The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound
storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of
33 1⁄3 rpm, a 12- or 10-inch (30 or 25 cm)
diameter, and use of the "microgroove" groove specification.
Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard
by the entire record industry. Apart from a few relatively minor
refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound, it
has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
1 Format advantages
2.1 Soundtrack discs
2.2 Radio transcription discs
2.3 RCA Victor
2.5 Public reception
3 Competing formats
4 Playing time
8 Fidelity and formats
9 Use by disc jockeys
10 See also
12 External links
At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for
home use were made of an abrasive (and therefore noisy) shellac
compound, employed a much larger groove, and played at approximately
78 revolutions per minute (rpm), limiting the playing time of a
12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side. The new
product was a 12- or 10-inch (30 or 25 cm) fine-grooved disc made
of vinyl and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a
speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm. Each side of a 12-inch LP could
play for more than 20 minutes. Only the microgroove standard was new,
as both vinyl and the 33 1⁄3 rpm speed had been used
for special purposes for many years, as well as in one unsuccessful
earlier attempt to introduce a long-playing record for home use by RCA
Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended
continuous playing time, it also allowed a collection of ten or more
pop music recordings to be put on a single disc. Previously, such
collections, as well as longer classical music broken up into several
parts, had been sold as sets of 78 rpm records in a specially
imprinted "record album" consisting of individual record sleeves bound
together in book form. The use of the word "album" persisted for the
one-disc LP equivalent.
Neumann lathe with SX-74 cutting head
The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack disc used by the Vitaphone
motion picture sound system, developed by
Western Electric and
introduced in 1926. For soundtrack purposes, the less than five
minutes of playing time of each side of a conventional 12-inch
78 rpm disc was not acceptable. The sound had to play
continuously for at least 11 minutes, long enough to accompany a full
1,000-foot (300 m) reel of 35 mm film projected at 24 frames
per second. The disc diameter was increased to 16 inches (40 cm)
and the speed was reduced to 33 1⁄3 revolutions per minute.
Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the same
large "standard groove" used by 78s.
Unlike conventional records, the groove started at the inside of the
recorded area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge.
Like 78s, early soundtrack discs were pressed in an abrasive shellac
compound and played with a single-use steel needle held in a massive
electromagnetic pickup with a tracking force of five ounces
By mid-1931, all motion picture studios were recording on optical
soundtracks, but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from
the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were
made as late as 1936 for distribution to theaters still equipped with
disc-only sound projectors.
Radio transcription discs
Syndicated radio programming was distributed on 78 rpm discs
beginning in 1928. The desirability of a longer continuous playing
time soon led to the adoption of the
Vitaphone soundtrack disc format.
16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm discs playing about 15 minutes per
side were used for most of these "electrical transcriptions" beginning
about 1930. Transcriptions were variously recorded inside out like
soundtrack discs (in the era of shellac pressings and steel needles,
needle wear considerations dictated an inside start for such a long
recording) or with an outside start.
Longer programs, which required several disc sides, pioneered the
system of recording odd-numbered sides inside-out and even-numbered
sides outside-in so that the sound quality would match from the end of
one side to the start of the next. Although a pair of turntables was
used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be
pressed in a hybrid of manual and automatic sequencing, arranged in
such a manner that no disc being played had to be turned over to play
the next side in the sequence. Instead of a three-disc set having the
1–2, 3–4 and 5–6 manual sequence, or the 1–6, 2–5 and 3–4
automatic sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record changer,
broadcast sequence would couple the sides as 1–4, 2–5 and 3–6.
Some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated "hill
and dale" groove. This was found to allow deeper bass (because
turntable rumble was laterally modulated in early radio station
turntables) and also an extension of the high-end frequency response.
Neither of these was necessarily a great advantage in practice because
of the limitations of AM broadcasting. Today we can enjoy the benefits
of those higher-fidelity recordings, even if the original radio
audiences could not.
Initially, transcription discs were pressed only in shellac, but by
1932 pressings in RCA Victor's vinyl-based "Victrolac" were appearing.
