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KYOTO (京都市, _Kyōto-shi_, pronounced ( listen ), pronounced ( listen ); UK : /kɪˈoʊtoʊ/ , US : /kiˈoʊ-/ , or /ˈkjoʊ-/ ) is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu , Japan . It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, it is now the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture located in the Kansai region , as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka- Kobe metropolitan area. Kyoto is also known as the thousand-year capital.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Heian-kyō * 2.3 Modern Kyoto

* 3 Geography * 4 Demographics * 5 Climate

* 6 Politics and government

* 6.1 Kyoto City Assembly * 6.2 Elections * 6.3 Wards

* 7 Culture * 8 Economy * 9 Colleges and universities

* 10 Transportation

* 10.1 Airport * 10.2 Buses * 10.3 Cycling * 10.4 Roads

* 10.5 Rail

* 10.5.1 Subway

* 10.5.1.1 Karasuma Line * 10.5.1.2 Tozai Line

* 10.5.2 High-speed rail

* 10.6 Waterways

* 11 Tourism

* 11.1 UNESCO World Heritage Site * 11.2 Museums * 11.3 Festivals

* 12 Sports

* 12.1 Football * 12.2 Baseball * 12.3 Horse racing

* 13 International relations

* 13.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 13.2 Partner cities

* 14 See also

* 15 References

* 15.1 Notes * 15.2 Bibliography

* 16 External links

NAME

18th century map with the Japanese capital "Meaco"

In Japanese, the city has been called KYō (京), MIYAKO (都), or KYō NO MIYAKO (京の都). In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto ("capital city"), after the Chinese word for capital city, _jingdu_ (京都). After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo (東京, meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868, and the seat of the Emperor was transferred there, Kyoto was known for a short time as SAIKYō (西京, meaning "Western Capital").

Obsolete spellings for the city's name include KIOTO, MIACO and MEACO. Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was KEISHI (京師), meaning "metropolis" or "capital".

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Kyoto 18th century European town map of "Miaco" Kyoto, main street, 1891 Model of Heian-kyō , looking north towards Dai-dairi

ORIGINS

Although archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, relatively little is known about human activity in the area before the 6th century AD, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.

HEIAN-KYō

Main article: Heian-kyō Sanjō Ōhashi, the terminus of Tōkaidō in Edo period (ukiyo-e by Hiroshige)

During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara . His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province .

The new city, HEIAN-KYō (平安京, "tranquility and peace capital"), a scaled replica of the then Tang capital Chang\'an , became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history . Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto ( Muromachi shogunate ) or in other cities such as Kamakura ( Kamakura shogunate ) and Edo (Tokugawa shogunate ), Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration .

The city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, and did not really recover until the mid-16th century. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility (_kuge _) and religious factions as well. Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since.

In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called _odoi_ (御土居) encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period , the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo.

MODERN KYOTO

The Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city, and the subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy. The modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city. The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932.

There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population "better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon" In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson , Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki . The city was largely spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties.

As a result, the Imperial City (Emeritus) of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as _machiya _. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex.

Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol on greenhouse gas emissions that bears the city's name.

GEOGRAPHY

Kyoto seen from Mount Atago in the northwest corner of the city

KYOTO 京都市 UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Kyōto Prefecture , Japan

COORDINATES 35°00′42″N 135°46′05″E / 35.0117°N 135.7681°E / 35.0117; 135.7681

AREA 827.83 km2 (8.9107×109 sq ft)

CRITERIA ii, iv

REFERENCE 688

INSCRIPTION 1994 (18th Session )

WEBSITE www.city.kyoto.lg.jp

Location of Kyoto

Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro (or Kyoto) Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level . This interior positioning results in hot summers and cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, and the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres (319.7 sq mi).

The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang\'an (present-day Xi\'an ). The Imperial Palace faced south, resulting in Ukyō (the right sector of the capital) being on the west while Sakyō (the left sector) is on the east. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō , Shimogyō , and Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern.

Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace , with the less-populated northern area retaining a far greener feel. Surrounding areas do not follow the same grid pattern as the center of the city, though streets throughout Kyoto share the distinction of having names.

Kyoto sits atop a large natural water table that provides the city with ample freshwater wells. Due to large-scale urbanization, the amount of rain draining into the table is dwindling and wells across the area are drying at an increasing rate.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1890 288,867 —

1900 371,600 +28.6%

1910 470,033 +26.5%

1920 591,323 +25.8%

1930 765,142 +29.4%

1940 1,089,726 +42.4%

1950 1,101,854 +1.1%

1960 1,284,818 +16.6%

1970 1,419,165 +10.5%

1980 1,473,065 +3.8%

1990 1,461,103 −0.8%

2000 1,467,785 +0.5%

2010 1,474,015 +0.4%

2015 1,475,183 +0.1%

Source:

Historically, Kyoto was the largest city in Japan, later surpassed by Osaka and Edo ( Tokyo ) towards the end of the 16th century. In the pre-war years, Kyoto traded places with Kobe and Nagoya ranking as the 4th and 5th largest city. In 1947, it went back to being 3rd. By 1960 it had fallen to 5th again, and by 1990 it had fallen to 7th, in 2015 it is now 9th.

