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LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
is a mobile communication standard and a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. It was formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009 as meeting the requirements of the IMT-Advanced
IMT-Advanced
standard, and was standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) in March 2011 as 3GPP Release 10.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Proposals 3 Timeframe and introduction of additional features 4 First technology demonstrations and field trials 5 Deployment 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 References 9 External links

9.1 Resources (white papers, technical papers, application notes)

Background[edit] The LTE format was first proposed by NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
of Japan
Japan
and has been adopted as the international standard.[2] LTE standardization has matured to a state where changes in the specification are limited to corrections and bug fixes. The first commercial services were launched in Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
in December 2009[3] followed by the United States and Japan
Japan
in 2010. More LTE networks were deployed globally during 2010 as a natural evolution of several 2G and 3G systems, including Global system for mobile communications
Global system for mobile communications
(GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in the 3GPP family as well as CDMA2000
CDMA2000
in the 3GPP2 family. The work by 3GPP to define a 4G candidate radio interface technology started in Release 9 with the study phase for LTE-Advanced. Being described as a 3.9G
3.9G
(beyond 3G but pre-4G), the first release of LTE did not meet the requirements for 4G (also called IMT Advanced
IMT Advanced
as defined by the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union) such as peak data rates up to 1 Gb/s. The ITU has invited the submission of candidate Radio Interface Technologies (RITs) following their requirements in a circular letter, 3GPP Technical Report (TR) 36.913, "Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA
E-UTRA
(LTE-Advanced)."[4] These are based on ITU's requirements for 4G and on operators’ own requirements for advanced LTE. Major technical considerations include the following:

Continual improvement to the LTE radio technology and architecture Scenarios and performance requirements for working with legacy radio technologies Backward compatibility of LTE-Advanced with LTE. An LTE terminal should be able to work in an LTE-Advanced network and vice versa. Any exceptions will be considered by 3GPP. Consideration of recent World Radiocommunication Conference
World Radiocommunication Conference
(WRC-07) decisions regarding frequency bands to ensure that LTE-Advanced accommodates the geographically available spectrum for channels above 20 MHz. Also, specifications must recognize those parts of the world in which wideband channels are not available.

Likewise, ' WiMAX
WiMAX
2', 802.16m, has been approved by ITU as the IMT Advanced family. WiMAX
WiMAX
2 is designed to be backward compatible with WiMAX
WiMAX
1 devices. Most vendors now support conversion of 'pre-4G', pre-advanced versions and some support software upgrades of base station equipment from 3G. The mobile communication industry and standards organizations have therefore started work on 4G access technologies, such as LTE Advanced.[when?] At a workshop in April 2008 in China, 3GPP agreed the plans for work on Long Term Evolution (LTE).[5] A first set of specifications were approved in June 2008.[6] Besides the peak data rate 1 Gb/s as defined by the ITU-R, it also targets faster switching between power states and improved performance at the cell edge. Detailed proposals are being studied within the working groups.[when?] Proposals[edit] The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
should be compatible with first release LTE equipment, and should share frequency bands with first release LTE. In the feasibility study for LTE Advanced, 3GPP determined that LTE Advanced would meet the ITU-R requirements for 4G. The results of the study are published in 3GPP Technical Report (TR) 36.912.[7] One of the important LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
benefits is the ability to take advantage of advanced topology networks; optimized heterogeneous networks with a mix of macrocells with low power nodes such as picocells, femtocells and new relay nodes. The next significant performance leap in wireless networks will come from making the most of topology, and brings the network closer to the user by adding many of these low power nodes — LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
further improves the capacity and coverage, and ensures user fairness. LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
also introduces multicarrier to be able to use ultra wide bandwidth, up to 100 MHz of spectrum supporting very high data rates. In the research phase many proposals have been studied as candidates for LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
(LTE-A) technologies. The proposals could roughly be categorized into:[8]

Support for relay node base stations Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception UE Dual TX antenna solutions for SU-MIMO
SU-MIMO
and diversity MIMO, commonly referred to as 2x2 MIMO Scalable system bandwidth exceeding 20 MHz, up to 100 MHz Carrier aggregation of contiguous and non-contiguous spectrum allocations Local area optimization of air interface Nomadic / Local Area network and mobility solutions Flexible spectrum usage Cognitive radio Automatic and autonomous network configuration and operation Support of autonomous network and device test, measurement tied to network management and optimization Enhanced precoding and forward error correction Interference management and suppression Asymmetric bandwidth assignment for FDD Hybrid OFDMA
OFDMA
and SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA
in uplink UL/DL inter eNB coordinated MIMO SONs, Self Organizing Networks methodologies