Other plastics were sometimes used. By the late 1930s, vinyl was
standard for nearly all kinds of pressed discs except ordinary
commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac.
Beginning in the mid-1930s, one-off 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm
lacquer discs were used by radio networks to archive recordings of
their live broadcasts, and by local stations to delay the broadcast of
network programming or to prerecord their own productions.
In the late 1940s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the
networks to prerecord shows or repeat them for airing in different
time zones, but 16-inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the
early 1960s for non-network distribution of prerecorded programming.
Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late 1950s, and in
the 1960s the discs were reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically
indistinguishable from ordinary LPs.
Unless the quantity required was very small, pressed discs were a more
economical medium for distributing high-quality audio than tape, and
CD mastering was, in the early years of that technology, very
expensive, so the use of LP-format transcription discs continued into
the 1990s. The
King Biscuit Flower Hour
King Biscuit Flower Hour is a late example, as are
Westwood One's The Beatle Years and Doctor Demento programs, which
were sent to stations on LP at least through 1992.
RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-playing record for
home use in September 1931. These "Program Transcription" discs, as
Victor called them, played at 33 1⁄3 rpm and used a
somewhat finer and more closely spaced groove than typical 78s. They
were to be played with a special "Chromium Orange" chrome-plated steel
needle. The 10-inch discs, mostly used for popular and light classical
music, were normally pressed in shellac, but the 12-inch discs, mostly
used for "serious" classical music, were normally pressed in Victor's
new vinyl-based Victrolac compound, which provided a much quieter
playing surface. They could hold up to 15 minutes per side.
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra
under Leopold Stokowski, was the first 12-inch recording issued. The
New York Times wrote, "What we were not prepared for was the quality
of reproduction...incomparably fuller."
Unfortunately for Victor, it was downhill from there. Many of the
subsequent issues were not new recordings but simply dubs made from
existing 78 rpm record sets. The dubs were audibly inferior to
the original 78s. Two-speed turntables with the
33 1⁄3 rpm speed were included only on expensive
high-end machines, which sold in small numbers, and people were not
buying many records of any kind at the time. Record sales in the US
had dropped from a high of 105.6 million records sold in 1921 to
5.5 million in 1933 because of competition from radio and the
effects of the Great Depression. Few if any new Program
Transcriptions were recorded after 1933, and two-speed turntables soon
disappeared from consumer products. Except for a few recordings of
background music for funeral parlors, the last of the issued titles
had been purged from the company's record catalog by the end of the
decade. The failure of the new product left RCA Victor with a low
opinion of the prospects for any sort of long-playing record,
influencing product development decisions during the coming decade.
CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia's
team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20
minutes per side. Although Goldmark was the chief scientist who
selected the team, he delegated most of the experimental work to
William S. Bachman, whom Goldmark had lured from General Electric, and
Howard H. Scott, who died September 22, 2012, at the age of 92.
Research began in 1941, was suspended during World War II, and then
resumed in 1945.
Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press
conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 18, 1948, in two formats: 10
inches (25 centimetres) in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm
singles, and 12 inches (30 centimetres) in diameter. The initial
release of 133 recordings were: 85 12-inch classical LPs (ML4001 to
4085), 26 10-inch classics (ML2001 to 2026), eighteen 10-inch popular
numbers (CL6001 to 6018) and four 10-inch juvenile records (JL 8001 to
8004). According to the 1949 Columbia catalog, issued September 1948,
the first twelve-inch LP was Mendelssohn's Concerto in E Minor by
Nathan Milstein on the violin with the New York Philharmonic,
conducted by Bruno Walter (ML 4001). Three ten-inch series were
released: 'popular', starting with the reissue of The Voice of Frank
Sinatra (CL 6001); 'classical', numbering from Beethoven's 8th
symphony (ML 2001), and 'juvenile', commencing with Nursery Songs by
Gene Kelly (JL 8001). Also released at this time were a pair of 2-LP
sets, Puccini's La Bohème, SL-1 and Humperdinck's Hansel &
When the LP was introduced in 1948, the 78 was the conventional format
for phonograph records. By 1952, 78s still accounted for slightly more
than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half
of the dollar sales. The 45, oriented toward the single song,
accounted for just over 30% of unit sales and just over 25% of dollar
sales. The LP represented not quite 17% of unit sales and just over
26% of dollar sales.