CLIMATE

Kyoto has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_), featuring a marked seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation. Summers are hot and humid, but winters are relatively cold with occasional snowfall. Kyoto's rain season begins around the middle of June and lasts until the end of July, yielding to a hot and sunny latter half of the summer. Kyoto, along with most of the Pacific coast and central areas of Japan is prone to typhoons during September and October.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KYOTO, KYOTO

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 19.9 (67.8) 22.9 (73.2) 25.7 (78.3) 30.7 (87.3) 33.8 (92.8) 36.8 (98.2) 38.2 (100.8) 39.8 (103.6) 38.1 (100.6) 32.2 (90) 26.9 (80.4) 22.8 (73) 39.8 (103.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.9 (48) 9.7 (49.5) 13.4 (56.1) 19.9 (67.8) 24.6 (76.3) 27.8 (82) 31.5 (88.7) 33.3 (91.9) 28.8 (83.8) 22.9 (73.2) 17.0 (62.6) 11.6 (52.9) 20.8 (69.4)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 4.6 (40.3) 5.1 (41.2) 8.4 (47.1) 14.2 (57.6) 19.0 (66.2) 23.0 (73.4) 26.8 (80.2) 28.2 (82.8) 24.1 (75.4) 17.8 (64) 12.1 (53.8) 7.0 (44.6) 15.9 (60.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 1.4 (34.5) 4.0 (39.2) 9.0 (48.2) 14.0 (57.2) 18.8 (65.8) 23.2 (73.8) 24.3 (75.7) 20.3 (68.5) 13.6 (56.5) 7.8 (46) 3.2 (37.8) 11.7 (53.1)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −11.9 (10.6) −11.6 (11.1) −8.2 (17.2) −4.4 (24.1) −0.3 (31.5) 4.9 (40.8) 10.6 (51.1) 12.8 (55) 7.1 (44.8) 0.2 (32.4) −4.4 (24.1) −9.4 (15.1) −11.9 (10.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 50.3 (1.98) 68.3 (2.689) 113.3 (4.461) 115.7 (4.555) 160.8 (6.331) 214.0 (8.425) 220.4 (8.677) 132.1 (5.201) 176.2 (6.937) 120.9 (4.76) 71.3 (2.807) 48.0 (1.89) 1,491.3 (58.713)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 5 (2) 8 (3.1) 2 (0.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (1.2) 18 (7.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.5 MM) 7.8 9.2 11.9 10.6 11.4 12.9 12.9 8.7 11.0 8.8 7.6 8.1 120.9

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 3.1 3.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 9.2

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 66 66 62 59 62 67 70 66 68 68 68 68 65.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 123.2 117.4 146.8 175.4 180.9 138.3 142.3 182.7 136.8 157.4 138.1 135.8 1,775.1

Source #1: 平年値(年・月ごとの値)

Source #2: (record temperatures) 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

Kyoto City Hall

The directly elected executive mayor in Kyoto as of 2013 is Daisaku Kadokawa , an independent supported by Democratic Party of Japan , Liberal Democratic Party , New Komeito Party , Your Party and Social Democratic Party . The legislative city assembly has 69 elected members.

KYOTO CITY ASSEMBLY

POLITICAL PARTY NUMBER OF SEATS

Liberal Democratic Party 22

Japanese Communist Party 14

Democratic Party of Japan 13

New Komeito Party 12

Kyoto Party 4

Independent 2

Vacant 2

ELECTIONS

* Kyoto mayoral election, 2008 * Kyoto mayoral election, 2012

WARDS

Wards of Kyoto Main article: Wards of Kyoto

Kyoto has eleven wards (区, _ku_).

Wards of Kyoto

ROMAJI JAPANESE

1 Fushimi-ku 伏見区

2 Higashiyama-ku 東山区

3 Kamigyō-ku 上京区

4 Kita-ku 北区

5 Minami-ku 南区

6 Nakagyō-ku administrative center 中京区

7 Nishikyō-ku 西京区

8 Sakyo-ku 左京区

9 Shimogyō-ku 下京区

10 Ukyō-ku 右京区

11 Yamashina-ku 山科区

Together, they make up the city of Kyoto. Like other cities in Japan, Kyoto has a single mayor and a city council.

