Juillers Saint-Martin-de-Ré Saint-Médard Saint-Médard-d'Aunis Saint-Nazaire-sur-Charente Saint-Ouen-d'Aunis Saint-Ouen-la-Thène Saint-Palais-de-Négrignac Saint-Palais-de-Phiolin Saint-Palais-sur-Mer Saint-Pardoult Saint-Pierre-d'Amilly Saint-Pierre-de-Juillers Saint-Pierre-de-l'Isle Saint-Pierre-d'Oléron Saint-Pierre-du-Palais Saint-Porchaire Saint-Quantin-de-Rançanne Saint-Rogatien Saint-Romain-de-Benet Saint-Romain-sur-Gironde Saint-Saturnin-du-Bois Saint-Sauvant Saint-Sauveur-d'Aunis Saint-Savinien Saint-Seurin-de-Palenne Saint-Sever-de-Saintonge Saint-Séverin-sur-Boutonne Saint-Sigismond-de-Clermont Saint-Simon-de-Bordes Saint-Simon-de-Pellouaille Saint-Sorlin-de-Conac Saint-Sornin Saint-Sulpice-d'Arnoult Saint-Sulpice-de-Royan Saint-Thomas-de-Conac Saint-Trojan-les-Bains Saint-Vaize Saint-Vivien Saint-Xandre Saleignes Salignac-de-Mirambeau Salignac-sur-Charente Salles-sur-Mer Saujon Seigné Semillac Semoussac Semussac Le Seure Siecq Sonnac Soubise Soubran Soulignonne Souméras Sousmoulins Surgères Taillant Taillebourg Talmont-sur-Gironde Tanzac Taugon Ternant Tesson Thaims Thairé Thénac Thézac Thors Le Thou Tonnay-Boutonne Tonnay-Charente Torxé Les Touches-de-Périgny La Tremblade Trizay Tugéras-Saint-Maurice La Vallée Vandré Vanzac Varaize Varzay Vaux-sur-Mer Vénérand Vergeroux La Vergne Vergné Vérines Vervant Vibrac Villars-en-Pons Villars-les-Bois La Villedieu Villedoux Villemorin Villeneuve-la-Comtesse Villexavier Villiers-Couture Vinax Virollet Virson Voissay Vouhé Yves

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133623415 LCCN: n81003750 ISNI: 0000 0001 1344 1751 GND: 4111169-2 SUDOC: 02655528X BNF: cb11878109f (d

.