Within the range of system development, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX
WiMAX
2 can use up to 8x8 MIMO
MIMO
and 128 QAM
QAM
in downlink direction. Example performance: 100 MHz aggregated bandwidth, LTE-Advanced provides almost 3.3 Gbit peak download rates per sector of the base station under ideal conditions. Advanced network architectures combined with distributed and collaborative smart antenna technologies provide several years road map of commercial enhancements. A summary of a study carried out in 3GPP can be found in TR36.912.[9] Timeframe and introduction of additional features[edit] Original standardization work for LTE-Advanced was done as part of 3GPP Release 10, which was frozen in April 2011. Trials were based on pre-release equipment. Major vendors support software upgrades to later versions and ongoing improvements. In order to improve the quality of service for users in hotspots and on cell edges, heterogenous networks (HetNet) are formed of a mixture of macro-, pico- and femto base stations serving corresponding-size areas. Frozen in December 2012, 3GPP Release 11[10] concentrates on better support of HetNet. Coordinated Multi-Point operation (CoMP) is a key feature of Release 11 in order to support such network structures. Whereas users located at a cell edge in homogenous networks suffer from decreasing signal strength compounded by neighbor cell interference, CoMP is designed to enable use of a neighboring cell to also transmit the same signal as the serving cell, enhancing quality of service on the perimeter of a serving cell. In-device Co-existence (IDC) is another topic addressed in Release 11. IDC features are designed to ameliorate disturbances within the user equipment caused between LTE/LTE-A and the various other radio subsystems such as WiFi, Bluetooth, and the GPS receiver. Further enhancements for MIMO
MIMO
such as 4x4 configuration for the uplink were standardized. The higher number of cells in HetNet results in user equipment changing the serving cell more frequently when in motion. The ongoing work on LTE-Advanced[11] in Release 12, amongst other areas, concentrates on addressing issues that come about when users move through HetNet, such as frequent hand-overs between cells. First technology demonstrations and field trials[edit] This list covers technology demonstrations and field trials up to the year 2014, paving the way for a wider commercial deployment of the VoLTE technology worldwide. From 2014 onwards various further operators trialled and demonstrated the technology for future deployment on their respective networks. These are not covered here. Instead a coverage of commercial deployments can be found in the section below.

Company Country Date Note

NTT DoCoMo  Japan 000000002007-02-01-0000February 2007 [12][dead link] The operator announced the completion of a 4G trial where it achieved a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5  Gbit/s in the downlink using 12 transmit and 12 receive antennas and 100 MHz frequency bandwidth to a mobile station moving at 10 km/h.

Agilent Technologies  Spain 000000002011-02-01-0000February 2011 [13] The vendor demonstrated at Mobile World Congress
Mobile World Congress
the industry's first test solutions for LTE-Advanced with both signal generation and signal analysis solutions.

Ericsson  Sweden 000000002011-06-01-0000June 2011 [14] The vendor demonstrated LTE-Advanced in Kista.

touch  Lebanon 000000002013-04-01-0000April 2013 [15] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Chinese vendor Huawei
Huawei
and combined 800 MHz spectrum and 1.8 GHz spectrum. touch achieved 250 Mbit/s.

Vodafone  New Zealand 000000002013-05-01-0000May 2013 [16] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Nokia Networks and combined 1.8 GHz spectrum and 700 MHz spectrum. Vodafone achieved just below 300 Mbit/s.

A1  Austria 000000002013-06-01-0000June 2013 [17] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Ericsson
Ericsson
and NSN using 4x4 MIMO. A1 achieved 580 Mbit/s.

Turkcell  Turkey 000000002013-08-01-0000August 2013 [18] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in Istanbul
Istanbul
with Chinese vendor Huawei. Turkcell
Turkcell
achieved 900 Mbit/s.

Telstra  Australia 000000002013-08-01-0000August 2013 [19] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Swedish vendor Ericsson and combined 900 MHz spectrum and 1.8 GHz spectrum.

SMART  Philippines 000000002013-08-01-0000August 2013 [20] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Chinese vendor Huawei
Huawei
and combined 2.1 GHz spectrum and 1.80 GHz spectrum bands and achieved 200 Mbit/s.