CULTURE

_ A tsukemono _ shop on Nishiki Street

Although ravaged by wars, fires, and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was spared from much of the destruction of World War II. It was removed from the atomic bomb target list (which it had headed) by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson , as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center which he knew from his honeymoon and later diplomatic visits. A monk by the Katsura River in Arashiyama

With its 2,000 religious places – 1,600 Buddhist temples and 400 Shinto shrines , as well as palaces, gardens and architecture intact – it is one of the best preserved cities in Japan. Among the most famous temples in Japan are Kiyomizu-dera , a magnificent wooden temple supported by pillars off the slope of a mountain; Kinkaku-ji , the Temple of the Golden Pavilion; Ginkaku-ji , the Temple of the Silver Pavilion; and Ryōan-ji , famous for its rock garden. The Heian Jingū is a Shinto shrine, built in 1895, celebrating the Imperial family and commemorating the first and last emperors to reside in Kyoto. Three special sites have connections to the imperial family: the Kyoto Gyoen area including the Kyoto Imperial Palace and Sentō Imperial Palace , homes of the Emperors of Japan for many centuries; Katsura Imperial Villa , one of the nation's finest architectural treasures; and Shugaku-in Imperial Villa , one of its best Japanese gardens . In addition, the temple of Sennyu-ji houses the tombs of the emperors from Shijō to Kōmei .

Other sites in Kyoto include Arashiyama , the Gion and Pontochō geisha quarters, the Philosopher\'s Walk , and the canals which line some of the older streets.

The "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto " are listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site . These include the Kamo Shrines (Kami and Shimo), Kyō-ō-Gokokuji (Tō-ji), Kiyomizu-dera , Daigo-ji , Ninna-ji , Saihō-ji (Kokedera), Tenryū-ji , Rokuon-ji (Kinkaku-ji), Jishō-ji (Ginkaku-ji), Ryōan-ji , Hongan-ji , Kōzan-ji and the Nijō Castle , primarily built by the Tokugawa shoguns . Other sites outside the city are also on the list.

Kyoto is renowned for its abundance of delicious Japanese foods and cuisine. The special circumstances of Kyoto as a city away from the sea and home to many Buddhist temples resulted in the development of a variety of vegetables peculiar to the Kyoto area (京野菜, _kyō-yasai_).

Japan's television and film industry has its center in Kyoto. Many _jidaigeki _, action films featuring samurai, were shot at Toei Uzumasa Eigamura . A film set and theme park in one, Eigamura features replicas of traditional Japanese buildings which are used for _jidaigeki_. Among the sets are a replica of the old Nihonbashi (the bridge at the entry to Edo ), a traditional courthouse, a Meiji Period police box and part of the former Yoshiwara red-light district. Actual film shooting takes place occasionally, and visitors are welcome to observe the action.

The dialect spoken in Kyoto is known as _Kyō-kotoba_ or _Kyōto-ben_, a constituent dialect of the Kansai dialect . When Kyoto was the capital of Japan, the Kyoto dialect was the _de facto_ standard Japanese and influenced the development of Tokyo dialect , the modern standard Japanese. Famous Kyoto expressions are a polite copula _dosu_, an honorific verb ending _-haru_, a greeting phrase _okoshi-yasu_ "welcome", etc.

ECONOMY

Nintendo main headquarters A map showing Kyoto Metropolitan Employment Area . Tourists on street near Kiyomizu-dera

The key industry of Kyoto is information technology and electronics: the city is home to the headquarters of Nintendo , Intelligent Systems , Dainippon Screen , Tose , Omron , Kyocera , Shimadzu Corp. , Rohm , Horiba , Nidec Corporation , Nichicon , Nissin Electric , and GS Yuasa .

Tourism also forms a large base of Kyoto's economy. The city's cultural heritages are constantly visited by school groups from across Japan, and many foreign tourists also stop in Kyoto. In 2014, the city government announced that a record number of tourists had visited Kyoto, and it was chosen as the world's best city by U.S. travel magazine.

Traditional Japanese crafts are also major industry of Kyoto, most of which are run by artisans in small plants. Kyoto's kimono weavers are particularly renowned, and the city remains the premier center of kimono manufacturing. Such businesses, vibrant in past centuries, have declined in recent years as sales of traditional goods stagnate.

Sake brewing is Kyoto's traditional industry. Gekkeikan and Takara Holdings are major sake brewers headquartered in Kyoto.

Other notable businesses headquartered in Kyoto includes Aiful , Ishida , MK , Nissen Holdings , Oh-sho , Sagawa Express , Volks and Wacoal .

The concentration of population to the capital city area is 55% which is highest among the prefectures. The economic difference between the coastal area and inland area including Kyoto basin is significant. Greater Kyoto , Kyoto Metropolitan Employment Area , (2.7 million people) had a total GDP of US$115.3 million in 2010.

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: Higher education in Japan Kyoto University

Home to 37 institutions of higher education , Kyoto is one of the academic centers in Japan. Kyoto University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement top-ranking university, Kyoto University is ranked the second university in Japan after University of Tokyo , and 25th overall in the world as of 2010 . The Kyoto Institute of Technology is also among the most famous universities in Japan and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture and design in the country. Popular private universities, such as Doshisha University and Ritsumeikan University are also located in the city.

Kyoto also has a unique higher education network called the Consortium of Universities in Kyoto , which consists of three national, three public (prefectural and municipal), and 45 private universities, as well as the city and five other organizations. The combination does not offer a degree, but offers the courses as part of a degree at participating universities.

