La donna del lago
La donna del lago (The Lady of the Lake) is an opera composed by
Gioachino Rossini with a libretto by
Andrea Leone Tottola (whose
verses are described as "limpid" by one critic)  based on the
French translation of The Lady of the Lake, a narrative poem
written in 1810 by Sir Walter Scott, whose work continued to
popularize the image of the romantic highlands. Scott's basic story
has been noted as coming from "the hint of an incident stemming from
the frequent custom of James V, the King of Scotland, of walking
through the kingdom in disguise".
It was the first of the Italian operas to be based on Scott's romantic
works, and marked the beginning of romanticism in Rossini's
work. It was "deeply influential in the development of Italian
romantic opera" to the extent that by 1840 (barely 20 years after
this opera), there were 25 Italian operas based on his works, the most
famous being Donizetti's
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor of 1835. Others in
German, French and English followed.
Written for the
Teatro San Carlo
Teatro San Carlo in Naples, this was the seventh of
nine operas which Rossini wrote for that house between 1815 and
1822. Although the première on 24 September 1819 was not a
success, there followed many performances throughout major European
venues (as well as being presented in Cuba and by major South American
houses) until about 1860, after which the opera disappeared until
1958. In modern times, performances have been given fairly frequently.
1 Composition history
2 Performance history
2.2 19th century
2.3 20th century and beyond
6.1 Act 1
6.2 Act 2
12 External links
The period between
La gazza ladra
La gazza ladra (1817) and
Semiramide (1823) was
marked by the production of twelve operas of little significance, with
the exception of La donna del lago. After being obliged to leave
Pesaro hurriedly in May 1819 (it turned out to be his last visit
there), Rossini returned to Naples in early June with no projects in
the offing, except to become involved with overseeing a new production
La gazza ladra
La gazza ladra there. Also, a commission from Milan's La Scala
for an opera, which would become Bianca e Falliero, had been offered
and was planned for December of that year. Suddenly, the Italian
Gaspare Spontini withdrew from a commitment to write two
operas for the Naples house that season, thus leaving a huge gap.
Rossini was quickly asked to write an opera for a September premiere;
rather than use an existing libretto, the house insisted upon a wholly
new opera and he accepted the challenge.
It seems Rossini was initially attracted to Scott's poem when, in
musicologist Philip Gossett's opinion, he was introduced to it in
translation by the young French composer Désiré-Alexandre Batton, a
student of his and
Prix de Rome
Prix de Rome winner then in Italy. On hearing about
the poem from Batton, Rossini asked for a copy and within a few days
informed Batton he was so delighted with it he would compose an opera
based on it. He then immediately called upon the Naples-based
Andrea Leone Tottola (who is described as "a comparative
mediocrity when set against the likes of a Felice Romani)".
Later, the librettist claimed the topic for "this difficult task" had
been chosen by the Naples impresario.
As he worked on the libretto, Tottola "was also intrigued by the epic
Celtic tales of Ossian" published in 1760 by James Macpherson, who
claimed to have found poems written by an ancient bard. The published
translations acquired international popularity and set off a craze for
idealising and romanticizing the Scottish Highlands. Napoleon
and Thomas Jefferson read the
Ossian poems, Goethe included them in
The Sorrows of Young Werther, and Schubert and Mendelssohn both
composed music to them. The young Walter Scott was also greatly
influenced by them.
Initially, Tottola was well aware of the difficulties which he faced
in reducing Scott's epic poem, with its detailed descriptions of the
Scottish landscape and culture as well as its many characters. In his
preface, the librettist summed it up by stating:
It is, in fact, no easy task to simplify the many beauties and many
moments of interest of a poem in order to arrive at the regular
conduct of a drama and to observe the strict laws of the stage. It
therefore became unavoidable that I should make some arbitrary changes
in the original ...
But together, composer and librettist, reflecting the poetic meter of
Ossian tales, "strove to interweave a sense of these very rhythms
into the score and libretto." Richard Osborne describes what they
It is astonishing what he and Tottola achieved in so short a time: a
complex and sophisticated theatrical structure, an unusually rich vein
of dramatically viable melody, exquisite orchestrations, and a
striking use of the kind of off-stage effects Rossini had been
experimenting with in the royal pageants of Ricciardo e Zoraide.
Osborne also notes the way in which "the source materials have been
interwoven, giving the sense of a music drama that has in some measure
been 'through-composed'." Gossett is less enthusiastic, noting
that "it is almost impossible for Italian poetry to capture the
quality of Scott's characteristic verse," but he does agree that "the
spirit of the poem is there".
