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LéOPOLD SéDAR SENGHOR (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet , politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal
Senegal
(1960–80). Ideologically an African socialist , he was associated with the Négritude movement. He was the founder of the Senegalese Democratic Bloc party.

Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française . He is regarded by many as one of the most important African intellectuals of the 20th century.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early years: 1906–28

* 2 "Sixteen years of wandering": 1928–1944

* 2.1 Academic career * 2.2 Military service

* 3 Political career: 1945–1982

* 3.1 Colonial France
France
* 3.2 Political changes * 3.3 Senegal
Senegal
* 3.4 Francophonie

* 4 Académie française: 1983–2001 * 5 Personal life and death * 6 Legacy * 7 Honors * 8 Poetry * 9 Négritude * 10 Works of Senghor * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

EARLY YEARS: 1906–28

Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
was born on 9 October 1906 in the city of Joal
Joal
, some one hundred ten kilometers south of Dakar
Dakar
. Sedar Senghor's father, Basile Diogoye Senghor (pronounced: Basile Jogoy Senghor), was a businessman and merchant belonging to the bourgeois Serer people
Serer people
. Basile Senghor was said to be a wealthy person that owns thousands of cattle and vast lands that was given to him by the kings of Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
. Gnilane Ndiémé Bakhoum (1861–1948), Léopold Sédar Senghor's mother, and the third wife of his father, a Muslim
Muslim
with Fula origin, who belongs to the Tabor tribe, was born near Djilas to a Christian family. She gave birth to six children, including two sons. He was baptized as "Léopold" on 9 August 1906, two months before his birth. His Serer middle name Sédar comes from the Serer language
Serer language
, meaning "one that shall not be humiliated" or "the one you cannot humiliate". His surname Senghor is a combination of the Serer words Sène (a Serer surname and the name of the Supreme Deity in Serer religion called Rog Sene ) and gor or ghor, the etymology of which is kor in Serer language
Serer language
meaning male or man. Tukura Badiar Senghor, the prince of Sine and a figure from whom Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
has been reported to trace descent, was a c . 13th-century Serer noble.

At the age of eight Senghor began his studies in Senegal
Senegal
in the Ngasobil
Ngasobil
boarding school of the Fathers of the Holy Spirit. In 1922 he entered a seminary in Dakar. After being told the religious life was not for him, he attended a secular institution. By then, he was already passionate about French literature. He won distinctions in French, Latin, Greek and Algebra. With his Baccalaureate completed, he was awarded a scholarship to continue his studies in France.

"SIXTEEN YEARS OF WANDERING": 1928–1944

In 1928 Senghor sailed from Senegal
Senegal
for France, beginning in his words, "sixteen years of wandering." Starting his post-secondary studies at the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
, he quit and went on to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand to finish his prep course for entrance to the École normale supérieure , a grande école . Paul Cary , Henri Queffélec
Henri Queffélec
, Robert Verdier and Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
were also studying at this elite institution. After failing the entrance exam, Senghor prepared for his grammar Agrégation . He was granted his agrégation in 1935 after a failed first attempt.

ACADEMIC CAREER

He graduated from the University of Paris , where he received the Agrégation in French Grammar. Subsequently, he was designated professor at the universities of Tours
Tours
and Paris, where he taught during the period 1935–45.

Senghor started his teaching years at the lycée René-Descartes in Tours
Tours
; he also taught at the lycée Marcelin-Berthelot in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses
Saint-Maur-des-Fosses
near Paris. He also studied linguistics taught by Lilias Homburger at the École pratique des hautes études . He studied with prominent social scientists such as Marcel Cohen , Marcel Mauss and Paul Rivet
Paul Rivet
(director of the Institut d\'ethnologie de Paris ). Senghor, along with other intellectuals of the African diaspora who had come to study in the colonial capital, coined the term and conceived the notion of "négritude ", which was a response to the racism still prevalent in France. It turned the racial slur nègre into a positively connoted celebration of African culture and character. The idea of négritude informed not only Senghor's cultural criticism and literary work, but also became a guiding principle for his political thought in his career as a statesman.