In addition to Japanese universities and colleges, selected American universities also operates in the city for education and research. Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies (KCJS) is a combination of 14 American universities that sponsors a two-semester academic program for undergraduates who wish to do advanced work in Japanese language and cultural studies. The American university, Stanford University , operates a " Japan Center" in Kyoto.

TRANSPORTATION

See also: Transport in Keihanshin Kyoto and Karasuma Street seen from Kyoto Tower Inside Kyoto Station

AIRPORT

See also: Kansai International Airport and Itami Airport _ Kansai Airport express Haruka _ at Kyoto Station

Although Kyoto does not have its own airport, travelers can get to the city via Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport in Osaka Prefecture . The Haruka Express operated by JR West carries passengers from Kansai Airport to Kyoto Station in 73 minutes.

Osaka Airport Transport buses connect Itami Airport and Kyoto Station Hachijo Gate in 50 minutes and cost 1,280 yen for a one-way trip. Some buses go further, make stops at major hotels and terminals in downtown area.

BUSES

A typical Kyoto Municipal Bus

Kyoto's municipal bus network is extensive. Private carriers also operate within the city. Many tourists join commuters on the public buses, or take tour buses. Kyoto's buses have announcements in English and electronic signs with stops written in the Latin alphabet.

Most city buses have a fixed fare. A one-day bus pass and a combined unlimited train and bus pass are also available. These are especially useful for visiting many different points of interest within Kyoto. The bus information center just outside the central station handles tickets and passes. The municipal transport company publishes a very useful leaflet called "Bus Navi." It contains a route map for the bus lines to most sights and fare information. This too is available at the information center in front of the main station.

Buses operating on routes within the city, the region, and the nation stop at Kyoto Station . In addition to Kyoto Station, bus transfer is available at the intersections of Shijō Kawaramachi and Sanjō Keihan . The intersection of Karasuma Kitaōji to the north of downtown has a major bus terminal serving passengers who take the Karasuma Line running beneath Karasuma Street , Kyoto's main north-south street.

CYCLING

Cycling is a very important form of personal transportation in the city. The geography and scale of the city are such that the city may be easily navigated on a bicycle. Bicycle theft is not common, but finding permitted bicycle parking areas can be difficult. Bicycles parked in non-permitted areas are impounded.

ROADS

The city is connected with other parts of Japan by the Meishin Expressway , which has two interchanges in the city: Kyoto Higashi ( Kyoto East) in Yamashina-ku and Kyoto Minami ( Kyoto South) in Fushimi-ku. The Kyoto-Jukan Expressway connects the city to northern regions of Kyoto Prefecture. The Daini Keihan Road is a new bypass (completed in 2010) to Osaka.

Although Kyoto has fewer toll-highways than other comparable Japanese cities, it is served with dual and even triple-carriageway national roads. As of 2010 , only 8.2 kilometres (5.1 miles) of the Hanshin Expressway Kyoto Route is in operation.

There are nine national highways in the city of Kyoto: Route 1 , Route 8 , Route 9 , Route 24 , Route 162 , Route 171 , Route 367 , Route 477 and Route 478 .

RAIL

See also: Keihan Electric Railway , Hankyu Railway , Kintetsu Railway , Keifuku Electric Railroad , and Eizan Electric Railway

Just like other major cities in Japan, Kyoto is well served by rail transportation systems operated by several different companies and organizations. The city's main gateway terminal, Kyoto Station , which is one of the most popular stations in the country, connects The Tōkaidō Shinkansen bullet train Line (see below) with five JR West lines, a Kintetsu line and a municipal subway line.

The Keihan , the Hankyu , and other rail networks also offer frequent services within the city and to other cities and suburbs in the Kinki region.

Subway

Main article: Kyoto Municipal Subway

The Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau operates the Kyoto Municipal Subway consisting of two lines: the Karasuma Line and the Tōzai Line .

Karasuma Line

Main article: Karasuma Line An express service bound for Kokusaikaikan Station of the Karasuma Line is running on Kintetsu Kyoto Line

The Karasuma Line is coloured green, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "K".

The line has following stations, from north to south: Kokusaikaikan (terminal) and Matsugasaki in Sakyō-ku ; Kitayama and Kitaōji in Kita-ku ; Kuramaguchi and Imadegawa in Kamigyō-ku ; Marutamachi and Karasuma Oike in Nakagyō-ku ; Shijō , Gojō and Kyōto in Shimogyō-ku ; Kujō and Jūjō in Minami-ku ; and Kuinabashi and Takeda (terminal) in Fushimi-ku .

Between Kitaōji and Jūjō , trains run beneath the north-south Karasuma Street (烏丸通, _Karasuma-dori_), hence the name. They link to the other subway line, the Tōzai Line , at Karasuma Oike . They also connect to the JR lines at Kyoto Station and the Hankyu Kyoto Line running cross-town beneath Shijō Street at the intersection of Shijō Karasuma , Kyoto's central business district . At Shijō Karasuma, the subway station is named Shijō , whereas Hankyu's station is called Karasuma .

The Transportation Bureau and Kintetsu jointly operate through services, which continue to the Kintetsu Kyoto Line to Kintetsu Nara Station in Nara . The Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line connect at Kyoto and Takeda . All the stations are located in the city proper.