With the original September deadline missed, the new opera was
presented in October and "was an enormous success", although it
was not without some early disruptions from the audience.
Soprano Isabella Colbran, the first Elena
Contralto Benedetta Rosmunda Pisaroni, the first Malcolm
Tenor Giovanni David, the first Uberto
The opera received its première on 24 September 1819, with a
debut cast of seasoned singers who regularly worked together,
Isabella Colbran as Elena,
Benedetta Rosmunda Pisaroni
Benedetta Rosmunda Pisaroni as
Giovanni David as Uberto/King James.
Initial reactions were mixed, with the conservative faction displeased
by its seeming elaborateness and concerted numbers compared to the
Ricciardo e Zoraide
Ricciardo e Zoraide the previous year. A
contemporary account of the evening's events reveals that, in the
absence of members of the royal court, there were disruptions. A.
Azevedo, in his 1864 book on the composer, notes that "the public
found itself free of all restraint [....] the audience whistled and
booed, and challenged both artists and composer throughout almost the
entire evening." However, he does state that after the brilliance
of Colbran's rondo finale, they were very enthusiastic and called her
onto the stage many times, as they did Rossini (who had refused to
appear and had already left for Milan, where he was under contract to
compose Bianca e Falliero.).
Despite the opera's initial poor reception in Naples, on arrival in
Milan, Rossini announced it was an unqualified success, which as it
happens, it then proceeded to be. La donna remained in the San Carlo's
repertoire for 12 years, up to the 1834/35 season. It was
performed in London in February 1823 and was staged for 15 seasons
until 1851, while it had its American debut in New Orleans in June
1829  followed by New York in 1833.
Many major cities in Italy, several in Spain, as well as St.
Petersburg and many South American houses saw productions up to 1860,
when there was a performance in Trieste. After that it
Although not staged at the Opéra, La donna was seen in Paris for 13
seasons between 1824 and 1854. While Rossini was living there, he
was approached by the director of the Opéra, Léon Pillet, in 1846,
with a request to write a new work. Rossini declined, because the
company had never performed La donna. Pillet therefore began
collaborating with the composer
Louis Niedermeyer and librettist
Gustave Vaëz to change the story of La donna to a different time and
incorporate elements from another Scott work; eventually, with
Rossini's blessing, they also added music from
Zelmira and Armida.
This "pasticcio", Robert Bruce, was given on 30 December 1846 and
“throughout the winter, to appreciative audiences".
20th century and beyond
La donna went unperformed for almost a century until 1958, when a
revival took place in Florence, where it was also recorded in
performance at the
Teatro della Pergola
Teatro della Pergola during the Maggio Musicale on
9 May. Ten years later, it was presented at the 1969 Camden Festival
in London, with
Kiri Te Kanawa
Kiri Te Kanawa in the lead role.
In 1981, after an absence from America of almost 150 years, a
production was mounted by the Houston Grand Opera, starring Frederica
von Stade, Marilyn Horne, and Rockwell Blake, and conducted by Claudio
Scimone. The same production and cast were later presented at
Covent Garden. In 1981, the Rossini
Opera Festival at
the first staging of H. Colin Slim's new critical edition starring
Lella Cuberli and Philip Langridge. The same production was revived in
1983 with Katia Ricciarelli,
Lucia Valentini Terrani
Lucia Valentini Terrani and Samuel Ramey.
A variety of European and American companies - about 25 in all -
performed the opera from the 1960s into the early 2000s, and
recordings of many of these exist, including a concert performance in
the Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris, on 2 March 1986. 1990 saw
Cecilia Gasdia and
Rockwell Blake in a performance in the Teatro Regio
di Parma in January 1990.
In 1992, to mark the bicentenary of Rossini's birth,
La Scala mounted
its first production of the opera in 150 years, with a cast that
included bel canto experts June Anderson, Rockwell Blake, and Chris
Merritt, directed by
Werner Herzog and conducted by Riccardo Muti.
Anna Caterina Antonacci
Anna Caterina Antonacci starred in a concert performance in the
Concertgebouw, Amsterdam, on 28 March 1992.