SoftBank  Japan 000000002013-09-01-0000September 2013 [21] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in Tokyo
Tokyo
with Chinese vendor Huawei. Softbank used the 3.5 GHz spectrum band and achieved 770 Mbit/s.

beCloud/ MTS  Belarus 000000002013-10-01-0000October 2013 [22] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Chinese vendor Huawei.

SFR  France 000000002013-10-01-0000October 2013 [23] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in Marseille
Marseille
and combined 800 MHz spectrum and 2.6 GHz spectrum. SFR
SFR
achieved 174 Mbit/s.

EE  United Kingdom 000000002013-11-01-0000November 2013 [24] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in London
London
with Chinese vendor Huawei
Huawei
and combined 20 MHz of 1.8 GHz spectrum and 20 MHz of 2.6 GHz spectrum. EE achieved 300 Mbit/s which is equal to category 6 LTE.

O2  Germany 000000002013-11-01-0000November 2013 [25] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in Munich
Munich
with Chinese vendor Huawei
Huawei
and combined 10 MHz of 800 MHz spectrum and 20 MHz of 2.6 GHz spectrum. O2 achieved 225 Mbit/s.

SK Telecom  South Korea 000000002013-11-01-0000November 2013 [26] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced and combined 10 MHz of 850 MHz spectrum and 20 MHz of 1.8 GHz spectrum. SK Telecom achieved 225 Mbit/s.

Vodafone  Germany 000000002013-11-01-0000November 2013 [27] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in Dresden
Dresden
with Swedish vendor Ericsson
Ericsson
and combined 10 MHz of 800 MHz spectrum and 20 MHz of 2.6 GHz spectrum. Vodafone achieved 225 Mbit/s.

Telstra  Australia 000000002013-12-01-0000December 2013 [28] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Swedish vendor Ericsson and combined 20 MHz of 1.8 GHz spectrum and 20 MHz of 2.6 GHz spectrum. Telstra
Telstra
achieved 300 Mbit/s which is equal to category 6 LTE.

Optus  Australia 000000002013-12-01-0000December 2013 [29] The operator trialed TD-LTE-Advanced with Chinese vendor Huawei and combined two 20 MHz channels of 2.3 GHz spectrum. Optus achieved over 160 Mbit/s.

Claro Brasil  Brazil 000000002015-12-01-0000December 2015 [30] The Claro Brasil
Claro Brasil
presented in Rio Verde the first tests with 4.5 GHz technology, LTE Advanced, which offers an internet speed of up to 300MB/s.

AIS  Thailand March 2016 [31] The operator launched the first 4.5G on LTE-U/LAA network in Bangkok
Bangkok
with the combination of 1800 MHz spectrum and 2100 MHz spectrum using Carrier Aggregation (CA), 4x4 MIMO, DL256QAM/UL64QAM and the use of LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U) to facilitate high-speed network. AIS achieved download speed up to 784.5 Mbit/s and upload speed 495 Mbit/s.[32] This was made possible by Joint Development Center (JIC) the special R&D program between AIS and Huawei.

MagtiCom  Georgia May 2016 [33] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
and combined the 800MHz with its existing 1800MHz spectrum. MagtiCom
MagtiCom
achieved download speed 185 Mbit/s and upload speed 75 Mbit/s.

Ucom  Armenia September 2016 [34] The operator trialed LTE-Advanced with Swedish vendor Ericsson. Ucom
Ucom
achieved 250 Mbit/s download speed which is equal to category 6 LTE.

Altel  Kazakhstan April 2017 [35] The operator launched LTE-Advanced in 12 cities across Kazakhstan. Altel achieved 225 Mbit/s download speed. LTE-Advanced (4G+) Technology is up to be launched in 5 more cities in Kazakhstan in May 2017.

Bite Latvija  Latvia September 2016 [36] The operator launched 8 4.5G cell stations in Riga
Riga
after testing in partnership with Huawei
Huawei
and the Riga
Riga
Technical University on June 15, 2017.

Wi-Tribe  Pakistan May 2017 [37] The operator first tested their LTE-A network in May 2017 over the 3.5GHz band, and it was then made officially available in Lahore, Pakistan, with more cities to follow. Wi-Tribe achieved speeds of up to 200 Mbit/s over their new LTE-A network. This was done using equipment from Huawei.

Telcel  Mexico March 2018 [38] The operator offered the service in Mexico
Mexico
City and other 10 cities nationwide on March 14, 2018.

Deployment[edit]

An LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
base station installed in Iraq for provisioning of broadband wireless Internet
Internet
service.

