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Kyoto (; Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kobe. As of 2021, the city had a population of 1.45 million, making up 57% of the prefecture's total population.

Overview

In 794, Kyoto (then known as Heian-kyō) was chosen as the new seat of Japan's imperial court. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an. The Imperial Palace faced south, resulting in Ukyō (the right sector of the capital) being on the west while Sakyō (the left sector) is on the east. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, and Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. The emperors of Japan ruled from Kyoto in the following eleven centuries until 1869, when the court relocated to Tokyo. The city was devastated during the Ōnin War in the 15th century and went into an extended period of decline, but gradually revived under the Tokugawa shogunate (1600–1868) and flourished as a major city in Japan. The modern municipality of Kyoto was established in 1889. The city was spared from large-scale destruction during World War II and as a result, its prewar cultural heritage has mostly been preserved. Kyoto is considered the cultural capital of Japan and a major tourist destination. It is home to numerous Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, palaces and gardens, some of which are listed collectively by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Prominent landmarks include the Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kiyomizu-dera, Kinkaku-ji, Ginkaku-ji and the Katsura Imperial Villa. Kyoto is also a center of higher learning, with Kyoto University being an institution of international renown.

Name



Etymology

In Japanese, Kyoto was previously called Kyō (), Miyako (), or Kyō no Miyako (). In the 11th century, the city was renamed "Kyōto" (, "capital city"), from the Middle Chinese ' (cf. Mandarin ''jīngdū''). After the city of Edo was renamed "Tōkyō" (, meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868 and the seat of the emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as "Saikyō" (, meaning "Western Capital"). Kyoto is also sometimes called the thousand-year capital (). The National Diet never officially passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto, Miaco and Meaco, utilised mainly by Dutch cartographers. Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was , "capital". File:Homann map of Japan (Iaponia) 1730.jpg|18th-century map with the Japanese capital "Meaco"

Geography and administrative divisions



Terrain

Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro (or Kyoto) Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama, with a height just above above sea level. This interior positioning results in hot summers and cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, and the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of . Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a far greener feel. Surrounding areas do not follow the same grid pattern as the center of the city, though streets throughout Kyoto share the distinction of having names. Kyoto sits atop a large natural water table that provides the city with ample freshwater wells. Due to large-scale urbanization, the amount of rain draining into the table is dwindling and wells across the area are drying at an increasing rate.

Climate

Kyoto has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen ''Cfa''), featuring a marked seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation. Summers are hot and humid, but winters are relatively cold with occasional snowfall. Kyoto's rain season begins around the middle of June and lasts until the end of July, yielding to a hot and sunny latter half of the summer. Kyoto, along with most of the Pacific coast and central areas of Japan is prone to typhoons during September and October.

Wards

Kyoto has eleven . Together, they make up the city of Kyoto. Like other cities in Japan, Kyoto has a single mayor and a city council.

Cityscape

File:Kyoto Kyoto Station 2.jpg|Kyōto Station(2018) File:Teramachi Street shopping area 1.jpg|Teramachi(2018) File:Shijo Kawaramachi-2.jpg|Kawaramachi(2017) File:京都夜景 2015 (31985638715).jpg|KyotoCity Skylines from Kiyomizu-dera(2015) File:Kyoto Manga Museum.jpg|Kyoto International Manga Museum(2008)

Demographics

Historically, Kyoto was the largest city in Japan, later surpassed by Osaka and Edo (Tokyo) towards the end of the 16th century. In the pre-war years, Kyoto traded places with Kobe and Nagoya ranking as the 4th and 5th largest city. In 1947, it went back to being 3rd. By 1960 it had fallen to 5th again, and by 1990 it had fallen to 7th, in 2015 it is now 9th.

Greater Kyoto

The concentration of population to the capital city area is 55%, which is highest among the prefectures. The economic difference between the coastal area and inland area including Kyoto basin is significant. Encompassing 10.12 trillion, Kyoto MEA has the fourth-largest economy in the country in 2010.

