HOME
        TheInfoList






Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 or Gwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi (Korean《광명성―3》호 2호기[3]; Hanja光明星3號2號機; RRGwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi; MRKwangmyŏngsŏng-3 ho 2-hogi; English: Bright Star-3 Unit 2 or Lodestar-3 Unit 2) is the first satellite successfully launched from North Korea, an Earth observation spacecraft that was launched on 12 December 2012, 00:49 UTC, in order to replace the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, which failed to reach orbit on 13 April 2012.Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 or Gwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi (Korean《광명성―3》호 2호기[3]; Hanja光明星3號2號機; RRGwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi; MRKwangmyŏngsŏng-3 ho 2-hogi; English: Bright Star-3 Unit 2 or Lodestar-3 Unit 2) is the first satellite successfully launched from North Korea, an Earth observation spacecraft that was launched on 12 December 2012, 00:49 UTC, in order to replace the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, which failed to reach orbit on 13 April 2012.[4] The United Nations Security Council condemned the satellite launch, regarding it as a violation of the ban on North Korean ballistic missile tests, as the rocket technology is the same.[5]

The launch came during the period when the DPRK was commemorating the first anniversary of the death of former leader Kim Jong-il and just before the first South Korean domestic launch of a satellite and the South Korean presidential election on 19 December 2012. The successful launch makes the DPRK the tenth space power capable of putting satellites in orbit using its own launch vehicles.

North Korea declared the launch successful, and the South Korean military and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) reported that initial indications suggested that an object had achieved orbit.[6][7] North Korea had previously claimed the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 launches as successful,[8][9] despite American military sources claiming that they failed to achieve orbit.[10][11]

Several days after the launch, Western sources stated that, while the satellite had indeed initially achieved orbit, it now seemed to be tumbling, and was probably out of control.[12]

Etymology

The name "Kwangmyŏngsŏng" is richly symbolic for North Korean nationalism and the The launch came during the period when the DPRK was commemorating the first anniversary of the death of former leader Kim Jong-il and just before the first South Korean domestic launch of a satellite and the South Korean presidential election on 19 December 2012. The successful launch makes the DPRK the tenth space power capable of putting satellites in orbit using its own launch vehicles.

North Korea declared the launch successful, and the South Korean military and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) reported that initial indications suggested that an object had achieved orbit.[6][7] North Korea had previously claimed the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 launches as successful,[8][9] despite American military sources claiming that they failed to achieve orbit.[10][11]

Several days after the launch, Western sources stated that, while the satellite had indeed initially achieved orbit, it now seemed to be tumbling, and was probably out of control.[12]

The name "Kwangmyŏngsŏng" is richly symbolic for North Korean nationalism and the Kim family cult. While Soviet records recount that the late North Korean leader Kim Jong-il was born in the village of Vyatskoye near Khabarovsk in the Russian Far East,[13] DPRK internal sources claim that Kim was born on Mount Baekdu and that on that day a bright lodestar ("kwangmyŏngsŏng") appeared in the sky.[14]

Background

The launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 was the fourth North Korean attempt to orbit a satellite, and North Korea claimed that two of the previous launches had placed their payloads into orbit despite several other countries confirming that the launches had failed, and no independent confirmation that the satellite was in orbit.[15] The first attempt occurred in August 1998, with a Baekdusan carrier rocket attempting to launch Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1; the second occurred in April 2009 with Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2, and the third in April 2012 with the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3. The April 2012 launch was the only one which North Korea acknowledged to have failed. However, the launch of Kwangmyongsong 3 Unit 2 made North Korea the tenth country to place a satellite into orbit using an indigenously developed carrier rocket.[16] The rocket was largely made using domestically produced parts and technology; this ability is seen as cause for greater concern over North Korea's ability to develop ballistic missile technology despite sanctions.[17]

Pre-launch announcement

The launch was announced on 1 December 2012, when the Korean Central News Agency reported that the Korean Committee of Space Technology informed them that they "[plan] to launch another working satellite, second version of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, manufactured by its own efforts and with its own technology, true to the behests of leader Kim Jong-il," with a prospective launch window of 10–22 December 2012 given. Th

The launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 was the fourth North Korean attempt to orbit a satellite, and North Korea claimed that two of the previous launches had placed their payloads into orbit despite several other countries confirming that the launches had failed, and no independent confirmation that the satellite was in orbit.[15] The first attempt occurred in August 1998, with a Baekdusan carrier rocket attempting to launch Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1; the second occurred in April 2009 with Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2, and the third in April 2012 with the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3. The April 2012 launch was the only one which North Korea acknowledged to have failed. However, the launch of Kwangmyongsong 3 Unit 2 made North Korea the tenth country to place a satellite into orbit using an indigenously developed carrier rocket.[16] The rocket was largely made using domestically produced parts and technology; this ability is seen as cause for greater concern over North Korea's ability to develop ballistic missile technology despite sanctions.[17]

Pre-launch announcement

On 12 December 2012, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 was launched from the Sohae Satellite Launching Ground at 00:49:46 UTC (09:49 KST).[20] The North American Aerospace Defense Command was able to track the rocket at this time. The first stage impacted the ocean 200 kilometres (120 mi) off the west coast of South Korea at 00:58, with the fairing coming down one minute later 100 kilometres (62 mi) downrange. At 01:01, the rocket flew over Okinawa, with the second stage impacting 300 kilometres (190 mi) east of the Philippines four minutes later.[20][21] During the ascent the rocket performed a dog-leg manoeuvre to increase its inclination sufficiently to attain sun-synchronous orbit.

