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Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909[1][a] – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957.[2] An influential advocate of pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organization of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Pri

Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909[1][a] – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957.[2] An influential advocate of pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organization of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union in 1962.[3]

After twelve years abroad pursuing higher education, developing his political philosophy and organizing with other diasporic pan-Africanists, Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast to begin his political career as an advocate of national independence.[4] He formed the Convention People's Party, which achieved rapid success through its unprecedented appeal to the common voter.[5] He became Prime Minister in 1952 and retained the position when Ghana declared independence from Britain in 1957. In 1960, Ghanaians approved a new constitution and elected Nkrumah President.[6]

His administration was primarily socialist as well as nationalist. It funded national industrial and energy projects, developed a strong national education system and promoted a pan-Africanist culture. Under Nkrumah, Ghana played a leading role in African international relations during the decolonization period.[7]

In 1964, a constitutional amendment made Ghana a one-party state, with Nkrumah as president for life of both the nation and its party.[8] Nkrumah was deposed in 1966 by the National Liberation Council which under the supervision of international financial institutions privatized many of the country's state corporations.[9] Nkrumah lived the rest of his life in Guinea, of which he was named honorary co-president.[10][7][11]

Anti-Nkrumah placard at a demonstration after the coup.

Overthrow