History



Origins

Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in the area of Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the region before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established. File:Shimogamo 01.jpg|Shimogamo ShrineKamo Shrine) File:Kamo-wakeikazuchi-jinja, romon.jpg|Kamigamo ShrineKamo Shrine

Heian-kyō

During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province. The new city, , a scaled replica of the then Chinese Tang dynasty capital Chang'an,. became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto (Muromachi shogunate) or in other cities such as Kamakura (Kamakura shogunate) and Edo (Tokugawa shogunate), Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration. File:Emperor Kammu large.jpg|Emperor Kanmu File:Daidairi_of_Heiankyo.jpg|Daidairi (palace in the center) and the cityscape of Heian-kyō

Sengoku period

The city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, and did not really recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, and power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility (''kuge'') and religious factions as well. Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north–south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. File:Onin-War-1467-1477-The-Battle-of-Onin-by-Utagawa-Yoshitora.png|Ōnin War File:Nijo Castle 171206 (24263278197).jpg|Nijō Castle File:Toyotomi hideyoshi.jpg|Toyotomi_Hideyoshi File:Jurakudai-Palace-Kyoto-Folding-Screen.jpg|Jurakudai

Edo period

Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo. File:1696_Genroku_9_%28early_Edo%29_Japanese_Map_of_Kyoto%2C_Japan_-_Geographicus_-_Kyoto-genroku9-1696.jpg|Map of Heian-kyō, 1696 File:東海道五十三次 京 三条大はし-Kyoto MET DP123206.jpg|Sanjō ŌhashiThe Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō) File:Toshi-ya 00.jpg|''Perspective Pictures of Places in Japan: Sanjūsangen-dō in Kyoto''
Toyoharu, File:伏見桃山城06.jpg|Fushimi Castle


Meiji period

The Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy. The modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city. The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. File:Hamaguri rebellion.jpg|Kinmon incident File:Great victory of Kangun Imperial forces.jpg|Battle of Toba–FushimiBoshin War) File:1879 view of Kyoto.jpg|View of Kyoto from beside the Hondō of Kiyomizudera. – 1879 File:Nanzen-ji, Suirokaku (Lake Biwa Canal) -1 (November 2008) - panoramio.jpg|Nanzenji aqueduct

Modern Kyoto

There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to possibly persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki. The city was largely spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as ''machiya''. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol on greenhouse gas emissions.(United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) File:Kyoto International Conference Center Garden 20190330 03.jpg|Kyoto International Conference Center

Politics and government

Kyoto City is governed by the directly elected mayor of Kyoto and the Kyoto City Assembly. Following the 2020 Kyoto mayoral election, independent Daisaku Kadokawa was re-elected for the fourth time, supported by the Liberal Democratic Party, Komeito, Constitutional Democratic Party, and Democratic Party for the People. The legislative city assembly has 67 elected members.

Kyoto City Assembly



Elections

* 2008 Kyoto mayoral election * 2012 Kyoto mayoral election *

International relations

Kyoto, having been the capital city of Japan, a seat of learning and culture, has long-established ties with other great cities around the world. Many foreign scholars, artists and writers have stayed in Kyoto over the centuries.

Twin towns and sister cities

The city of Kyoto has sister-city relationships with the following cities: * Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador (TBA) * Boston, Massachusetts, United States (1959) * Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (1963) * Prague, Czech Republic (1996) * Florence, Tuscany, Italy (1965) * Kyiv, Ukraine (1971) * Xi'an, Shaanxi, China (1974) (Friendship City) * Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (1980) * Zagreb, Croatia (1981) * Cusco, Peru (1987)

Partner cities

In addition to its sister city arrangements which involve multi-faceted cooperation, Kyoto has created a system of "partner cities" which focus on cooperation based on a particular topic. At present, Kyoto has partner-city arrangements with the following cities: * Jinju, South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea (1999) * Konya, Turkey (2009) * Paris, France (1958) * Qingdao, Shandong, China (2012) * Huế, Vietnam (2013) * Istanbul, Turkey (2013) * Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India (2014) * Vientiane, Laos (2015)