Tozai Line

Main article: Tōzai Line (Kyoto) Platform screen doors at Higashiyama Station of the Tōzai Line

The Tōzai Line is coloured vermilion, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "T". This line runs from the southeastern area of the city, then east to west (i.e. _tōzai_ in Japanese) through the Kyoto downtown area where trains run beneath the three east-west streets: Sanjō Street (三条通, _Sanjō-dori_), Oike Street (御池通, _Oike-dori_) and Oshikōji Street (押小路通, _Oshikōji-dori_).

The line has following stations, from east to west: Rokujizō (terminal) in Uji ; Ishida and Daigo in Fushimi-ku ; Ono , Nagitsuji , Higashino , Yamashina and Misasagi in Yamashina-ku ; Keage , Higashiyama and Sanjō Keihan in Higashiyama-ku ; Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae , Karasuma Oike , Nijōjō-mae , Nijō and Nishiōji Oike in Nakagyō-ku ; and Uzumasa Tenjingawa (terminal) in Ukyō-ku .

The Keihan Keishin Line has been integrated into this line, and thus Keihan provides through services from Hamaōtsu in the neighbouring city of Ōtsu , the capital of Shiga Prefecture .

The Tōzai Line connects to the Keihan lines at Rokujizō , Yamashina , Misasagi and Sanjō Keihan , to the JR lines at Nijō , Yamashina and Rokujizō , and to the Keifuku Electric Railroad at Uzumasa Tenjingawa. All the stations except Rokujizō are located in Kyoto.

High-speed Rail

Shinkansen
Shinkansen
at Kyoto Station Main articles: Tōkaidō Shinkansen
Shinkansen
and Sanyō Shinkansen
Shinkansen
See also: Central Japan Railway Company and West Japan Railway Company

The Tōkaidō Shinkansen operated by JR Central provides high-speed rail service linking Kyoto with Nagoya , Yokohama and Tokyo to the east of Kyoto and with nearby Osaka and points west on the San\'yō Shinkansen
Shinkansen
, such as Kobe , Okayama , Hiroshima , Kitakyushu , and Fukuoka . The trip from Tokyo takes about two hours and twenty-two minutes. From Hakata in Fukuoka, Nozomi takes you to Kyoto in just over three hours. All trains including Nozomi stop at Kyoto Station, serving as a gateway to not only Kyoto Prefecture but also northeast Osaka , south Shiga and north Nara .

WATERWAYS

There are a number of rivers, canals and other navigable waterways in Kyoto. The Seta and Uji rivers ( Yodo River ), Kamogawa and Katsura river flow through Kyoto. Lake Biwa Canal was a significant infrastructural development. In present days, however, the waterways are not used for passenger or goods transportation except for limited sightseeing purpose such as Hozugawa Kudari boat on the Hozu River and Jukkoku bune sightseeing tour boat in Fushimi-ku area.

TOURISM

See also: Tourism in Japan

Kyoto contains roughly 2,000 temples and shrines.

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

See also: Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities)

About 20% of Japan's National Treasures and 14% of Important Cultural Properties exist in the city proper. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) includes 17 locations in Kyoto, Uji in Kyoto Prefecture, and Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. The site was designated as World Heritage in 1994.

*

Kamigamo Shrine *

Shimogamo Shrine *

Tō-ji *

Kiyomizu-dera *

Saihō-ji *

Tenryū-ji *

Kinkaku-ji *

Ryōan-ji *

Nishi Honganji *

Nijō Castle *

Daigo-ji *

Ginkaku-ji *

Ninna-ji *

Kōzan-ji

MUSEUMS

Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum Kyoto International Manga Museum Kyoto Botanical Garden

* Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum * Onishi Seiwemon Museum (ja) (大西清右衛門美術館) * Kitamura Museum (北村美術館) * The Kyoto Arashiyama Orgel Museum (ja) (京都嵐山オルゴール美術館) * Kyoto City Heiankyo Sosei-Kan Museum (ja) (京都市平安京創生館) * Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art * Kyoto City Archaeological Museum (京都市考古資料館) * Kyoto Art Center * The Kyoto International Manga Museum * The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto * The Kyoto National Museum (京都国立博物館) * The Kyoto University Museum (ja) (京都大学総合博物館) * Kyoto Museum of Traditional Crafts (ja) (京都伝統産業ふれあい館) * The Museum of Kyoto (ja) (京都府京都文化博物館) * The Kyoto Botanical Garden (京都府立植物園) * Garden of Fine Arts, Kyoto (ja) (京都府立陶板名画の庭) * Kyoto Prefectural Insho-Domoto Museum of Fine Arts (ja) (京都府立堂本印象美術館) * Koryo Museum of Art (高麗美術館) * Joutenkaku Museum (ja) (承天閣美術館) * Ryozen Museum of History (幕末維新ミュージアム 霊山歴史館) * Sen-oku Hakuko Kan (泉屋博古館) * Toei Kyoto Studio Park (東映太秦映画村) * Nomura Art Museum (野村美術館) * Namikawa Cloisonne Museum of Kyoto (ja) (並河靖之七宝記念館) * The Yurinkan Museum (ja) (藤井斉成会有鄰館) * The Tin Toy Museum (ja) (ブリキのおもちゃ博物館) * The Hosomi Museum (細見美術館) * Hakusasonso Hashimoto Kansetsu Garden and Museum (白沙村荘 橋本関雪記念館) * The Raku Museum (楽美術館) * Kyoto Museum for World Peace of Ritsumeikan University (立命館大学国際平和ミュージアム) * Ōkōchi Sansō (大河内山荘) * The Kyoto Kaleidoscope Museum (京都万華鏡ミュージアム) * Shigureden