Ten years after their introduction, the share of unit sales for LPs in
the US was almost 25%, and of dollar sales 58%. Most of the remainder
was taken up by the 45; 78s accounted for only 2% of unit sales and 1%
of dollar sales. For this reason, major labels in the United States
ceased manufacturing of 78s for popular and classical releases in 1956
with the minor labels following suit, with the final US-made 78 being
produced in 1959.
Canada and the UK continued production into 1960, while India, the
Philippines, and South Africa produced 78s until 1965, with the last
holdout, Argentina, continuing until 1970.
The popularity of the LP ushered in the "
Album Era" of
English-language popular music, beginning in the 1960s, as performers
took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or
concept albums. Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the
late 1970s with the advent of Compact Cassettes, and later compact
discs, the LP survives as a format to the present day.
Vinyl LP records enjoyed a resurgence in the early 2010s. Vinyl
sales in the UK reached 2.8 million in 2012. US vinyl sales
in 2015 reached 11.9 million.
The LP was soon confronted by the "45", a 7-inch (180 mm)
diameter fine-grooved vinyl record playing at 45 rpm. It was
introduced by RCA Victor in 1949. To compete with the LP, boxed albums
of 45s were issued, along with EP (Extended Play) 45s, which squeezed
two or even three selections onto each side. Despite these efforts,
the 45 succeeded only in replacing the 78 as the format for singles.
The "last hurrah" for the 78 rpm record in the US was the
microgroove 78 series pressed for the
Audiophile label (Ewing Nunn,
Saukville, Wis.) in the early 1950s. This series was labeled AP-1
through about AP-40 and pressed on grainless red vinyl. By very
tightly packing the fine groove, a playing time of 17 minutes per side
was achieved. Within a couple of years
Audiophile switched to
Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP
in the 1950s, but the higher cost of prerecorded tapes was one of
several factors that confined tape to a niche market. Cartridge and
cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than
reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles
beginning in the mid-1960s. However, the LP was not seriously
challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at
home until the 1970s, when the audio quality of the cassette was
greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction
systems. By 1983, cassettes were outselling LPs in the US.
Compact Disc (CD) was introduced in 1982. It offered a recording
that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded
by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches. At first, the much
higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to
affluent early adopters and audiophiles. But prices came down, and by
1988 CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over
cassettes, in 1992.
Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were
made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as
"vinyl". Since the late 1990s there has been a renewed interest in
vinyl. Demand has increased in niche markets, particularly among
audiophiles, DJs, and fans of indie music. But most music sales come
from CDs and mp3s because of their availability, convenience, and
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When initially introduced, 12-inch LPs played for a maximum of 45
minutes, divided over two sides, with 10-inch versions carrying a
maximum of 35 minutes again over two sides. With the advent of sound
film or "talkies," the need for greater storage space made 33 1/2 RPM
records ideal. Soundtracks could no longer fit onto the mere 5 minutes
per side that 78s offered. They were not an immediate success,
however, as they were released during the height of the Great
Depression, and seemed frivolous to the many impoverished of the time.
It wasn't until "microgroove" was developed by
Columbia Records in
1948 that Long Players (LPs) reached their maximum playtime that has
continued to modern times.
Owing to marketing attitudes at the time, the 12-inch format was
reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway
shows. Popular music appeared only on 10-inch records. Executives
believed classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven
symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple,
four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to
listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the
10-inch LP sufficient. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mid-1950s, the
10-inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 , would lose the format
war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records reappeared as Mini-LPs in
the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States and Australia as a
See also: Unusual types of gramophone records § Unusually long
However, in 1952,
Columbia Records began to bring out extended-play
LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per
side. These were used mainly for the original cast
albums of Broadway musicals, such as
Kiss Me, Kate
Kiss Me, Kate and My Fair Lady,
or to fit an entire play, such as the 1950 production of Don Juan in
Hell, onto two LPs. The 52-minute playing time remained rare, however,
because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued
with a 30- to 45-minute playing time.