Economy

main headquarters]] The key industry of Kyoto is information technology and electronics: the city is home to the headquarters of Nintendo, Intelligent Systems, SCREEN Holdings, Tose, Hatena, Omron, Kyocera, Shimadzu Corp., Rohm, Horiba, Nidec Corporation, Nichicon, Nissin Electric, and GS Yuasa. Tourists are hugely fond of Kyoto, contributing significantly to its economy. The cultural heritage sites of Kyoto are constantly visited by school groups from across Japan, and many foreign tourists also stop in Kyoto. In 2014, the city government announced that a record number of tourists had visited Kyoto, and it was favoured as the world's best city by U.S. travel magazines. Traditional Japanese crafts are also major industry of Kyoto, most of which are run by artisans in their plants. Kyoto's kimono weavers are particularly renowned, and the city remains the premier center of kimono manufacturing. Such businesses, vibrant in past centuries, have declined in recent years as sales of traditional goods stagnate. Sake brewing is Kyoto's traditional industry. Gekkeikan and Takara Holdings are major sake brewers headquartered in Kyoto. Other notable businesses headquartered in Kyoto includes Aiful, Ishida, MK, Nissen Holdings, Oh-sho, Sagawa Express, Volks and Wacoal.

Education



Colleges and universities

Home to 40 institutions of higher education, Kyoto is one of the academic centers in Japan. Kyoto University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. According to the ''Times Higher Education'' top-ranking university, Kyoto University is ranked the second university in Japan after University of Tokyo, and 25th overall in the world . The Kyoto Institute of Technology is also among the most famous universities in Japan and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture and design in the country. Popular private universities, such as Doshisha University and Ritsumeikan University are also located in the city. Kyoto also has a unique higher education network called the Consortium of Universities in Kyoto, which consists of three national, three public (prefectural and municipal), and 45 private universities, as well as the city and five other organizations. The combination does not offer a degree, but offers the courses as part of a degree at participating universities. In addition to Japanese universities and colleges, selected American universities, such as Stanford, also operates in the city for education and research. Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies (KCJS) is a combination of 14 American universities that sponsors a two-semester academic program for undergraduates who wish to do advanced work in Japanese language and cultural studies.

Transportation



Airways



Airport

Although Kyoto does not have its own large commercial airport, travelers can get to the city via nearby Itami Airport, Kobe Airport or Kansai International Airport. The Haruka Express operated by JR West carries passengers from Kansai Airport to Kyōto Station in 73 minutes. Osaka Airport Transport buses connect Itami Airport and Kyōto StationHachijo Gate in 50 minutes and cost 1,310 yen (as of 2017) for a one-way trip. Some buses go further, make stops at major hotels and terminals in the downtown area. Other airports located further from the city is Nagoya Airfield located 135.5 km away from the city.

Railways

Just like other major cities in Japan, Kyoto is well served by rail transportation systems operated by several different companies and organizations. The city's main gateway terminal, Kyōto Station, which is one of the most popular stations in the country, connects The Tōkaidō Shinkansen bullet train Line (see below) with five JR West lines, a Kintetsu line and a municipal subway line. The Keihan, the Hankyu, and other rail networks also offer frequent services within the city and to other cities and suburbs in the Kinki region. There is a Railway Heritage site in Kyoto, where visitors can experience the range of Japanese railways in the JR Museum (formerly Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum, situated about the roundhouse.

High-speed rail

The Tōkaidō Shinkansen operated by JR Central provides high-speed rail service linking Kyoto with Nagoya, Yokohama and Tokyo to the east of Kyoto and with nearby Osaka and points west on the San'yō Shinkansen, such as Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, Kitakyushu, and Fukuoka. The trip from Tokyo takes about two hours and eighteen minutes. From Hakata in Fukuoka, Nozomi takes you to Kyoto in just over three hours. All trains including Nozomi stop at Kyōto Station, serving as a gateway to not only Kyoto Prefecture but also northeast Osaka, south Shiga and north Nara.