MILITARY SERVICE

In 1939, Senghor was enrolled as a French army enlisted man (2e Classe) with the rank of private within the 59th Colonial Infantry division in spite of his higher education and his later acquisition of the French Citizenship in 1932. A year later in 1940, during the German invasion of France
France
, he was taken prisoner by the Germans in la Charité-sur-Loire . He was interned in different camps, and finally at Front Stalag 230, in Poitiers
Poitiers
. Front Stalag 230 was reserved for colonial troops captured during the war. German soldiers wanted to execute him and the others the same day they were captured, but they escaped this fate by yelling Vive la France, vive l'Afrique noire! ("Long live France, long live Black Africa!") A French officer told the soldiers that executing the African prisoners would dishonour the Aryan race and the German Army . In total, Senghor spent two years in different prison camps, where he spent most of his time writing poems. In 1942 he was released for medical reasons.

He resumed his teaching career while remaining involved in the resistance during the Nazi occupation.

POLITICAL CAREER: 1945–1982

COLONIAL FRANCE

Once the war was over, Senghor was selected as Dean of the Linguistics Department with the École nationale de la France d\'Outre-Mer , a position he would hold until Senegal's independence in 1960. While travelling on a research trip for his poetry, he met the local socialist leader, Lamine Guèye , who suggested that Senghor run for election as a member of the Assemblée nationale française . Senghor accepted and became député for the riding of Sénégal-Mauritanie, when colonies were granted the right to be represented by elected individuals. They took different positions when the train conductors on the line Dakar-Niger went on strike. Guèye voted against the strike, arguing the movement would paralyse the colony, while Senghor supported the workers, which gained him great support among Senegalese.

POLITICAL CHANGES

In 1947, Senghor left the African Division of the French Section of the Workers International (SFIO), which had given enormous financial support to the social movement. With Mamadou Dia , he founded the Bloc démocratique sénégalais (1948). They won the legislative elections of 1951, and Guèye lost his seat.

Re-elected deputy in 1951 as an independent overseas member, Senghor was appointed state secretary to the Council's president in Edgar Faure 's government from 1 March 1955 to 1 February 1956. He became mayor of the city of Thiès , Senegal
Senegal
in November 1956 and then advisory minister in the Michel Debré 's government from 23 July 1959 to 19 May 1961. He was also a member of the commission responsible for drafting the Fifth Republic 's constitution, general councillor for Senegal, member of the Grand Conseil de l'Afrique Occidentale Francaise and member for the parliamentary assembly of the European Council .

In 1964 Senghor published the first volume of a series of five, titled Liberté. The book contains a variety of speeches, essays and prefaces.

SENEGAL

Senghor supported federalism for newly independent African states, a type of "French Commonwealth", while retaining a degree of French involvement:

In Africa, when children have grown up, they leave their parents' hut, and build a hut of their own by its side. Believe me, we don't want to leave the French compound. We have grown up in it, and it is good to be alive in it. We simply want to build our own huts. — Speech by Senghor, 1957

Since federalism was not favoured by the African countries, he decided to form, along with Modibo Keita , the Mali Federation with former French Sudan (present-day Mali
Mali
). Senghor was president of the Federal Assembly until its failure in 1960.

Afterwards, Senghor became the first President of the Republic of Senegal, elected on 5 September 1960. He is the author of the Senegalese national anthem . The prime minister, Mamadou Dia , was in charge of executing Senegal's long-term development plan, while Senghor was in charge of foreign relations. The two men quickly disagreed. In December 1962, Mamadou Dia was arrested under suspicion of fomenting a coup d\'état . He was held in prison for 12 years. Following this, Senghor created a presidential regime.

On 22 March 1967, Senghor survived an assassination attempt. The suspect, Moustapha Lô , pointed his pistol towards the President after he had participated in the sermon of Tabaski
Tabaski
, but the gun did not fire . Lô was sentenced to death for treason and executed on 15 June 1967, even though it remained unclear if he had actually wanted to kill Senghor.