A small number of albums exceeded the 52-minute limit. But these
records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves,
which allowed for a much smaller amount of dynamic range on the
records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could
damage the record. It also resulted in a much quieter sound. The list
of long-playing vinyl records includes the 90-minute 1976 LP 90
Minutes with Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops, made by Radio
Shack; Genesis' Duke, with each side exceeding 27 minutes; Bob
Dylan's 1976 album Desire, with side two lasting almost thirty
minutes; Todd Rundgren's 1975 album Initiation, totaling
67 min 32 s over two sides; and André Previn's Previn
Plays Gershwin,, with the London Symphony Orchestra, whose sides each
exceeded 30 minutes.
Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared
to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces
between the grooves. The Comic Strip, released by Springtime Records
in 1981, has a side A lasting 38 min 4 s and a side B
lasting 31 min 8 s, for a total of
69 min 12 s.
In any case, the standard 45-minute playing time of the LP was a
significant improvement over that of the previous dominant format, the
78 rpm single, which was generally limited to three to four
minutes. At around 14 minutes per side for 10-inch and 23 minutes per
side for 12-inch, LPs provided a satisfactory time to enjoy a
recording before needing to change or turn over a disc.
Turntables called record changers could play records stacked
vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of
multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. A two-record set had Side
1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the
first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's
intervention. Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used
appropriate automatic sequencing (1–8, 2–7, 3–6, 4–5) to allow
continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for
an individual track.
Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs and
scratches. Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be
ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage. A
warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if
substantial it can make a record physically unplayable. A scuff will
be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or
pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A deep scratch
can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther
inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a
part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an
infinite loop, playing the same bit over and over until someone stops
it. This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac
records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like
a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless
Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burn, which results from
disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning
the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then
backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music
will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the
disc to come up to full speed. When this is done repeatedly, the
affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will
be noticeable at the start of the track.
The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very
nature to some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus
or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality. Record wear can be
reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a
high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a
high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good
condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of
dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary.
The average LP has about 1,500 feet (460 m or about a third of a
mile) of groove on each side. The average tangential needle speed
relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mph,
1.4 km/h or 0.4 m/s. It travels fastest on the outside edge,
unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide
constant linear velocity (CLV). (By contrast, CDs play from the inner
radius outward, the reverse of phonograph records.)
LP pre echo
The empty space before the start of the music has been amplified
+15 dB to reveal the pre-echo.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Thin, closely spaced spiral grooves that allowed for increased playing
time on a 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove LP led to a faint
pre-echo warning of upcoming loud sounds. The cutting stylus
unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse
signal into the previous groove wall. It was discernible by some
listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed
by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the
loud sound occurring 1.8 seconds ahead of time. This problem could
also appear as post-echo, with a ghost of the sound arriving 1.8
seconds after its main impulse.
RIAA equalization curve, used since 1954, deemphasizes (weakens)
the bass notes during recording, allowing closer spacing of record
grooves and hence more playing time. It also boosts the high
frequencies so the playback mirror image correction reduces surface
noise. On playback, the turntable cartridge pre-amplifier reverses the
RIAA curve to flatten out the frequencies again restoring the bass
notes to normal and reducing the high frequencies to normal while
reducing the inherent background hiss produced by the stylus
contacting an imperfect vinyl surface. The net effect of RIAA
equalization is to allow longer playing time and lower background
noise while maintaining full fidelity of music or other content.
Fidelity and formats
LPs pressed in multicolored vinyl (Sotano Beat: A Todo Color, a
various-artists compilation) and clear yellow vinyl - (Rock On Elvis
by Tulsa McLean) both from Argentina.