Subway

The Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau operates the Kyoto Municipal Subway consisting of two lines: the Karasuma Line and the Tōzai Line.

=Karasuma Line

= The Karasuma Line is colored green, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "K". The line has following stations, from north to south: Kokusaikaikan (terminal) and Matsugasaki in Sakyō-ku; Kitayama and Kitaōji in Kita-ku; Kuramaguchi and Imadegawa in Kamigyō-ku; Marutamachi and Karasuma Oike in Nakagyō-ku; Shijō, Gojō and Kyōto in Shimogyō-ku; Kujō and Jūjō in Minami-ku; and Kuinabashi and Takeda (terminal) in Fushimi-ku. Between and , trains run beneath the north–south , hence the name. They link to the other subway line, the Tōzai Line, at . They also connect to the JR lines at Kyōto Station and the Hankyu Kyoto Line running cross-town beneath Shijō Street at the intersection of Shijō Karasuma, Kyoto's central business district. At Shijō Karasuma, the subway station is named , whereas Hankyu's station is called . The Transportation Bureau and Kintetsu jointly operate through services, which continue to the Kintetsu Kyoto Line to Kintetsu Nara Station in Nara. The Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line connect at and . All the stations are located in the city proper.

=Tozai Line

= The Tōzai Line is colored vermilion, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "T". This line runs from the southeastern area of the city, then east to west (i.e. ''tōzai'' in Japanese) through the Kyoto downtown area where trains run beneath the three east–west streets: , and . The line has following stations, from east to west: Rokujizō (terminal) in Uji; Ishida and Daigo in Fushimi-ku; Ono, Nagitsuji, Higashino, Yamashina and Misasagi in Yamashina-ku; Keage, Higashiyama and Sanjō Keihan in Higashiyama-ku; Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae, Karasuma Oike, Nijōjō-mae, Nijō and Nishiōji Oike in Nakagyō-ku; and Uzumasa Tenjingawa (terminal) in Ukyō-ku. The Keihan Keishin Line has been integrated into this line, and thus Keihan provides through services from in the neighbouring city of Ōtsu, the capital of Shiga Prefecture. The Tōzai Line connects to the Keihan lines at , , and , to the JR lines at , and , and to the Keifuku Electric Railroad at Uzumasa Tenjingawa. All the stations except Rokujizō are located in Kyoto.

Buses

Kyoto's municipal bus network is extensive. Private carriers also operate within the city. Many tourists join commuters on the public buses, or take tour buses. Kyoto's buses have announcements in English and electronic signs with stops written in the Latin alphabet. Buses operating on routes within the city, the region, and the nation stop at Kyōto Station. In addition to Kyōto Station, bus transfer is available at the intersections of Shijō Kawaramachi and . The intersection of Karasuma Kitaōji to the north of downtown has a major bus terminal serving passengers who take the Karasuma Line running beneath Karasuma Street, Kyoto's main north–south street.

Roads

thumb|200px|Kyoto and Karasuma Street seen from Kyoto Tower

Expressway

Within Kyoto's ancient lanes, one-way system is prevalent and necessary for preservation of its character. The city is connected with other parts of Japan by the Meishin Expressway, which has two interchanges in the city: Kyoto Higashi (Kyoto East) in Yamashina-ku and Kyoto Minami (Kyoto South) in Fushimi-ku. The Kyoto-Jukan Expressway connects the city to northern regions of Kyoto Prefecture. The Daini Keihan Road is a new bypass (completed in 2010) to Osaka.

Japan National Route

Although Greater Kyoto has fewer toll-highways than other comparable Japanese cities, it is served with elevated dual and even triple-carriageway national roads. , only of the Hanshin Expressway Kyoto Route is in operation. There are nine national highways in the city of Kyoto: Route 1, Route 8, Route 9, Route 24, Route 162, Route 171, Route 367, Route 477 and Route 478.

Cycling

Cycling is a very important form of personal transportation in the city. The geography and scale of the city are such that the city may be easily navigated on a bicycle. There are five bicycle rental stations and 21 EcoStations in central Kyoto. Because of the large number of cyclists, permitted bicycle parking areas can be difficult to find. Bicycles parked in non-permitted areas are impounded.