Juan Diego Flórez
Juan Diego Flórez sang the role of Uberto in a performance in the
Pesaro in August 2001, repeating that role in 2002 (with
Malcolm sung by Daniela Barcellona) at the Opéra Berlioz-Le Corume on
23 July with the orchestra of the Rome Opera. Both Florez and
Barcellona appeared in the Kleines Festspielhaus in
Ruth Ann Swenson as Elena and
Bruce Fowler (tenor) as
2003 saw a concert performance under
Eve Queler given by the Opera
Orchestra of New York on 19 May. Elena was sung by Ruth Ann Swenson,
Stephanie Blythe and Rodrigo by Bruce Fowler (tenor). A
concert performance was also given as part of the Edinburgh Festival
at Usher Hall, on 18 August 2006.
Opera staged its first production of the work in June 2010
Palais Garnier with a cast headed by Rossini specialists Joyce
DiDonato as Elena and
Juan Diego Flórez
Juan Diego Flórez as King James/Uberto. The
production by Luís Pasqual was conducted by Roberto Abbado. This
production travelled from Paris to
La Scala in October 2011, omitting
the balletic elements.
The opera, featuring some of the Paris cast, was given by The Royal
Covent Garden in the Spring of 2013. The production, by John
Fulljames, was conducted by Michele Mariotti. A new co-production
with the Metropolitan
Opera was presented on 13 July 2013 by The Santa
Opera as part of its festival season, also starring Joyce DiDonato,
Lawrence Brownlee as Uberto/The King, Marianna Pizzolato as
Malcolm, René Barbera as Rodrigo and Wayne Tigges as Douglas. 
The Metropolitan Opera's première of this opera began on 16 February
2015 with a similar cast to La Scala, but a new production, including
DiDonato as Elena and
Juan Diego Flórez
Juan Diego Flórez as Uberto. The opera
is best considered as a transitional work between baroque and
classical forms and romanticism. It was the last en travesti opera he
would write for Naples, as tenors were becoming the preferred voice
for heroic roles.
Premiere Cast, 24 October 1819
(Conductor: Gioachino Rossini)
Lady of the Lake
Malcom (Malcolm) Groeme (Graeme),
Rebel chieftain, Elena's lover (en travesti)
Benedetta Rosmunda Pisaroni
Uberto di Snowdon, alias of Giacomo V, Re di Scozia (King James V of
Enamoured of Elena
Duglas (Douglas) d'Angus,
Elena's father, rebel and former tutor to King James
Rodrigo (Roderick) di Dhu,
Betrothed to Elena, rebel chief of the Highlanders
Servant to the King
Chorus: Pastori, Pastorelle scozzesi, Bardi, Grandi di Scozia, Dame
scozzesi, Guerrieri del Clan Alpino, Cacciatori, Guardie reali
Scottish shepherds and shepherdesses, bards, Scottish nobles and their
ladies, Highland warriors, hunters, royal guards
The instrumentation is:
Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in Bes and 2 bassoons.
Brass: 2 trumpets, 2 horns in E♭, 3 trombones.
Percussion: 2 timpani (E♭ and B♭), bass drum.
Strings: 1 harp, first violins, second violins, violas, violoncellos
and double basses.
Scotland under King James V (reigned 1513–1542) was in a state of
unrest. Amongst the rebels were Douglas (Elena's father), Rodrigo (to
whom she has been betrothed) and Malcolm (whom she loves). The King is
in the habit of going about his lands disguised as Uberto. Seeing
Elena he instantly falls in love with her, but she repels his advances
stating that he is confusing hospitality and friendship for romantic
interest. In the meantime he has realised that she is related to his
enemies. The clans gather to overthrow the king, and Rodrigo and
Douglas discover Elena's secret love for Malcolm. She tries to keep
the peace, but the call to arms diverts the soldiers. The battle does
not go well, and Rodrigo is killed. Again the king in disguise
encounters Elena and gives her a ring to take to the king if she is
ever in trouble. She decides to use it and goes to Stirling Castle
where she finds that both Malcolm and Douglas are prisoners. She
pleads their cases, and the king magnanimously pardons them and
blesses the union, now unimpeded by Rodrigo, between Elena and
Time: First half of the sixteenth century
Scene 1: The shores of Loch Katrine, with the
Ben Ledi mountains in
the background[notes 1]
Shepherds are watching flocks at dawn on the shore and men in the
nearby forests are hunting (Chorus: Del dì la messaggiera già il
crin di rose infiora / "It is the day of the harvest and rose tresses
are fully blossomed). Elena appears in a boat on the lake and sings of
her longing for her true love, Malcolm (Cavatina: Oh mattutini albori
vi ha preceduti Amor / "Love has preceded you, to awake me again from
my slumbers"). At the edge of the lake, Elena hears the sound of horns
and vainly hopes that Malcolm will be among the hunters. However, King
James - who has disguised himself as "Uberto" in the hope of meeting
the beautiful Elena - approaches from a distance, claiming to be a
lost hunter. She offers him shelter and James accepts, and the two
cross the lake towards Elena's home (Duettino: Scendi nel piccol legno
/ "Get into my little boat"). As they sail off, the men in his
entourage arrive, searching for the disguised King (Chorus: Uberto!