The audio quality of LPs has increased greatly since their 1948
inception. Early LP recordings were monophonic;
Alan Blumlein patented
Stereophonic sound in 1931 (although stereophony had been demonstrated
in 1881) but unsuccessful attempts were made to create stereophonic
records from the 1920s, including Emory Cook's 1952 idea of using two
tracks, and a system using vertical modulation (harking back to
Edison's 1877 experiments) for one channel and (then-universal)
horizontal for the other, until the modern system ultimately released
Audio Fidelity Records
Audio Fidelity Records in November 1957. This format uses two
modulation angles, equal and opposite 45 degrees from vertical (and so
perpendicular to each other), that can also be thought of as using
traditional horizontal modulation for the sum of Left plus Right
channels (mono), making it essentially compatible with simple mono
recordings, and vertical-plane modulation for the difference of the
The following are some significant advances in the format.
stereo sound became commercially available in late 1957/early 1958
helium-cooled cutting heads that could withstand higher levels of high
frequencies (Neumann SX68)— (Previously, the cutting engineer had to
reduce the HF content of the signal sent to the record cutting head,
otherwise the delicate coils could burn out.)
Elliptical Stylus (marketed by several manufacturers at the end of the
cartridges that operate at lower tracking forces (~200 mN),
beginning from mid-1960s
half- and one-third-speed record cutting, which extend the usable
bandwidth of the record
Matrixed quadraphonic records (SQ, QS, EV-4, UHJ)
"discrete" quadraphonic CD4 records, which enabled frequencies of up
to 50 kHz to be recorded and played back
longer-lasting, antistatic record compounds (e.g.: RCA Dynaflex,
better stylus tip shapes (Shibata, Van den Hul, MicroLine, etc.)
Direct Metal Mastering
noise-reduction (CX encoding, DBX encoding), starting from 1973
In the late 1970s, engineers Gerry Block and Burgess Macneal devised a
preview system of mastering vinyl which allowed about 10-20% more
music per disc while not sacrificing dynamic range. The preview tape
head was positioned far enough before the program tape head to allow
the disk computer enough time to measure the peaks in low frequency
and thereby expand the feed appropriately for the greater excursions
of groove modulation they produce. The ne-plus-ultra Compudisk system
was unveiled at the 1980 AES Convention, alongside the Zuma Disk
Computer (made by John W. Bittner) and the Neumann VMS-80 lathe, which
had its own advanced Disk Computer, on board.
In the 1970s, quadraphonic sound (four-channel) records became
available, both "discrete" and "matrix". These did not achieve the
popularity of stereo records, partly because of scarcity of consumer
playback equipment, competing and incompatible quad record standards
(most of which were compatible with two-channel stereo equipment) and
partly because of the Analog Quadraphonic Formats lack of quality in
quad-remix releases. Quad never escaped the reputation of being a
"gimmick", and the various (mutually incompatible) discrete 4-channel
sound required an ultrasonic carrier signal that was technically
difficult to capture and suffered degradation with playing.
Three-way and quadraphonic recordings, which were favored and
championed by artists like
Leopold Stokowski and Glenn Gould, are
now making a modest comeback, with older masters being turned into
multi-channel Super Audio CDs. (However, a fair number of new surround
recordings—primarily classical—are being made for SACD and Blu-ray
The composition of vinyl used to press records (a blend of polyvinyl
chloride and polyvinyl acetate) has varied considerably over the
years. Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the 1970s energy crisis,
it became commonplace to use recycled vinyl. Sound quality suffered,
with increased ticks, pops and other surface noises.
Other experiments included reducing the thickness of LPs, leading to
warping and increased susceptibility to damage. Using a biscuit of
130 grams of vinyl had been the standard, but some labels
experimented with as little as 90 g per LP.