FESTIVALS

Kyoto is well known for its traditional festivals which have been held for over 1000 years and are a major tourist attraction. The first is the Aoi Matsuri on May 15. Two months later (July 1 to 31) is the Gion Matsuri known as one of the 3 great festivals of Japan, culminating in a massive parade on July 17. Kyoto marks the Bon Festival with the Gozan no Okuribi , lighting fires on mountains to guide the spirits home (August 16). The October 22 Jidai Matsuri , Festival of the Ages, celebrates Kyoto's illustrious past.

*

Gion Matsuri *

Aoi Matsuri *

Jidai Matsuri *

Gozan Okuribi

SPORTS

FOOTBALL

In football, Kyoto is represented by Kyoto Sanga F.C. who won the Emperor\'s Cup in 2002, and rose to J. League 's Division 1 in 2005. Kyoto Sanga has a long history as an amateur non-company club, although it was only with the advent of professionalization that it was able to compete in the Japanese top division.

Amateur football clubs such as F.C. Kyoto BAMB 1993 and Kyoto Shiko Club (both breakaway factions of the original Kyoto Shiko club that became Kyoto Sanga) as well as unrelated AS Laranja Kyoto compete in the regional Kansai soccer league.

BASEBALL

Between 1951 and 1952 the Central League team Shochiku Robins played their franchised games at Kinugasa Ballpark (ja:衣笠球場, _Kinugasa Kyujo_) in Kita-ku. In 2010, Nishikyogoku Stadium in Ukyo-ku became the home of a newly formed girls professional baseball team, the Kyoto Asto Dreams.

Additionally, Kyoto's high school baseball teams are strong, with Heian and Toba in particular making strong showings recently at the annual tournament held in Koshien Stadium , Nishinomiya , near Osaka.

HORSE RACING

Kyoto Racecourse in Fushimi-ku is one of ten racecourses operated by the Japan Racing Association . It hosts notable horse races including the Kikuka-shō , Spring Tenno Sho , and Queen Elizabeth II Commemorative Cup .

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan

Kyoto, having been the capital city of Japan, a seat of learning and culture, has long-established ties with other great cities around the world. Many foreign scholars, artists and writers have stayed in Kyoto over the centuries.

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

The city of Kyoto has sister-city relationships with the following cities:

* Boston , Massachusetts , United States * Cologne , Germany * Prague , Czech Republic * Florence , Italy * Kiev , Ukraine * Xi\'an , Shaanxi , China (Friendship City) * Guadalajara , Mexico * Zagreb , Croatia * Varanasi , India

PARTNER CITIES

In addition to its sister city arrangements which involve multi-faceted cooperation, Kyoto has created a system of "partner cities" which focus on cooperation based on a particular topic. At present, Kyoto has partner-city arrangements with the following cities:

* Jinju , South Gyeongsang Province , South Korea * Konya , Turkey * Paris , France * Qingdao , Shandong , China * Huế , Vietnam * Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey * Vientiane , Laos

SEE ALSO

* List of bridges in Kyoto * List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto * List of Kyoto\'s fires * List of Shinto shrines in Kyoto