Ah! dove t'ascondi? / "Oberto, where are you hiding?"). Frustrated,
they agree to widen the search and pray for guidance in finding their
Scene 2: Douglas's home
Arriving at her home, Elena explains her simple life. But Uberto/King
James sees insignias of his ancestors and learns that Elena's father
is Douglas, the King's tutor, who has since become a rebel exiled from
the court, a decision which Uberto in an aside says the King regrets.
Elena's friends arrive and sing of her betrothal by her father to
Rodrigo, chief of the Highlanders, a Scots tribe opposed to King
James. Uberto/James becomes jealous. However, he suspects that Elena
is not in love with Rodrigo (Duet: Le mie barbare vicende / "What good
will it do to hear about my cruel fortunes?"). Directly, he asks if
there is someone she loves, and learns this was only a brief episode
in her past. Encouraged, he prepares to leave Elena's house (Duet:
Cielo! in qual estasi! / "Heavens, I feel myself transported in
ecstasy"), and he and Elena expresses similar emotions. All leave as
Elena goes inside.
Malcolm arrives, having decided to join the Highlanders (Mura felici,
ove il mio ben si aggira! / Dopo più lune io vi riveggo / "Happy
walls, that shelter my beloved. After so long I will see her again!").
Alone, he recalls fond memories of Elena: (Aria: Elena! oh tu, che
chiamo!, Deh vola a me un istante / "Elena! you whom I call!, Ah!, fly
back to me for a moment, come back to me and say I love you"). Then he
swears he will take her away from the strongest man or die in the
attempt. Unseen, Malcolm then watches Elena and her father discussing
her upcoming marriage to Rodrigo. She is reluctant, but Douglas orders
her to obey his command: (Aria: Taci, lo voglio, e basti / "Be quiet!
It is my wish...Show me that you're a daughter worthy of her father").
As he leaves, trumpets announce Rodrigo; Douglas orders Elena to
Malcolm, who has overheard the conversation, approaches Elena and they
pledge their undying devotion to each other (Duettino: Vivere io non
saprò/ potrò, mio ben, senza di te / (Elena, then Malcolm):
"Beloved, I shall not be able to live, my love, without you").
Together they leave.
The Highland warriors urge one another to fight (Chorus: Qual rapido
torrente / "Like a swift-flowing stream, surging over obstacles in its
way") and welcome Rodrigo. He pledges to lead them to victory but,
aside, expresses anxiety to see his future bride: (Cavatina: Eccomi a
voi, miei prodi / "I come to you my brave honor of the native soil").
His soldiers assure him he will win the hand of the woman he loves, as
well as military victory.
Douglas enters and he and Rodrigo greet one another, the latter
fervently expressing his desire to see Elena. (Rodrigo and Chorus: Ma
dov'è colei / "But where is Elena, who kindles such a sweet flame in
my breast"). Acclaimed by the assembled crowd for her beauty, Elena
enters. Rodrigo approaches, declaring his love: (Aria: Quanto a
quest'alma amante / "My loving soul finds the sweetness of this
moment"). Concerned that she does not appear to respond, Douglas
assures Rodrigo that she is restrained by modesty. Father, daughter
and suitor each express their hopes, concerns and fears: (Trio: Di
opposti affetti un vortice / "A whirlwind of contrary emotions, Swirls
Malcolm and his men arrive to join the Highlanders, demanding to be
put to the test. Elena tries to hide her emotions, but Douglas
immediately understands where her heart lies. At the same time,
Rodrigo offers friendship to Malcolm and introduces Elena as his
bride-to-be; but he, too, perceives a connection between Malcolm and
Elena. In a quartet accompanied by the chorus of soldiers and women,
each expresses his or her conflicting emotions: (Rodrigo: Crudele
sospetto, Che me agiti il petto / "Cruel suspicion That sets me
shuddering"; then Elena and Malcolm together: Ah cèlati, o affetto,
nel misero petto! / "Ah my affection - keep yourself hidden"; then
Douglas: Ah l'ira, il dispetto, mi straziano il petto! / "Ah! Anger
and resentment Tear my heart apart"; finally Albina and chorus:
Crudele sospetto gli serpe nel petto! / "Cruel suspicion twists Like a
Abruptly, Serano enters to warn of an attack by the King's forces. The
Bards (Coro dei Bardi) enter and sing Già un raggio forier d'immenso
splendor, addita il sentier di gloria, di onor, in which they are then
joined by Albina E vinto il nemico, domato l'audace. As Rodrigo,
Malcolm and the Highland warriors prepare to depart for battle the
everyone joins in singing Su... amici! guerrieri! / "Go on, friends
and warriors, Go on, let's march, let's fight". All leave for battle.