Waterways

Japanese trade and haulage traditionally took place by waterways, minimally impacting the environment up until the highway-systems built by Shogunates. There are a number of rivers, canals and other navigable waterways in Kyoto. The Seta and Uji rivers, confluence into the (Yodo River), Kamogawa and Katsura river flow through Kyoto. Lake Biwa Canal was a significant infrastructural development. In present days, however, the waterways are no longer primarily used for passenger or goods transportation, other than limited sightseeing purpose such as Hozugawa Kudari boat on the Hozu River and Jukkoku bune sightseeing tour boat in Fushimi-ku area. Lake Biwa remains a popular place for recreational boating, also the site of a Birdman Rally where contraptions and contrivances are driven from land over the waterway.

Tourism

Kyoto contains roughly 2,000 temples and shrines.Scott, David (1996). ''Exploring Japan''. Fodor's Travel Publications, Inc. .

UNESCO World Heritage Site

About 20% of Japan's National Treasures and 14% of Important Cultural Properties exist in the city proper. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) includes 17 locations in Kyoto, Uji in Kyoto Prefecture, and Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. The site was designated as World Heritage in 1994. File:KamigamoJinjya Saiden.jpg|Kamigamo Shrine File:Shimogamo 01.jpg|Shimogamo Shrine File:Japan 2006 - Kyoto - Toji Pagoda.JPG|Tō-ji File:Kiyomizudera sakra01.jpg|Kiyomizu-dera File:Saihouji-kokedera02.jpg|Saihō-ji File:Tenryu-Ji Garden.jpg|Tenryū-ji File:Kinkaku3402CBcropped.jpg|Kinkaku-ji File:RyoanJi-Dry garden.jpg|Ryōan-ji File:170216 Nishi Honganji Kyoto Japan03s4.jpg|Nishi Honganji File:Nijo Castle 1.jpg|Nijō Castle File:Daigoji Kyoto01s5s4110.jpg|Daigo-ji File:GinkakujiTemple.jpg|Ginkaku-ji File:Ninnaji Kyoto07n4500.jpg|Ninna-ji File:Kozanji Kyoto Kyoto11s5s4592.jpg|Kōzan-ji

Museums

* Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum * () * Kitamura Museum () * The () * () * Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art * Kyoto City Archaeological Museum () * Kyoto Art Center * The Kyoto International Manga Museum * The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto * The Kyoto National Museum () * The Kyoto University Museum () * () * The Museum of Kyoto () * The Kyoto Botanical Garden () * () * () * Koryo Museum of Art () * () * Ryozen Museum of History () * Sen-oku Hakuko Kan () * Toei Kyoto Studio Park () * Nomura Art Museum () * () * The Yurinkan Museum () * The () * The Hosomi Museum () * Hakusasonso Hashimoto Kansetsu Garden and Museum () * The Raku Museum () * Kyoto Museum for World Peace of Ritsumeikan University () * Ōkōchi Sansō () * The Kyoto Kaleidoscope Museum () * Shigureden * Kyoto Railway Museum