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ 2015 Population Census * ^ 京都市統計ポータル/京都市の人口 * ^ "What is a Densely Inhabited District?". Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications * ^ " Kyoto or Kioto". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014. * ^ Lowe, John. (2000). _Old Kyoto: A short Social History,_ p. x. * ^ " Edo era map of Kyoto labelled 京師内外地図". Retrieved November 16, 2015. * ^ Nakagaawa, Kazuya (November 2006). 旧石器時代の京都 (PDF). _京都府埋蔵文化財情報_ (IN JAPANESE). 京都府埋蔵文化財調查研究センター. 101: 1. ISSN 0286-5424 . * ^ Kyoto Exhibitors' Association (1910) _Kyoto_ Kyoto Exhibitors' Association of the Japan-British exhibition, Kyoto, p. 3 OCLC 1244391 * ^ Ebrey, Walthall & Palais 2006 , p. 103. * ^ City of Kyoto (2003). "情報統計担当(京都市の統計情報)/よくある質問/人口・世帯". Retrieved July 5, 2010. * ^ Wyden, Peter. (1984). _Day One: Before Hiroshima and After_, page 196. * ^ "京都市会 会派名簿". Retrieved June 16, 2013. * ^ The Manhattan Project, Department of Energy at mbe.doe.gov * ^ HyperHistory.net Dec. 22, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2010 * ^ "Welcome to Kyoto Toei Uzumasa Eigamura Movie Museum". Pref.kyoto.jp. Retrieved 2010-03-07. * ^ " Dainippon Screen corporate profile". Retrieved March 6, 2014. * ^ "OMRON corporate data". Retrieved September 13, 2014. * ^ "Shimadzu corporate profile". Retrieved April 16, 2014. * ^ " Rohm corporate data". Retrieved September 13, 2014. * ^ " Horiba company outline". Retrieved September 13, 2014. * ^ " Nidec company profile". Retrieved February 3, 2014. * ^ " Nichicon company profile". Retrieved June 12, 2015. * ^ " Nissin Electric company outline". Retrieved January 30, 2015. * ^ "Releasing the Overall Kyoto Tourism Research Result of 2013" (Press release). City of Kyoto. June 18, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014. * ^ " Kyoto Chosen as No.1 Destination by a U.S. travel magazine". _Wall Street Journal (blog)_. July 3, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014. * ^ "MK Taxi Kyoto official site". Retrieved March 6, 2014. * ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo . * ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data * ^ " Kyoto Uses Its Many Charms to Attract Foreign Students". _The New York Times_. June 29, 2014. * ^ " The Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings". Retrieved 2010-02-10. * ^ "English". Consortium of Universities in Kyoto. Retrieved July 15, 2014. * ^ "Stanford Japan Center". Stanford-jc.or.jp. 1999-02-22. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved 2010-03-07. * ^ JR-WEST: Travel Information > Access to Kansai Airport * ^ Hanshin Expressway. 阪神高速の各種データ (PDF) (IN JAPANESE). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 24, 2010. * ^ Scott, David (1996). _Exploring Japan_. Fodor's Travel Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-679-03011-5 . * ^ Kyoto Visitors Guide (1998). Kyoto Tourist Office, Kyoto City Council. * ^ "Sister Cities of Kyoto City". City of Kyoto. Retrieved 2015-12-06. * ^ "Partner Cities of Kyoto City". City of Kyoto. Archived from the original on 2014-01-21. Retrieved 2015-12-06. * ^ "Partnerská města HMP" . _Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ _ (in Czech). 2013-07-18. Archived from the original on 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2013-08-05. * ^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013. * ^ http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=114596 * ^ http://www.sunday-guardian.com/news/smart-varanasi-will-be-kyotos-sister-city * ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/5-areas-identified-for-varanasikyoto-deal/article6785713.ece * ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/kyoto-deputy-mayor-visits-varanasi-114103001434_1.html * ^ "Partner Cities of Kyoto City". 26 August 2013. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2016. * ^ "パートナーシティとは" (in Japanese). 11 November 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2016.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Kyoto

* Fiévé, Nicolas (ed.) (2008) _Atlas historique de Kyôto. Analyse spatiale des systèmes de mémoire d’une ville, de son architecture et de ses paysages urbains_. Foreword Kôichirô Matsuura, Preface Jacques Gernet, Paris, Éditions de l’ UNESCO / Éditions de l’Amateur, 528 pages, 207 maps et 210 ill. ISBN 978-2-85917-486-6 . * Fiévé, Nicolas and Waley, Paul. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. London: Routledge. 417 pages + 75 ill. ISBN 978-0-7007-1409-4 * Lone, John. (2000). _Old Kyoto: A Short Social History._ Oxford: Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-590940-2 . * Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). _Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869._ Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. * Ropke, Ian Martin. _Historical Dictionary of Osaka and Kyoto._ (1999) 273pp * Stewart, Harold. (1981). _By the Old Walls of Kyoto: A Year's Cycle of Landscape Poems with Prose Commentaries_. New York: Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-0154-X . * Titsingh, Isaac . (1834). , _ Nihon Ōdai Ichiran ; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon._ Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland . ...Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French) * Wyden, Peter. (1984). _Day One: Before Hiroshima and After._ Simon ">KYOTO _ (category)

* Kyoto Travel Guide — City of Kyoto and Kyoto Tourism Council * Kyoto City Local Government * Kyoto Guide including map with 300+ points of interest * Photos of Kyoto, mostly temples and shrines * Kyoto Prefectural Domoto-Insho Museum of Fine Arts at Google Cultural Institute * Geographic data related to Kyoto at OpenStreetMap

* v * t * e

Kyoto Prefecture

Kyoto (capital )

WARDS OF KYOTO

* Fushimi * Higashiyama * Kamigyō * Kita * Minami * Nakagyō * Nishikyō * Sakyō * Shimogyō * Ukyō * Yamashina

CITIES

* Ayabe * Fukuchiyama * Jōyō * Kameoka * Kizugawa * Kyōtanabe * Kyōtango * Maizuru * Miyazu * Mukō * Nagaokakyō * Nantan * Uji * Yawata