Scene 1: A thick wood with a cave
In the woods, Uberto/King James has come to find Elena, hoping to save
her from the coming battles (Cavatina: Oh fiamma soave, che l’alma
mi accendi! pietosa ti rendi a un fido amator. / "Oh sweet flame. Show
compassion To a faithful lover"). Meanwhile, Elena asks Serano to find
her father, whom she expects to see before he goes off to fight;
Serano leaves. Uberto/King James then approaches Elena and declares
his love, but she tells him she loves Malcolm: (Duet, leading to a
trio: Elena and Uberto: Alla ragion deh rieda / "Ah! may your agitated
and overburdended soul Return to reason's control"). Nevertheless,
Uberto gives Elena a ring he says the King gave him, and emphasizes
that it will see her through any danger. He prepares to leave, but
Rodrigo steps forward, having overheard their exchange: (Duet: Qual
pena in me già desta / "What distress in my fatal misfortune"". This
becomes a trio with Rodrigo's: Misere mie pupille! / "O my wretched
eyes!".)  Overwhelmed with rage and jealousy, Rodrigo orders his
men to reveal themselves and kill this stranger. Elena pleads with
Rodrigo's men, and Rodrigo decides to duel with Uberto himself. The
two exit; Elena, trying in vain to calm them, follows.
Scene 2: The interior of the cave
Malcolm enters, looking for Elena, but finds only Albina. Serano joins
them, explaining that Elena has gone in search of her father, Douglas,
who is on a peace mission to the King's palace. Despondent at losing
Elena, Malcolm seeks his own death: (Aria: Ah! si pera: ormai la
morte! fia sollievo a’ mali miei / "Ah! Let me perish; death now
Would be a relief for my ills. But if she comes to me she will bring
eternal happiness to my life"). However, he is confronted by the
arriving clansmen who announce that Rodrigo has been slain and the
Highlanders face certain defeat. Malcolm leaves for the palace,
determined to rescue Elena even if it means his life.
Scene 3: A room in the King's palace
Douglas begs his former student King James for forgiveness, not for
himself but for his daughter and those who helped him on the field of
battle. The King refuses, and orders him imprisoned. As Douglas is led
away, the King is saddened by having to act so severely. Meanwhile,
Elena has gained entry to the palace by showing her ring from
"Uberto", and hopes to save her father, Malcolm and Rodrigo (of whose
death she is unaware). Suddenly, in the next room, she hears the voice
of "Uberto" expressing love for her: (Aria: Aurora! ah sorgerai
avversa ognor per me? D’Elena i vaghi rai mostrarmi. / "Dawn! Ah!
will you always Arise inauspiciously for me? Oh God! Why show me
Elena's fair eyes?"). When "Uberto" comes in, Elena is thrilled,
certain he will help her gain an interview with the King.
Scene 4: The King's Throne Room
The two enter the throne room as members of the court join them:
(Chorus: Imponga il Re: noi siamo servi del suo voler / "Let the King
give us his orders"). Elena, puzzled by the courtiers' behaviour
towards "Uberto", suddenly she realises that Uberto and King James are
one. King James, softened by his affection for Elena, decides to
forgive Douglas; but he makes a show of severity by condemning
Malcolm. Finally, he relents and brings the young couple together. In
her rondo finale, Elena rejoices to have saved both her father and her
true love, while everyone else rejoices that peace has been restored:
(Rondo: Tanti affetti in tal momento! mi si fanno al core intorno, che
l’immenso mio contento / "So many emotions at such moment / Come
clamouring about my heart / That I cannot explain to you / My immense
In describing the conclusion of the first act in musical terms, Philip
Gossett makes us aware that, in the stretta,:
Rossini brings all the tunes together contrapuntally, with full
orchestra, three separate choruses, soloists, opera, trumpets, harp,
for what is certainly the most exhilarating moment in all his operas.