Following an announcement at the beginning of December 1980, Senghor resigned his position at the end of the year, before the end of his fifth term. Abdou Diouf
Abdou Diouf
replaced him as the head of the country. Under his presidency, Senegal
Senegal
adopted a multi-party system (limited to three: socialist , communist and liberal ). He created a performing education system. Despite the end of official colonialism, the value of Senegalese currency continued to be fixed by France, the language of learning remained French, and Senghor ruled the country with French political advisors.

FRANCOPHONIE

He supported the creation of la Francophonie and was elected vice-president of the High Council of the Francophonie.

In 1982, he was one of the founders of the Association France
France
and developing countries whose objectives were to bring attention to the problems of developing countries, in the wake of the changes affecting the latter.

ACADéMIE FRANçAISE: 1983–2001

He was elected a member of the Académie française
Académie française
on 2 June 1983, at the 16th seat where he succeeded Antoine de Lévis Mirepoix . He was the first African to sit at the Académie. The entrance ceremony in his honor took place on 29 March 1984, in presence of French President François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
. This was considered a further step towards greater openness in the Académie, after the previous election of a woman, Marguerite Yourcenar
Marguerite Yourcenar
.

In 1993, the last and fifth book of the Liberté series was published: Liberté 5: le dialogue des cultures.

PERSONAL LIFE AND DEATH

Senghor's first marriage was to Ginette Éboué, daughter of Félix Éboué . They married on 9 September 1946 and divorced in 1955. They gave birth to two sons: Francis in 1947 and Guy in 1948. His second wife, Colette Hubert, who was from France, became Senegal's first First Lady upon independence in 1960. Senghor had three sons between his two marriages. 2006 Memorial stamp from Moldova
Moldova

He spent the last years of his life with his wife in Verson , near the city of Caen
Caen
in Normandy
Normandy
, where he died on 20 December 2001. His funeral was held on 29 December 2001 in Dakar
Dakar
. Officials attending the ceremony included Raymond Forni
Raymond Forni
, president of the Assemblée nationale and Charles Josselin , state secretary for the minister of foreign affairs, in charge of the Francophonie. Jacques Chirac (who said, upon hearing of Senghor's death: "Poetry has lost one of its masters, Senegal
Senegal
a statesman, Africa a visionary and France
France
a friend" ) and Lionel Jospin , respectively president of the French Republic and the prime minister , did not attend. Their failure to attend Senghor's funeral made waves as it was deemed a lack of acknowledgement for what the politician had been in his life. The analogy was made with the Senegalese Tirailleurs who, after having contributed to the liberation of France, had to wait more than forty years to receive an equal pension (in terms of buying power) to their French counterparts. The scholar Érik Orsenna
Érik Orsenna
wrote in the newspaper Le Monde
Le Monde
an editorial entitled "J'ai honte" (I am ashamed).

LEGACY

Although a socialist , Senghor avoided the Marxist and anti-Western ideology that had become popular in post-colonial Africa, favouring the maintenance of close ties with France
France
and the western world. This is seen by many as a contributing factor to Senegal's political stability: it remains one of the few African nations never to have had a coup, and always to have had a peaceful transfer of power.

Senghor's tenure as president was characterized by the development of African socialism , which was created as an indigenous alternative to Marxism , drawing heavily from the négritude philosophy. In developing this, he was assisted by Ousmane Tanor Dieng . On 31 December 1980, he retired in favour of his prime minister, Abdou Diouf .

Seat number 16 of the Académie was vacant after the Senegalese poet's death. He was ultimately replaced by another former president, Valéry Giscard d\'Estaing .