FUNAI DISTRICT

* Kyōtamba

KUSE DISTRICT

* Kumiyama

OTOKUNI DISTRICT

* Ōyamazaki

SōRAKU DISTRICT

* Kasagi * Minamiyamashiro * Seika * Wazuka

TSUZUKI DISTRICT

* Ide * Ujitawara

YOSA DISTRICT

* Ine * Yosano

List of mergers in Kyoto Prefecture

* v * t * e

Metropolitan cities of Japan

TOKYO METROPOLIS

* Special wards of Tokyo ※ (Adachi * Arakawa * Bunkyo * Chiyoda * Chūō * Edogawa * Itabashi * Katsushika * Kita * Koto * Meguro * Minato * Nakano * Nerima * Ōta * Setagaya * Shibuya * Shinagawa * Shinjuku * Suginami * Sumida * Toshima * Taitō )

DESIGNATED CITIES

* Chiba ※ * Fukuoka ※ * Hamamatsu * Hiroshima ※ * Kawasaki * Kitakyushu * Kobe ※ * Kumamoto ※ * Kyoto※ * Nagoya ※ * Niigata ※ * Okayama ※ * Osaka ※ * Sagamihara * Saitama ※ * Sakai * Sapporo ※ * Sendai ※ * Shizuoka ※ * Yokohama

CORE CITIES

* Akita ※ * Amagasaki * Aomori ※ * Asahikawa * Fukuyama * Funabashi * Gifu ※ * Hachinohe * Hachiōji * Hakodate * Higashiōsaka * Himeji * Hirakata * Iwaki * Kagoshima ※ * Kanazawa ※ * Kashiwa * Kawagoe * Kōchi ※ * Kōriyama * Koshigaya * Kurashiki * Kure * Kurume * Maebashi ※ * Matsuyama ※ * Miyazaki ※ * Morioka ※ * Naha * Nagano ※ * Nagasaki ※ * Nara ※ * Nishinomiya * Ōita ※ * Okazaki * Ōtsu ※ * Sasebo * Shimonoseki * Takamatsu ※ * Takasaki * Takatsuki * Toyama ※ * Toyohashi * Toyonaka * Toyota * Utsunomiya ※ * Wakayama ※ * Yokosuka

SPECIAL CITIES

* Akashi * Atsugi * Chigasaki * Fuji * Fukui ※ * Hiratsuka * Ibaraki * Ichinomiya * Isesaki * Jōetsu * Kakogawa * Kasugai * Kasukabe * Kawaguchi * Kishiwada * Kōfu ※ * Kumagaya * Matsue ※ * Matsumoto * Mito ※ * Nagaoka * Neyagawa * Numazu * Odawara * Ōta * Saga ※ * Sōka * Suita * Takarazuka * Tokorozawa * Tottori ※ * Tsukuba * Yamagata ※ * Yamato * Yao * Yokkaichi

PREFECTURAL CAPITALS

* Fukushima * Tsu * Tokushima * Yamaguchi

_NOTE:_ ※ also a prefectural capital

* v * t * e

World Heritage Sites in Japan

HOKKAIDO

* Shiretoko

TōHOKU

* Hiraizumi – Temples, Gardens and Archaeological Sites Representing the Buddhist Pure Land * Shirakami-Sanchi * Sites of Japan\'s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining

KANTō

* The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier * Shrines and Temples of Nikkō * Ogasawara Islands * Tomioka Silk Mill

CHūBU

* Historic Villages of Shirakawa-gō and Gokayama * Fujisan, sacred place and source of artistic inspiration * Sites of Japan\'s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining

KANSAI

* Buddhist Monuments in the Hōryū-ji Area * Himeji Castle * Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto * Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara * Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range

CHūGOKU

* Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome) * Itsukushima Shinto Shrine * Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Landscape * Sites of Japan\'s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining

KYUSHU

* Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu * Sites of Japan\'s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining * Yakushima

* v * t * e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

* Tokyo Yokohama (Keihin ) * Jakarta ( Jabodetabek ) * Delhi * Manila (Metro Manila ) * Seoul Incheon (Sudogwon ) * Shanghai * Karachi * Beijing * New York City * Guangzhou Foshan (Guangfo)

* São Paulo * Mexico City (Valley of Mexico ) * Mumbai * Osaka Kobe Kyoto ( Keihanshin ) * Moscow * Dhaka * Greater Cairo * Los Angeles * Bangkok * Kolkata

* Greater Buenos Aires * Tehran * Istanbul
Istanbul
* Lagos * Shenzhen * Rio de Janeiro * Kinshasa * Tianjin * Paris * Lima

* Chengdu * Greater London * Nagoya (Chūkyō ) * Lahore * Chennai * Bengaluru * Chicago * Bogotá * Ho Chi Minh City * Hyderabad

* Dongguan * Johannesburg – East Rand * Wuhan * Taipei -Taoyuan * Hangzhou * Hong Kong * Chongqing * Ahmedabad * Kuala Lumpur ( Klang Valley ) * Quanzhou

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 256533061 * LCCN : n80024170 * ISNI : 0000 0004 0388 9925 * GND : 4073426-2 * NDL : 00256861

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