Whether or not it is true to Scott, it is clearly motivated by an
intense desire to capture the spirit of Scott, and this desire draws
Rossini down compositional paths that he has never taken before.
It is significant that Naples, for whose
Teatro San Carlo
Teatro San Carlo the opera
was written, was the scene of many innovations in the opera seria
form. Given its sophisticated opera-going audience "the composer could
experiment with musical and dramatic forms in ways that would have met
with incomprehension elsewhere." Preceding as it did Maometto II
and Zelmira, "in its variety of moods, of forms, of vocal styles, of
orchestration, it [La Donna del Lago] is one of the most engaging
operas Rossini ever wrote [....] and is Rossini's most tuneful
In summing up the musical and creative significance of this opera in
Rossini's overall career, Gossett suggests that while Malcolm's two
arias and Elena's final "tanti affetti" are "bel canto" at its finest,
in this opera Rossini:
embraced all musical techniques known to him, pushed into dramatic and
structural territory largely uncharted in Italian opera, explored the
riches of the orchestra, redefined the nature of the chorus, created,
in short, a tradition to which later composers who still knew these
works could only look back in awe.
Charles Osborne notes that the music of Act 2 "remains on a high
level" (when compared to the structural innovations of act 1) but
several aspects draw his attention. These include Oberto's "andante
cavatina" which begins with Elena: Oh fiamma soave ("Oh sweet flame /
That sees my breast on fire!), followed by the duet Alla ragion, deh
rieda ("Ah! may your agitated and overburded soul") which then leads
into a cabaletta trio with Rodrigo "the two tenors vying with each
other in high-flying vocal agility", with the "winner" being Uberto
with his high D. Osborne concludes by noting, as have other scholars,
that this opera anticipates how the composer moved towards Guillaume
In his introductory essay in the booklet accompanying the
recording, Jeremy Commons takes many of the above comments one step
further by drawing attention to the way in which the composer takes
the melody of Elena's opening cavatina (Oh mattutini albori! / "Oh
rays of morning"), brings it back and into the duet with Uberto
(Elena: Scendi nel piccolo legno / "Step down into my little craft"),
echoes it in the orchestra when the couple arrive at the island, and
then re-introduces it right at the end of act 2 when we hear Uberto
singing it off-stage in the form of a canzoncina: Aurora! ah sorgerai
( "Dawn! Ah! Will you always / Arise inauspiciously for me?"). Commons
explains that this linking "is evidence that Rossini was taking the
first step towards a concept of an opera, not as a series of disparate
items, but as an organized whole in which the parts refer back and
forth to each other, adding extra resonances each time that material
The aria Oh! quante lacrime finor versai, from Act I of the opera, is
notable for being the basis for Rossini's "Introduction, Theme, and
Clarinet and Orchestra", a staple work of the solo
Rodrigo di Dhu
Opera House and Orchestra
Orchestra and Chorus of RAI Torino
(Recording of a broadcast performance, 20 April)
Cat: OPD 1206
Frederica Von Stade,
Houston Symphony Orchestra and Houston Grand
(Recording of a performance at the Houston Grand Opera, 18 October)
Audio CD: Celestial Audio
Cat: CA 417
Lucia Valentini Terrani,
The Chamber Orchestra of Europe and the Prague Philharmonic Choir
Audio CD: CBS "Masterworks",
Cat: CD 39311;
Cat: CDC 31
Teatro alla Scala
Teatro alla Scala Orchestra and Chorus
(Recorded at performances at La Scala, June)
Audio CD: Philips
Cat: 473 307-2;
DVD: Opus Arte,
Cat: OALS 3009D
Scottish Chamber Orchestra and the
Edinburgh Festival Chorus
(Recording of a concert performance in the Usher Hall, Edinburgh, 18
Cat: ORC 34
^ Some libretti divide the action into much smaller scenes, ten in the
first act and seven in the second
^ Osborne, Charles 1994, p. 95
^ a b c Osborne, Charles 1994, p. 94
^ The legend quoted in Mays 2013, p. 9
^ a b Gossett and Brauner (2001), in Holden (Ed.), p. 785
^ a b c d Toye 1987, p. 87.