HONORS

Senghor received several honours in the course of his life. He was made Grand-Croix of the Légion d\'honneur , Grand-Croix of the l' Ordre national du Mérite , commander of arts and letters. He also received academic palms and the Grand-Croix of the l'Ordre du lion du Sénégal. His war exploits earned him the medal of Reconnaissance Franco-alliée 1939–1945 and the combattant cross 1939–1945. He was named honorary doctor of thirty-seven universities. Léopold Sédar Senghor received a degree honoris causa from the University of Salamanca

Senghor received the Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire on 14 October 1971.

On 13 November 1978, he received the Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic of Spain.

The same year, Senghor received a honoris causa from the University of Salamanca .

In 1983 he was awarded the Dr. Leopold Lucas Prize by the University of Tübingen ."

The French Language International University in Alexandria was officially open in 1990 and was named after him.

In 1994 he was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award by the African Studies Association ; however, there was controversy about whether he met the standard of contributing "a lifetime record of outstanding scholarship in African studies and service to the Africanist community." Michael Mbabuike , president of the New York African Studies Association (NYASA), said that the award also honors those who have worked "to make the world a better place for mankind."

The airport of Dakar
Dakar
was renamed Aéroport International Léopold Sédar Senghor in 1996, on his 90th birthday.

The Passerelle Solférino in Paris
Paris
was renamed after him in 2006, on the centenary of his birth.

POETRY

Senghor signing a copy of his Poèmes, Universita degli Studi di Genova (18 January 1988).

His poetry was widely acclaimed, and in 1978 he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca . His poem "A l'appel de la race de Saba", published in 1936, was inspired by the entry of Italian troops in Addis Ababa. In 1948, Senghor compiled and edited a volume of Francophone poetry called Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache for which Jean-Paul Sartre wrote an introduction, entitled "Orphée Noir" (Black Orpheus).

For his epitaph was a poem he had written, namely: Quand je serai mort, mes amis, couchez-moi sous Joal-l'Ombreuse. Sur la colline au bord du Mamanguedy, près l'oreille du sanctuaire des Serpents. Mais entre le Lion couchez-moi et l'aïeule Tening-Ndyae. Quand je serai mort mes amis, couchez-moi sous Joal-la-Portugaise. Des pierres du Fort vous ferez ma tombe, et les canons garderont le silence. Deux lauriers roses-blanc et rose-embaumeront la Signare. When I'm dead, my friends, place me below Shadowy Joal, On the hill, by the bank of the Mamanguedy, near the ear of Serpents' Sanctuary. But place me between the Lion and ancestral Tening-Ndyae. When I'm dead, my friends, place me beneath Portuguese Joal. Of stones from the Fort build my tomb, and cannons will keep quiet. Two oleanders -- white and pink -- will perfume the Signare.

NéGRITUDE

With Aimé Césaire and Léon Damas
Léon Damas
, Senghor created the concept of Négritude , an important intellectual movement that sought to assert and to valorize what they believed to be distinctive African characteristics, values, and aesthetics. One of these African characteristics that Senghor theorized was asserted when he wrote "the Negro has reactions that are more lived, in the sense that they are more direct and concrete expressions of the sensation and of the stimulus, and so of the object itself with all its original qualities and power." This was a reaction against the too strong dominance of French culture in the colonies, and against the perception that Africa did not have culture developed enough to stand alongside that of Europe. In that respect négritude owes significantly to the pioneering work of Leo Frobenius .

Building upon historical research identifying ancient Egypt with black Africa, Senghor argued that sub-Saharan Africa and Europe are in fact part of the same cultural continuum, reaching from Egypt to classical Greece, through Rome to the European colonial powers of the modern age. Négritude was by no means—as it has in many quarters been perceived—an anti-white racism, but rather emphasized the importance of dialogue and exchange among different cultures (e.g., European, African, Arab, etc.).

A related concept later developed in Mobutu
Mobutu
's Zaire is that of authenticité or Authenticity.