Today, high fidelity pressings follow the Japanese standard of 160,
180 or 200 g. Compare these to the original
Columbia 12-inch LPs (ml 4001) at around 220 g each. Besides the
standard black vinyl, specialty records are also pressed on different
colors of PVC/A or picture discs with a card picture sandwiched
between two clear sides. Records in different novelty shapes are also
Use by disc jockeys
Disc jockeys (or DJs) in clubs still rely heavily on vinyl records, as
cuing tracks from cassette tapes is too slow and CDs did not allow
creative playback options until quite recently. The term "DJ", which
had always meant a person who played various pieces of music on the
radio (originally 78s, then 45s, then tape cartridges and reels; now
cuts from CDs or tracks on a computer) – a play on the
horse-racing term "jockey" – has also come to encompass all
kinds of skills in "scratching" (record playback manipulation) and
mixing dance music, rapping over the music or even playing musical
instruments, but the original dance club (non-radio) definition was
simply somebody who played records, alternating between two
turntables. The skill came in subtly matching beats or instruments
from one song to the next, providing a consistent dance tempo. DJs
also made occasional announcements and chatted with patrons to take
requests while songs were actually playing, similar to what radio disc
jockeys have been doing since the 1940s.
Record Store Day
^ "Origin of LP". merriam-webster.com.
^ "Frequently Asked Questions". The
Vitaphone Project. Retrieved
^ "Rand's Esoteric OTR: Types of transcriptions and radio recordings".
Randsesotericotr.podbean.com. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
Phonograph Disks Run for Half-Hour". The New York Times. September
18, 1931. p. 48. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
^ Compton Pakenham (September 20, 1931). "Newly Recorded Music". The
New York Times. p. X10.
^ "Not So New", The Billboard, June 5, 1948, p. 17.
^ a b Robert Shelton (March 16, 1958). "Happy Tunes on Cash
Registers". The New York Times. p. XX14.
^ Goldmark, Peter. Maverick inventor; My Turbulent Years at CBS. New
York: Saturday Review Press, 1973.
Ben Sisario (October 6, 2012). "Howard H. Scott, a Developer of the
LP, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2012. Howard
H. Scott, who was part of the team at
Columbia Records that introduced
the long-playing vinyl record in 1948 before going on to produce
albums with the New York Philharmonic, Glenn Gould, Isaac Stern and
many other giants of classical music, died on Sept. 22 in Reading, Pa.
He was 92. ...
^ "Columbia Diskery, CBS Show Microgroove Platters to Press; Tell How
It Began", Billboard, June 26, 1948, p. 3.
^ Marmorstein, Gary. The Label: The Story of Columbia Records. New
York: Thunder's Mouth Press; p. 165.
^ Columbia Record Catalog 1949 dated September 15, 1948
^ "78 Speed On Way Out; LP-45 Trend Gaining", The Billboard, August 2,
1952, p. 47.
^ Why CDs may actually sound better than vinyl, by Chris Kornelis,
January 27, 2015
^ 1 What a record! The UK album chart reaches its 1,000th No1... and
counting, Express, Adrian Lee, November 26, 2013
^ a b "Statistical Overview". riaa.com. Archived from the original on
December 10, 1997. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^ McGeehan, Patrick (December 7, 2009). "Vinyl Records and Turntables
Are Gaining Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
^ 90 Minutes with Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops, Radio
Shack/Realistic Cat. No. 50-2040, 1976 (copyright 1974, 1976, Polydor
^ London Symphony Orchestra, Previn Plays Gershwin, André Previn,
pianist and conductor (featuring Rhapsody in Blue, An American in
Paris and the Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra), Angel SFO 36810,
^ "Audacity Forum". audacityteam.org. Archived from the original on
^ "Analog Quadraphonic Formats". Retrieved 8 April 2015.
^ Gould Radio Portrait of Stokowski for CBC
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LP record by Jac Holzman
Physical audio recording formats
Phonograph cylinder (1877)
Phonograph record (1894)
Wire recording (1898)
Reel-to-reel tape (1940s)
Gray Audograph (1945)
LP record (1948)
On-the-ribs recordings (late 1940s)
RCA tape cartridge (1958)
Compact Cassette (1963)
Compact disc (1982)
Digital Audio Tape
Digital Audio Tape (1987)
Compact Cassette (1992)
High Definition Compatible Digital
High Definition Compatible Digital (1995)
5.1 Music Disc (1997)
Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD (1999)
USB flash drive (as audio format) (2004)
Grooved track audio