The satellite was deployed into a sun-synchronous polar orbit with an apogee of 584 kilometres (363 mi), a perigee of 499 kilometres (310 mi), 97.4 degrees of orbital inclination, and an orbital period of 95 minutes and 29 seconds.[22] The spacecraft separated from the rocket's third stage at 00:59:13; nine minutes and 27 seconds after liftoff.

The U.S. Space Command began to track three objects from the launch, giving Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 the Satellite Catalog Number 39026 and the international designator 2012-072A.sun-synchronous polar orbit with an apogee of 584 kilometres (363 mi), a perigee of 499 kilometres (310 mi), 97.4 degrees of orbital inclination, and an orbital period of 95 minutes and 29 seconds.[22] The spacecraft separated from the rocket's third stage at 00:59:13; nine minutes and 27 seconds after liftoff.

The U.S. Space Command began to track three objects from the launch, giving Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 the Satellite Catalog Number 39026 and the international designator 2012-072A.[23] They later began tracking a fourth object that was related to the launch.

The following day, U.S. officials tracking the satellite reported that it appeared to be "tumbling out of control" in its orbit.[24] However North Korean sources said that the satellite was orbiting normally.[25] Data collected by Spain, Italy and Britain suggest the brightness of the satellite has been fluctuating, which indicates it is tumbling as it orbits.[26]

South Korean missile experts examined components of the missile from the two stages of the rocket that fell back to Earth. Initially they reported the components were of poor quality and some foreign made. Further examination revealed that most of the components were produced domestically in North Korea. They were effective for the launch, but found mostly to be crude, unreliable, and inefficient. The rocket design was based on older technologies of the 1960s and 70s. The design of the rocket engine was almost identical to one built in Iran.[27]

Reaction

At noo

At noon local time, the Korean Central News Agency released a news report on the launch:

Pyongyang, 12 December (KCNA

Pyongyang, 12 December (KCNA) -- The second version of satellite Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 successfully lifted off from the Sohae Space Center in Cholsan County, North Phyongan Province by carrier rocket Unha-3 on Wednesday. The satellite entered its preset orbit.

— KCNA

The report was followed by a more detailed report later in the afternoon stating:

Scien

The report was followed by a more detailed report later in the afternoon stating:

[28]

Internal celebration

Government vans with loudspeakers brought the news of the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 to Pyongyang soon after the launch.[29][30] On 14 December state television in North Korea broadcast images of hundreds of thousands of people celebrating the successful launch in Pyongyang's central square, while military and scientific personnel gave speeches. According to the news report, Kim Jong-Un had ordered more satellite launches after achieving orbit with Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3.[31]

According to a report from Radio Free Asia, following the launch, the KCNA alerted people to watch a "Special News" announcement. Afterward people throughout the country were pulled from work and school to participate in mass celebrations. Those in Sinuiju, Sinuiju, Pyongan were forced to dance in freezing weather to celebrate North Korea's success.[32]

On 22 February 2013, the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the United Nations registered the satellite in conformity with the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space.[54] In the registration, North Korea states that the function is to survey crops, forest resources and natural disasters.[54]

References

  1. ^ "Status of North Korean Satellite unknown after prolonged Radio Silence, Reports of Tumbling". Spaceflight101.
  2. ^ a b c d e McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  3. ^ "조선우주공간기술위원회 대변인 대답". Naenara. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  4. ^ "North Korea defies warnings to launch rocket". BBC. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  5. ^ "North Korea profile". BBC News. 26 March 2014.
  6. ^ "North Korea reports successful launch of controversial rocket". MSN/NBC. Archived from the original on 13 December 2012.
  7. ^ "NORAD acknowledges missile launch". North American Aerospace Defense Command. 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  8. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. "1998.08.31 - Kwangmyŏngsŏng 1". Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  9. ^ "N.Korea says it successfully launched satellite". Reuters. 5 April 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  10. ^ United States Northern Command. "NORAD and USNORTHCOM monitor North Korean launch". Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  11. ^ "North Korea space launch 'fails'". BBC. 5 April 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  12. ^ Talmadge, Eric (18 December 2012). "Crippled NKorean probe could orbit for years". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  13. ^ "Profile: Kim Jong-il". BBC News. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  14. ^ Wen, Philip (14 April 2012). "US stops food aid to North Korea after rocket explodes". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  15. ^ Wade, Mark. "1998.08.31 - Kwangmyŏngsŏng 1". Encyclopedia Astronautica.
  16. ^ "North Korea successfully launches satellite". PressTV. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  17. ^ "North Korea rocket was domestically made". BBC News. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  18. ^ David Wright (4 December 2012). "North Korea Gives Location of Splashdown Zones, Begins Assembling Rocket". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  19. ^ AdminGMT (29 March 2012). ""N. Korea Reveals Details of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Satellite", NK News, 29 March 2012". Nknews.org. Retrieved 13 April 2012.[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ a b Riviera, Gloria; Joohee Cho; Akiko Fujita (12 December 2012). "US Calls North Korea Rocket Launch a 'Provocative Act'". ABC News. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  21. ^ Aning, Jerome; Nikko Dizon (13 December 2012). "North Korea rocket parts plunge east of Luzon". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  22. ^