WORKS OF SENGHOR

* Prière aux masques (c. 1935 - published in collected works during the 1940s). * Chants d'ombre (1945) * Hosties noires (1948) * Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache (1948) * La Belle Histoire de Leuk-le-Lièvre (1953) * Éthiopiques (1956) * Nocturnes (1961). (English tr. by Clive Wake and John O. Reed ,Nocturnes, London: Heinemann Educational, 1969. African Writers Series 71) * Nation et voie africaine du socialisme (1961) * Pierre Teilhard de Chardin et la politique africaine (1962) * Poèmes (1964). * Lettres de d'hivernage (1973) * Élégies majeures (1979) * La Poésie de l'action: conversation avec Mohamed Aziza (1980) * Ce que je crois (1988)

SEE ALSO

* Senegal
Senegal
portal * Biography portal * Poetry portal * Politics portal * Serer portal

* List of Presidents of Senegal
Senegal
* Senegal
Senegal
* Serer people
Serer people
* List of Senegalese writers

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Bibliographie, Dakar, Bureau de documentation de la Présidence de la République, 1982 (2e édition), 158 pp. * ^ Robert O. Collins, African History: Western African History, p. 130. * ^ Senegalaisement.com * ^ Washington Ba, Sylvia (8 March 2015). The Concept of Negritude in the Poetry of Leopold Sedar Senghor. Princeton University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-400-86713-4 . * ^ Université De La Vallée D'Aoste. LÉOPOLD SÉDAR SENGHOR (1906-2001) * ^ Charles Becker & Waly Coly Faye, "La Nomination Sereer", Ethiopiques, n° 54, revue semestrielle de culture Négro-Africaine Nouvelle série volume 7, 2e semestre 1991. * ^ Thiaw, Issa Laye , "La Religiousite des Sereer, Avant et Pendant Leur Islamisation", Ethiopiques, No. 54, Revue Semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine. Nouvelle Série, Vol. 7, 2e Semestre 1991. * ^ R. P. Gravrand , Le Gabou Dans Les Traditions Orales Du Ngabou, Ethiopiques numéro 28 - numéro special, Revue Socialiste de culture Négro-Africaine. Octobre 1981 * ^ Sarr, Alioune , Histoire du Sine-Saloum, Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987. * ^ Bryan Ryan. Major 20th-Century Writers: a selection of sketches from contemporary authors, Volume 4, Gale Research, 1991. ISBN 0-8103-7915-5 , ISBN 978-0-8103-7915-2 * ^ Jonathan Peters. A Dance of Masks: Senghor, Achebe, Soyinka, Three Continents Press, 1978. ISBN 0-914478-23-0 , ISBN 978-0-914478-23-2 * ^ Janet G. Vaillant. Black, French, and African: a life of Léopold Sédar Senghor, Harvard University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-674-07623-0 , ISBN 978-0-674-07623-5 * ^ The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 17, World Book, 2000. ISBN 0-7166-0100-1 , ISBN 978-0-7166-0100-5 * ^ Jacques Girault, Lecherbonnier Bernard, Université Paris-Nord. Center for Comparative Literary Studies and French. Leopold Sedar Senghor: Africanity - universality: 29–30 May 2000, Harmattan, 2002. ISBN 2-7475-2676-3 , ISBN 978-2-7475-2676-0 * ^ Michelle M. Wright. Becoming Black: creating identity in the African diaspora, Duke University Press, 2004. 0822332884, 9780822332886 * ^ A B Jamie Stokes. Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Vol. 1. Infobase Publishing, 2009. ISBN 0-8160-7158-6 , ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6 * ^ Selected Poems of Leopold Sedar Senghor. CUP Archive. * ^ Jacques Louis Hymans. Léopold Sédar Senghor: an intellectual biography, Edinburgh University Press, 1971. 0852241194, 9780852241196 * ^ Gwendolen Margaret Carter, Charles F. Gallagher. African One-Party States, Cornell University Press, 1964. * ^ Hugues Azèrad, Peter Collier, Twentieth-century French poetry: a critical anthology, Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 0-521-71398-6 , ISBN 978-0-521-71398-6 * ^ Nugent, Paul (2004). Africa since Independence: A Comparative History. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-333-68273-9 . * ^ Africa Bureau (London, England). Africa Digest, Volume 8. Africa Publications Trust, 1960. * ^ Christof Heyns. Human Rights Law in Africa 1998, Vol. 3 of Human Rights Law in Africa. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001. ISBN 90-411-1578-1 , ISBN 978-90-411-1578-2 * ^ Sheldon Gellar. Senegal: an African nation between Islam and the West, Westview Press, 1995. 0813310202, 9780813310206 * ^ Mbow, Abdoulaye (30 April 2011). "Retour sur la tentative d’assassinat de Senghor et le meurtre de Demba Diop en 1967 : Quand la peine de mort était encore une réalité au Sénégal". L'OFFice (in French). Retrieved 28 June 2011. * ^ "President Leopold Senghor to Retire". Liberian Inaugural 1980-12-03: 8. * ^ Stephan Haggard, Steven Benjamin Webb, World Bank. Voting for reform: democracy, political liberalization, and economic adjustment. World Bank Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-19-520987-7 , ISBN 978-0-19-520987-7 * ^ Hakim Adi, Marika Sherwood, Pan-African History: Political Figures from Africa and the Diaspora Since 1787, Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-203-41780-1 , ISBN 978-0-203-41780-5 * ^ A B "Léopold Senghor". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. 2001-12-21. Retrieved 2012-04-06. * ^ "Africa mourns Senegal\'s Senghor". BBC News
BBC News
. 2001-12-22. Retrieved 2008-08-13. * ^ "J\'ai honte" * ^ "Grand State Banquet". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. * ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado * ^ Peter L. Berger
Peter L. Berger
, Dialog zwischen religiosen Traditionen in einem Zeitalter der Relativitat, Mohr-Siebeck, 2011. ISBN 978-3-16-150792-2 * ^ "Distinguished Africanist Award 2009" African Studies Association. * ^ Bensaid, Alexandra, and Andrew Whitehead (1995), "Literature: Award to Senghor Triggers Debate" IPS-Inter Press Service, 18 April 1995, accessed via the commercial service Lexis/Nexis, 30 December 2008. * ^ (in French) Aéroport International Léopold Sédar Senghor, official website.