^ a b Commons 2007, pp. 9 - 12
^ Toye 1987, p. 76.
^ a b c Osborne, Richard 2007, pp. 61 - 62
^ a b Gossett 1983, p. 12
^ Pistone (1995), p. 3
^ a b c Mays 2013, pp. 17 - 18
^ Morère 2004, pp. 75-6.
^ Ferguson 1998, p. 227.
^ Tottola's preface to the libretto quoted in Commons, p. 29
^ Osborne, Richard (2007), p. 280
^ A letter from
Stendhal to his friend De Mareste, quoted in Osborne,
R. 2007, p. 62
^ a b c Warrack & West, p. ?
^ Toye 1987, p. 88.
^ a b André 2006.
^ A. Azevedo in G. Rossini: Sa Vie et Ses Oeuvres (Paris, 1864),
quoted in Commons 2007, pp. 18 - 20
^ Toye 1987, pp. 88–89.
^ a b c d e Kaufman 2007, p. 44- 51
^ Osborne, R. 2007, pp. 136 - 137. Osborne gives two dates for the
premiere, December 23 (p. 137) and December 30 (p. 357). Weinstock
1968, p. 238, explains that the premiere was scheduled for December
23, the date on the printed libretto, but was postponed to December 30
because the lead mezzo-soprano, Rosine Stoltz, was ill. See also Le
Ménestrel (vol. 14, no, 4 (27 December 1846).
^ Donal Henahan, "Opera: Houston Digs up Rossini Donna del Lago", The
New York Times, 17 October 1981
^ a b c d e f g h Recordings of
La donna del lago
La donna del lago on
^ Christian Peter, "La Donna del Lago" on forumopera.com 14 June 2010]
La Scala 2011.
^ Rupert Christiansen, "La Donna del Lago, Royal Opera, Royal Opera
House, review", The Telegraph (London), 18 May 2013
^ James Keller, "Review:
Joyce DiDonato dazzles in La donna del lago,
The Santa Fe New Mexican, 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013
^ Anthony Tommasini, "Review: A La Donna del Lago With Melting
Tenderness at the Met", The New York Times, February 17, 2015
^ Osborne, R. (2007), p. 283: he regards this trio as "the central
achievement of act 2"
^ a b c d Gossett (1983), p. 13 - 15
^ Osborne, Charles (1994), pp.96-97
^ Commons (2007), pp. 40-41
^ "Rossini Introduction, Theme and Variations." Canadian Clarinet.
N.p., 27 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
^ Michaelhankim. "Han Kim Plays G.Rossini's Introduction, Theme and
Clarinet and Orchestra." YouTube. YouTube, 06 Oct.
2014. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
^ La Donna Del Lago: Act I Scene 7: Recitative and Cavatina: Oh Quante
Lacrime Finor Versai (Malcolm). N.d. YouTube. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
André, Naomi (2006). Voicing gender: castrati, travesti, and the
second woman in early-Nineteenth-century Italian opera. Bloomington
(Ind.): Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253217899. Retrieved
14 March 2015.
Ferguson, W. (1998). The Identity of the Scottish Nation: an Historic
Quest. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Gossett, Philip & Patricia Brauner
La donna del lago
La donna del lago p. 785,
in Holden (2001)
Harewood, Earl of, ed. (1987). Kobbé's complete opera book (10th
ed.). London: Bodley Head. ISBN 0370310179.
Holden, Amanda, ed. (2001). The New Penguin
Opera Guide. London:
Penguin. ISBN 9780140514759. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
Hopkins, Kate (20 May 2013). "
La donna del lago
La donna del lago A
quick guide to Rossini's turbulent love story". Royal Opera
Lajarte, Théodore (1878), Bibliothèque musicale du Théâtre de
l'Opéra, volume 2 [1793–1876]. Paris: Librairie des Bibliophiles.
View at Google Books.
Mays, Desirée (2013),
Opera Unveiled: 2013. Santa Fe, NM: The Santa
Fe Opera, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4675-5718-4
Morère, P. (2004). Scotland and France in the Enlightenment. Bucknell
University Press. ISBN 0838755267.
Osborne, Charles (1994), The Bel Canto Operas of Rossini, Donizetti,
and Bellini, Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-71-3
Opera at Movie Theaters: 2014-2015 Season (includes English and
Opera Journeys Publishing. 2014. Retrieved 15 March
Osborne, Richard (1998), "Donna del lago, La" in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.),
The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. One. p. 1221. London:
MacMillan Publishers, Inc. 1998 ISBN 0-333-73432-7
Pistone, Danièle (Trans. E. T. Glasgow) (1995), Nineteenth Century
Opera from Rossini to Puccini, Portland, OR: Amadeus Press.