Culture

Although ravaged by wars, fires, and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was not entirely destroyed in WWII. It was removed from the atomic bomb target list (which it had headed) by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center, which he knew from his honeymoon and later diplomatic visits. Kyoto has been, and still remains, Japan's cultural center. The government of Japan is relocating the Agency for Cultural Affairs to Kyoto in 2021. With its 2,000 religious places – 1,600 Buddhist temples and 400 Shinto shrines, as well as palaces, gardens and architecture intact – it is one of the best preserved cities in Japan. Among the most famous temples in Japan are Kiyomizu-dera, a magnificent wooden temple supported by pillars off the slope of a mountain; Kinkaku-ji, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion; Ginkaku-ji, the Temple of the Silver Pavilion; and Ryōan-ji, famous for its rock garden. The Heian Jingū is a Shinto shrine, built in 1895, celebrating the imperial family and commemorating the first and last emperors to reside in Kyoto. Three special sites have connections to the imperial family: the Kyoto Gyoen area including the Kyoto Imperial Palace and Sentō Imperial Palace, homes of the emperors of Japan for many centuries; Katsura Imperial Villa, one of the nation's finest architectural treasures; and Shugaku-in Imperial Villa, one of its best Japanese gardens. In addition, the temple of Sennyu-ji houses the tombs of the emperors from Shijō to Kōmei. Other sites in Kyoto include Arashiyama, the Gion and Pontochō geisha quarters, the Philosopher's Walk, and the canals that line some of the older streets. The "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto" are listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. These include the Kamo Shrines (Kami and Shimo), Kyō-ō-Gokokuji (Tō-ji), Kiyomizu-dera, Daigo-ji, Ninna-ji, Saihō-ji (Kokedera), Tenryū-ji, Rokuon-ji (Kinkaku-ji), Jishō-ji (Ginkaku-ji), Ryōan-ji, Hongan-ji, Kōzan-ji and the Nijō Castle, primarily built by the Tokugawa shōguns. Other sites outside the city are also on the list. Kyoto is renowned for its abundance of delicious Japanese foods and cuisine. The special circumstances of Kyoto as a city away from the sea and home to many Buddhist temples resulted in the development of a variety of vegetables peculiar to the . The oldest restaurant in Kyoto is Honke Owariya which was founded in 1465. Japan's television and film industry has its center in Kyoto. Many ''jidaigeki'', action films featuring samurai, were shot at Toei Uzumasa Eigamura. A film set and theme park in one, Eigamura features replicas of traditional Japanese buildings, which are used for ''jidaigeki''. Among the sets are a replica of the old Nihonbashi (the bridge at the entry to Edo), a traditional courthouse, a Meiji Period police box and part of the former Yoshiwara red-light district. Actual film shooting takes place occasionally, and visitors are welcome to observe the action. The dialect spoken in Kyoto is known as ''Kyō-kotoba'' or ''Kyōto-ben'', a constituent dialect of the Kansai dialect. When Kyoto was the capital of Japan, the Kyoto dialect was the ''de facto'' standard Japanese and influenced the development of Tokyo dialect, the modern standard Japanese. Courtesans performing duties at Tokyo were referred to as "Edokko" (bourgois). Famous Kyoto expressions are a polite copula ''dosu'', an honorific verb ending ''-haru'', a greeting phrase ''okoshi-yasu'' "welcome", etc.

Festivals

Kyoto is well known for its traditional festivals which have been held for over 1,000 years and are a major tourist attraction.Kyoto Visitors Guide (1998). Kyoto Tourist Office, Kyoto City Council. The first is the Aoi Matsuri on May 15. Two months later (July 1 to 31) is the Gion Matsuri known as one of the 3 great festivals of Japan, culminating in a massive parade on July 17. Kyoto marks the Bon Festival with the Gozan no Okuribi, lighting fires on mountains to guide the spirits home (August 16). The October 22 Jidai Matsuri, Festival of the Ages, celebrates Kyoto's illustrious past. File:Minami Kannonyama Gion Matsuri Yoiyama.jpg|Gion Matsuri File:Aoi-Matsuri-01.jpg|Aoi Matsuri File:JidaiMatsuri Gohouren.jpg|Jidai Matsuri File:Gozanokuribi Daimonji2.jpg|Gozan Okuribi

Sports



Soccer

In football, Kyoto is represented by Kyoto Sanga FC who won the Emperor's Cup in 2002, and rose to J. League's Division 1 in 2005. Kyoto Sanga has a long history as an amateur non-company club, although it was only with the advent of professionalization that it was able to compete in the Japanese top division. Sanga Stadium by Kyocera is its home stadium. Amateur football clubs such as F.C. Kyoto BAMB 1993 and Kyoto Shiko Club (both breakaway factions of the original Kyoto Shiko club that became Kyoto Sanga) as well as unrelated AS Laranja Kyoto and Ococias Kyoto AC compete in the regional Kansai soccer league. *Kyoto Sanga FC - J.LeagueJ2