Deployment of LTE-Advanced in progress in various LTE networks. See also[edit]

List of devices with LTE Advanced LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
Pro E-UTRA LTE User Equipment Category Simulation of LTE Networks 4g

Bibliography[edit]

Qualcomm Harri Holma, Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS
UMTS
- OFDMA
OFDMA
and SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA
Based Radio Access, John Wiley & Sons 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-99401-6 Chapter 2.6: LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
for IMT-advanced, pp 19–21. Moray Rumney (editor), LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges, Agilent Technologies
Agilent Technologies
Publication 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-68261-6, Chapter 8.7: Proving LTE Advanced, p 425 Preben E. Mogensen, Tommi Koivisto, Klaus I. Pedersen 1, et al.; Nokia Siemens Networks;LTE Advanced: The Path towards Gigabit/s in Wireless Mobile Communications[permanent dead link], Wireless VITAE'09. Sajal Kumar Das, Mobile Terminal Receiver Design: LTE and LTE-Advanced , John Wiley & Sons 2016, ISBN 9781119107309.

References[edit]

^ Stefan Parkvall, Erik Dahlman, Anders Furuskär et al.; Ericsson, Robert Syputa, Maravedis; ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications ´IMT-Advanced´ LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
- Evolving LTE towards IMT-Advanced; Vehicular Technology Conference, 2008. VTC 2008-Fall. IEEE 68th 21-24 Sept. 2008 Page(s):1 - 5. ^ Faster cell phone services planned ^ "TeliaSonera launches world's first 4G mobile network". swedishwire. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ "Requirements for further advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) (LTE-Advanced)" ^ Beyond 3G: “LTE Advanced” Workshop, Shenzhen, China ^ 3GPP specification: Requirements for further advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced) ^ Agilent "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2011-07-28. , Introducing LTE-Advanced, pg. 6 , March 8, 2011, accessed July 28, 2011. ^ Nomor Research: White Paper on LTE Advanced ^ 3GPP Technical Report: Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA
E-UTRA
(LTE Advanced) ^ Introduction to LTE-Advanced Rel.11 ^ 3GPP News & Events, Dec.12th, 2012 and Apr.8th, 2013 entries ^ " NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
Achieves World's First 5 Gbit/s Packet Transmission in 4G Field Experiment". NTT DoCoMo.  ^ " Agilent Technologies
Agilent Technologies
Introduces Industry's First LTE-Advanced Signal Generation, Analysis Solutions". Agilent.  ^ " Ericsson
Ericsson
demonstrates LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
in Sweden". Telecompaper. 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2014-08-13.  ^ "Touch, Huawei
Huawei
trial 250Mbps LTE FDD 800MHz/1800MHz carrier aggregation". TeleGeography. 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "Vodafone shows off next-gen mobile broadband". NZ Herald. 2013-05-24.  ^ "A1 TELEKOM AUSTRIA DEMOS 580MBPS LTE-A SPEEDS WITH ERICSSON, NSN HARDWARE". Mobile Europe. 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2014-04-30.  ^ "Turkish delight? Turkcell
Turkcell
unveils 900Mbps transmission speeds in LTE-A trial". TeleGeography. 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2014-11-14.  ^ "World's first commercial LTE-Advanced call on 1800MHz and 900MHz". Ericsson. 2013-08-12. Retrieved 2014-04-30.  ^ J.M. Tuazon (21 August 2013). "200MBPS IN DAVAO - Smart tests LTE-Advanced system down south". Interaksyon. Retrieved 21 August 2013.  ^ "Softbank's trial LTE-A in 3.5GHz band achieves 770Mbps". TeleGeography. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2014-08-13.  ^ "beCloud to test LTE-A". TeleGeography. 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2014-08-13.  ^ " SFR
SFR
completes 'first' LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
trials in France". FierceWirelessEurope. 2013-10-18. Retrieved 2014-04-30.  ^ "EE launches 'world's fastest' LTE-A network in London". Telecoms.com. 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-12-27.  ^ "Now available at Telefónica: The fastest LTE radio cell in Germany and mobile VoLTE in live network". Telefónica. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2014-04-30.  ^ "[넓고 빠른 광대역 LTE-A] #1. 3배 빠른 광대역 LTE-A 시대가 열린다!" (in Korean). SK Telecom. 2013-11-28. Retrieved 2014-05-16.  ^ "Vodafone zeigt in Dresden
Dresden
das schnellste Mobilfunknetz der Republik" (in German). Vodafone. 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2014-04-30.  ^ " Telstra
Telstra
hits 300 Mbps in LTE-A trial". Computerworld. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2014-03-24.  ^ " Optus
Optus
tests TD-LTE
TD-LTE
carrier aggregation in Melbourne". iTnews. 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2014-03-29.  ^ "Claro faz primeiro teste externo com LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
na faixa de 700 MHZ". Telesintese. 2015-12-15. Retrieved 2016-03-29.  ^ "AIS launches the world's first 4.5G network in Thailand". 2016-03-24. Retrieved 2017-12-26.  ^ "Take tour on the new AIS Next-G ready network" (in Thai). Retrieved 2017-12-27.  ^ " MagtiCom
MagtiCom
launches LTE-Advanced network in Georgia". www.ucom.am. Retrieved 2016-06-06.  ^ " Ucom
Ucom
Deployed Ericsson's Latest 4G+ Technology for the First Time in Armenia". www.ucom.am. Retrieved 2017-02-06.  ^ "Altel: LTE-Advanced (4G+) Technology for the First Time in Kazakhstan". dknews.kz.  ^ "By sounding off the Baltic Drummers' Summit, Bite unveils the first 4.5G network in Latvia
Latvia
with power" (in Latvian). Retrieved 2017-09-18.  ^ "Wi-tribe Becomes Pakistan's First Operator to Cross 200Mbps Internet
Internet
Speeds". 2017-08-28. Retrieved 2017-10-11.  ^ "Llega a México la GigaRed 4.5G de Telcel". 