FURTHER READING

* Armand Guibert ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Presidents of Senegal
Senegal

* Léopold Sédar Senghor * Abdou Diouf
Abdou Diouf
* Abdoulaye Wade
Abdoulaye Wade
* Macky Sall
Macky Sall

* v * t * e

Chairpersons of the Organisation of African Unity and the African Union

ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN UNITY

* Selassie * Nasser * Nkrumah * Ankrah * Selassie * Mobutu
Mobutu
* Boumedienne * Ahidjo * Kaunda * Daddah * Hassan II * Gowon * Barre * Amin

* Ramgoolam * Bongo * Nimeiry * Tolbert * Senghor * Stevens * Moi * Mengistu * Nyerere * Diouf * Nguesso * Kaunda * Traoré * Mubarak * Museveni

* Babangida * Diouf * Mubarak * Ben Ali * Meles * Biya * Mugabe * Compaoré * Bouteflika * Eyadéma * Chiluba * Mwanawasa

AFRICAN UNION

* Mbeki * Chissano * Obasanjo * Nguesso * Kufuor * Kikwete * Gaddafi * Mutharika * Nguema * Boni * Hailemariam * Abdel Aziz * Mugabe * Déby * Condé

* v * t * e

Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung
Junjung
* Lamane
Lamane
* Sadax * Saltigue
Saltigue
* Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Koox
Koox
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Roog
Roog
(main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

* Pangool
Pangool

* list

SACRED SITES

* * Fatick
Fatick
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Sine River
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Sine-Saloum
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Somb
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Point of Sangomar
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Tattaguine
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Tukar
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Yaboyabo

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HISTORY

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Baol
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Saloum
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Kingdom of Sine
* Serer ancient history
Serer ancient history
* Serer history (medieval era to present)
Serer history (medieval era to present)
* States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
* The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune
The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune
* The Battle of Logandème * Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history
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Western Sahara

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* medicinal plants

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* Demographics * Culture

DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia * Mauritania * Senegal
Senegal

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CULTURE

* Birth * Chere * Death * Inheritance * Marriage * Mbalax * Njuup * Sabar
Sabar
* Tama * Tassu * Njom

ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof
Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof
* Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof
Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof
* Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
* Maad a Sinig Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof
Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof
* Maad Semou Njekeh Joof
Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye
Lingeer Fatim Beye
* Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans
Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family
Faye family
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Guelowar
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Joof family
* Joos Maternal Dynasty
Joos Maternal Dynasty
* The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof * The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof
The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

* Buumi
Buumi
* Faye family
Faye family
* Joof family
Joof family
* Lamane
Lamane
* Lingeer * Loul
Loul
* Maad Saloum
Saloum
* Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
* Njie family * Sarr family * Sene family * Teigne * Thilas
Thilas

* SERER PEOPLE CATEGORY

* SERER RELIGION CATEGORY

* Serer people
Serer people
portal

* Serer religion portal

* v * t * e

Struga Poetry Evenings Golden Wreath Laureates

* Robert Rozhdestvensky (1966) * Bulat Okudzhava (1967) * László Nagy (1968) * Mak Dizdar (1969) * Miodrag Pavlović (1970) * W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
(1971) * Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
(1972) * Eugenio Montale (1973) * Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca (1974) * Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(1975) * Eugène Guillevic (1976) * Artur Lundkvist
Artur Lundkvist
(1977) * Rafael Alberti (1978) * Miroslav Krleža (1979) * Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
(1980) * Blaže Koneski (1981) * Nichita Stănescu (1982) * Sachchidananda Vatsyayan \'Ajneya\' (1983) * Andrei Voznesensky
Andrei Voznesensky
(1984) * Yiannis Ritsos
Yiannis Ritsos
(1985) * Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
(1986) * Tadeusz Różewicz
Tadeusz Różewicz
(1987) * Desanka Maksimović (1988) * Thomas Shapcott (1989) * Justo Jorge Padrón (1990) * Joseph Brodsky (1991) * Ferenc Juhász (1992) * Gennadiy Aygi (1993) * Ted Hughes
Ted Hughes
(1994) * Yehuda Amichai (1995) * Makoto Ooka (1996) * Adunis (1997) * Liu Banjiu (1998) * Yves Bonnefoy (1999) * Edoardo Sanguineti
Edoardo Sanguineti
(2000) * Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(2001) * Slavko Mihalić (2002) * Tomas Tranströmer
Tomas Tranströmer
(2003) * Vasco Graça Moura (2004) * William S. Merwin (2005) * Nancy Morejón (2006) * Mahmoud Darwish (2007) * Fatos Arapi (2008) * Tomaž Šalamun
Tomaž Šalamun
(2009) * Lyubomir Levchev (2010) * Mateja Matevski (2011) * Mongane Wally Serote (2012) * José Emilio Pacheco (2013) * Ko Un (2014) * Bei Dao (2015) * Margaret Atwood (2016) * Charles Simic (2017)

* v * t * e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 16

* Jean Sirmond (1634) * Jean de Montereul (1649) * François Tallemant l\'Aîné (1651) * Simon de la Loubère
Simon de la Loubère
(1693) * Claude Sallier (1729) * Jean-Gilles du Coëtlosquet (1761) * Anne-Pierre, marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac (1784) * Antoine-Vincent Arnault (1803) * Armand Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu
Armand Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu
(1816) * Bon-Joseph Dacier (1822) * Pierre François Tissot (1833) * Félix Dupanloup (1854) * Gaston Audiffret-Pasquier (1878) * Alexandre Ribot (1906) * Henri-Robert (1923) * Charles Maurras
Charles Maurras
(1938) * Antoine de Lévis-Mirepoix (1953) * Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(1983) * Valéry Giscard d\'Estaing (2003)