Warrack, John and West, Ewan (1992), The Oxford Dictionary of Opera
New York: OUP. ISBN 0-19-869164-5
Zedda, Alberto. "La donna del lago" (trans. Susannah Howe). Naxos.
Retrieved 14 March 2015.
"La donna del lago". La Scala. 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
"La donna del lago". Metropolitan Opera. 2015. Retrieved 15 March
Commons, Jeremy (2007), "La donna del lago" in booklet accompanying
Opera Rara recording
Gossett, Philip (1983), "La Donna del Lago and the revival of the
Rossini 'opera seria' " in the booklet accompanying the 1983 Pollini
Kaufman, Tom (2007), "Historical Performances of La donna del lago" in
booklet accompanying the
Opera Rara recording
Gallo, Denise (2010) . Gioachino Rossini: A Research and
Information Guide (2 ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.
ISBN 9781135847012. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
Osborne, Richard (1990), Rossini, (Master Musicians Series). Ithaca,
New York: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1-55553-088-5
Osborne, Richard (2007), Rossini: His Life and Works Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518129-6
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of Rossini: A Study in Tragi-Comedy, Heinemann, London 1934. ed.). New
York: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486253961. Retrieved 13 March
Weinstock, Herbert (1968). Rossini: A Biography. New York: Knopf.
OCLC 192614, 250474431. Reprint (1987): New York: Limelight.
List of performances of
La donna del lago
La donna del lago on Operabase.
Google translation: English
Libretto (also Italian)
Demetrio e Polibio
Demetrio e Polibio (1812)
La cambiale di matrimonio
La cambiale di matrimonio (1810)
L'equivoco stravagante (1811)
L'inganno felice (1812)
Ciro in Babilonia, ossia La caduta di Baldassare (1812)
La scala di seta
La scala di seta (1812)
La pietra del paragone
La pietra del paragone (1812)
L'occasione fa il ladro, ossia Il cambio della valigia (1812)
Il signor Bruschino, ossia Il figlio per azzardo (1813)
L'italiana in Algeri
L'italiana in Algeri (1813)
Aureliano in Palmira
Aureliano in Palmira (1813)
Il turco in Italia
Il turco in Italia (1814)
Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra
Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra (1815)
Torvaldo e Dorliska
Torvaldo e Dorliska (1815)
Il barbiere di Siviglia, ossia L'inutile precauzione (1816)
La gazzetta, ossia Il matrimonio per concorso (1816)
Otello, ossia Il Moro di Venezia (1816)
La Cenerentola, ossia La bontà in trionfo (1817)
La gazza ladra
La gazza ladra (1817)
Adelaide di Borgogna, ossia Ottone, re d'Italia (1817)
Mosè in Egitto
Mosè in Egitto (1818)
Adina, ossia Il califfo di Bagdad (1826)
Ricciardo e Zoraide
Ricciardo e Zoraide (1818)
Eduardo e Cristina
Eduardo e Cristina (1819)
La donna del lago
La donna del lago (1819)
Bianca e Falliero, ossia Il consiglio dei tre (1819)
Maometto II (1820)
Matilde di Shabran, ossia Bellezza e Cuor di Ferro (1821)
Il viaggio a Reims, ossia L'albergo del Giglio d'Oro (1825)
Le siège de Corinthe
Le siège de Corinthe (1826)
Moïse et Pharaon, ou Le passage de la mer rouge (1827)
Le comte Ory
Le comte Ory (1828)
Guillaume Tell (1829)
Ugo, re d'Italia
Ugo, re d'Italia (unfinished)
Robert Bruce (1846)
"Ecco, ridente in cielo"
Messa di Gloria (1820)
Stabat mater (1831, 1841)
Petite messe solennelle
Petite messe solennelle (1864, 1867)
La regata veneziana
La Danza (1835)
Péchés de vieillesse (1857–1868)
The Barber of Seville
The Barber of Seville
The Barber of Seville (1947 film)
Rossini (1942 biographical film)
Rossini! Rossini! (1991 biographical film)
Rossini's Ghost (1996 film)
Named for Rossini
Conservatorio Statale di Musica "Gioachino Rossini"
Messa per Rossini
Rossini in Wildbad
Lists: Compositions · Operas