External links[edit]

LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
page on Qualcomm
Qualcomm
site 3GPP Official 3GPP Standardisation Page on LTE Advanced Future use of LTE A femtocells LTE- 3GPP online decoders - 3GPP LTE / LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
online L3 messages decoders (24.008, 44.018, 44.060, etc.) supporting Rel.14

Resources (white papers, technical papers, application notes)[edit]

LTE-Advanced Technology Introduction - this white paper summarizes improvements on LTE known as LTE-Advanced Rel.10 Introducing LTE-Advanced - Application Note Introduction to LTE-Advanced Rel.11 - Summarization of improvements specified in LTE-Advanced Release 11.

v t e

Cellular network
Cellular network
standards

List of mobile phone generations

0G (radio telephones)

MTS MTA - MTB - MTC - MTD IMTS AMTS OLT Autoradiopuhelin B-Netz Altai AMR

1G (1985)

AMPS family

AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-3, ANSI/TIA/EIA-553) N-AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-91) TACS ETACS

Other

NMT C-450 Hicap Mobitex DataTAC

2G (1992)

GSM/ 3GPP family

GSM CSD HSCSD

3GPP2 family

cdmaOne (TIA/EIA/ IS-95
IS-95
and ANSI-J-STD 008)

AMPS family

D-AMPS ( IS-54 and IS-136)

Other

CDPD iDEN PDC PHS

2G transitional (2.5G, 2.75G)

GSM/ 3GPP family

GPRS EDGE/EGPRS (UWC-136/136HS/TDMA-EDGE)

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000) CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1X Advanced

Other

WiDEN DECT

3G (2003)

3GPP family

UMTS

UTRA-FDD / W-CDMA UTRA-TDD LCR / TD-SCDMA UTRA-TDD HCR / TD-CDMA

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO Release 0 (TIA/IS-856)

3G transitional (3.5G, 3.75G, 3.9G)

3GPP family

HSPA

HSDPA HSUPA

HSPA+ LTE (E-UTRA)

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO Revision A (TIA/EIA/IS-856-A) EV-DO Revision B (TIA/EIA/IS-856-B) EV-DO Revision C

IEEE family

Mobile WiMAX

IEEE 802.16e

Flash-OFDM iBurst

IEEE 802.20

4G (2013) (IMT Advanced)

3GPP family

LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
(E-UTRA) LTE Advanced Pro (4.5G Pro/pre-5G/4.9G)

IEEE family

WiMAX
WiMAX
(IEEE 802.16m)

WiMax 2.1 (LTE-TDD)

5G (2020) (IMT-2020) (Under development)

LTE

 

5G-NR

 

Related articles

Cellular networks Mobile telephony History List of standards Comparison of standards Channel access methods Spectral efficiency comparison table Cellular frequencies (Bands: GSM UMTS LTE) Mobile broadband NGMN Alliance MIMO VoLTE

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

.