* v * t * e

Sahitya Akademi fellows

1968–1980 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1968) D. R. Bendre
D. R. Bendre
, Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay , Sumitranandan Pant , C. Rajagopalachari (1969) Vaikom Muhammad Basheer , Firaq Gorakhpuri
Firaq Gorakhpuri
, Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar , Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana
(1970) Kaka Kalelkar , Gopinath Kaviraj , Gurbaksh Singh , Kalindi Charan Panigrahi (1971) Masti Venkatesha Iyengar , Mangharam Udharam Malkani , Nilmoni Phukan , Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi , Sukumar Sen , V. R. Trivedi (1973) T. P. Meenakshisundaram (1975) Atmaram Ravaji Deshpande , Jainendra Kumar
Jainendra Kumar
, Kuppali Venkatappa Puttappa \'Kuvempu\' , V. Raghavan , Mahadevi Varma (1979)

1981–2000 Umashankar Joshi
Umashankar Joshi
, K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar
K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar
, K. Shivaram Karanth (1985) Mulk Raj Anand , Vinayaka Krishna Gokak , Laxmanshastri Balaji Joshi , Amritlal Nagar , Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai , Annada Shankar Ray (1989) Nagarjun
Nagarjun
, Balamani Amma
Balamani Amma
, Ashapoorna Devi , Qurratulain Hyder , Vishnu Bhikaji Kolte , Kanhu Charan Mohanty , P. T. Narasimhachar , R. K. Narayan , Harbhajan Singh (1994) Jayakanthan , Vinda Karandikar , Vidya Niwas Mishra , Subhash Mukhopadhyay , Raja Rao , Sachidananda Routray , Krishna Sobti (1996) Syed Abdul Malik , K. S. Narasimhaswamy , Gunturu Seshendra Sarma
Gunturu Seshendra Sarma
, Rajendra Shah
Rajendra Shah
, Ram Vilas Sharma , N. Khelchandra Singh (1999) Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar , Rehman Rahi (2000)

2001–PRESENT Ram Nath Shastri (2001) Kaifi Azmi
Kaifi Azmi
, Govind Chandra Pande , Nilamani Phookan , Bhisham Sahni
Bhisham Sahni
(2002) Kovilan
Kovilan
, U. R. Ananthamurthy , Vijaydan Detha , Bhadriraju Krishnamurti , Amrita Pritam , Shankha Ghosh , Nirmal Verma
Nirmal Verma
(2004) Manoj Das
Manoj Das
, Vishnu Prabhakar (2006) Anita Desai , Kartar Singh Duggal , Ravindra Kelekar (2007) Gopi Chand Narang , Ramakanta Rath (2009) Chandranath Mishra Amar , Kunwar Narayan , Bholabhai Patel
Bholabhai Patel
, Kedarnath Singh , Khushwant Singh (2010) Raghuveer Chaudhari
Raghuveer Chaudhari
, Arjan Hasid , Sitakant Mahapatra
Sitakant Mahapatra
, M. T. Vasudevan Nair , Asit Rai , Satya Vrat Shastri (2013) Santeshivara Lingannaiah Bhyrappa , C. Narayana Reddy
C. Narayana Reddy
(2014) Nirendranath Chakravarty , Gurdial Singh (2016)

HONORARY FELLOWS Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(1974) Edward C. Dimock, Jr. , Daniel H. H. Ingalls Sr. , Kamil Zvelebil , Ji Xianlin
Ji Xianlin
(1996) Vassilis Vitsaxis , Eugene Chelyshev
Eugene Chelyshev
(2002) Ronald E. Asher (2007) Abhimanyu Unnuth (2013)

PREMCHAND FELLOWSHIP Intizar Hussain (2005)

ANANDA COOMARASWAMY FELLOWSHIP Senake Bandaranayake , Chie Nakane , Azad N. Shamatov