Baseball

Between 1951 and 1952 the Central League team Shochiku Robins played their franchised games at in Kita-ku. In 2010, Nishikyogoku Stadium in Ukyo-ku became the home of a newly formed girls professional baseball team, the Kyoto Asto Dreams. Additionally, Kyoto's high school baseball teams are strong, with Heian and Toba in particular making strong showings recently at the annual tournament held in Koshien Stadium, Nishinomiya, near Osaka. *Kyoto Flora(Old Kyoto Asto Dreams)- Japan Women's Baseball League(JWBL)

Basketball

*Kyoto Hannaryz - B.League(B1)

Rugby

*Mitsubishi Motors Kyoto Red Evolutions - Top West(A) *Shimadzu Corporation Breakers - Top West(A)

Horse racing

Kyoto Racecourse in Fushimi-ku is one of ten racecourses operated by the Japan Racing Association. It hosts notable horse races including the Kikuka-shō, Spring Tenno Sho, and Queen Elizabeth II Commemorative Cup. File:Sanga stadium by kyocera05.jpg|Kyocera Sanga StadiumKameoka) File:Nishikyogoku170930.jpg|Takebishi Stadium Kyoto(Kyoto Nishikyogoku Athletic Park) File:Nishikyogoku baseball stadium130727-02.JPG|Wakasa Stadium Kyoto(Kyoto Nishikyogoku Athletic Park) File:Hannaryz-arena130312.JPG|Hannaryz Arena(Kyoto Municipal Gymnasium) File:京都競馬場 - panoramio (5).jpg|Kyoto Racecourse


See also


* List of bridges in Kyoto * List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto * List of Kyoto's fires * List of Shinto shrines in Kyoto * Outline of Kyoto


References





Notes





Bibliography


* Fiévé, Nicolas (ed.) (2008) ''Atlas historique de Kyôto. Analyse spatiale des systèmes de mémoire d’une ville, de son architecture et de ses paysages urbains''. Foreword Kôichirô Matsuura, Preface Jacques Gernet, Paris, Éditions de l’UNESCO / Éditions de l’Amateur, 528 pages, 207 maps et 210 ill. . * Fiévé, Nicolas and Waley, Paul. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. London: Routledge. 417 pages + 75 ill. * Lone, John. (2000). ''Old Kyoto: A Short Social History.'' Oxford: Oxford University Press. . * Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). ''Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869.'' Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. * Ropke, Ian Martin. ''Historical Dictionary of Osaka and Kyoto.'' 273pp Scarecrow Press (July 22, 1999) . * Stewart, Harold. (1981). ''By the Old Walls of Kyoto: A Year's Cycle of Landscape Poems with Prose Commentaries''. New York: Weatherhill. . * Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). iyun-sai_Rin-siyo/[[Hayashi_Gahō,_1652.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Hayashi_Gahō.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="iyun-sai Rin-siyo/[[Hayashi Gahō">iyun-sai Rin-siyo/[[Hayashi Gahō, 1652">Hayashi_Gahō.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="iyun-sai Rin-siyo/[[Hayashi Gahō">iyun-sai Rin-siyo/[[Hayashi Gahō, 1652 ''[[Nihon Ōdai Ichiran]]; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon.'' Paris: [[Royal Asiatic Society|Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland]]
...Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)
* Wyden, Peter. (1984). ''Day One: Before Hiroshima and After.'' Simon & Schuster, Inc. .


External links



Kyoto Travel Guide
— City of Kyoto and Kyoto Tourism Council
Kyoto City
Local Government

Guide including map with 300+ points of interest
Photos of Kyoto
mostly temples and shrines
Kyoto Prefectural Domoto-Insho Museum of Fine Arts at Google Cultural Institute
* {{Authority control Category:Populated places established in the 8th century Category:1889 establishments in Japan Category:Buddhist pilgrimage sites in Japan Category:Former capitals of Japan Category:Environmental model cities Category:Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan